HOME TheInfoList.com
Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff
[::MainTopicLength::#1500] [::ListTopicLength::#1000] [::ListLength::#15] [::ListAdRepeat::#3]

picture info

Avery–MacLeod–McCarty Experiment
The Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment
Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment
was an experimental demonstration, reported in 1944 by Oswald Avery, Colin MacLeod, and Maclyn McCarty, that DNA
DNA
is the substance that causes bacterial transformation, in an era when it had been widely believed that it was proteins that served the function of carrying genetic information (with the very word protein itself coined to indicate a belief that its function was primary)
[...More...]

"Avery–MacLeod–McCarty Experiment" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Chromosome
A chromosome (from ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA
DNA
molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism. Most eukaryotic chromosomes include packaging proteins which, aided by chaperone proteins, bind to and condense the DNA
DNA
molecule to prevent it from becoming an unmanageable tangle.[1][2] Chromosomes are normally visible under a light microscope only when the cell is undergoing the metaphase of cell division (where all chromosomes are aligned in the center of the cell in their condensed form).[3] Before this happens, every chromosome is copied once (S phase), and the copy is joined to the original by a centromere, resulting either in an X-shaped structure (pictured to the right) if the centromere is located in the middle of the chromosome or a two-arm structure if the centromere is located near one of the ends
[...More...]

"Chromosome" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

RNA
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes. RNA
RNA
and DNA
DNA
are nucleic acids, and, along with lipids, proteins and carbohydrates, constitute the four major macromolecules essential for all known forms of life. Like DNA, RNA
RNA
is assembled as a chain of nucleotides, but unlike DNA
DNA
it is more often found in nature as a single-strand folded onto itself, rather than a paired double-strand. Cellular organisms use messenger RNA
RNA
(mRNA) to convey genetic information (using the nitrogenous bases guanine, uracil, adenine, and cytosine, denoted by the letters G, U, A, and C) that directs synthesis of specific proteins
[...More...]

"RNA" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Aqueous Solution
An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water. It is usually shown in chemical equations by appending (aq) to the relevant chemical formula. For example, a solution of table salt, or sodium chloride (NaCl), in water would be represented as Na+(aq) + Cl−(aq). The word aqueous means pertaining to, related to, similar to, or dissolved in, water. As water is an excellent solvent and is also naturally abundant, it is a ubiquitous solvent in chemistry. Substances that are hydrophobic ('water-fearing') often do not dissolve well in water, whereas those that are hydrophilic ('water-friendly') do. An example of a hydrophilic substance is sodium chloride. Acids and bases are aqueous solutions, as part of their Arrhenius definitions. The ability of a substance to dissolve in water is determined by whether the substance can match or exceed the strong attractive forces that water molecules generate between themselves
[...More...]

"Aqueous Solution" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Antibody
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig),[1] is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses. The antibody recognizes a unique molecule of the pathogen, called an antigen, via the Fab's variable region.[2][3] Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody contains a paratope (analogous to a lock) that is specific for one particular epitope (similarly analogous to a key) on an antigen, allowing these two structures to bind together with precision. Using this binding mechanism, an antibody can tag a microbe or an infected cell for attack by other parts of the immune system, or can neutralize its target directly (for example, by blocking a part of a microbe that is essential for its invasion and survival). Depending on the antigen, the binding may impede the biological process causing the disease or may activate macrophages to destroy the foreign substance
[...More...]

"Antibody" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Leaching (chemical Science)
Leaching is the process of extracting substances from a solid by dissolving them in a liquid, either in nature or through an industrial process. In the chemical processing industry, leaching has a variety of commercial applications, including separation of metal from ore using acid, and sugar from beets using hot water. Another term for this is lixiviation, or the extraction of a soluble particle from its constituent parts[1][not in citation given]. In a typical leaching operation, the solid mixture to be separated consists of particles, inert insoluble carrier A and solute B. The solvent, C, is added to the mixture to selectively dissolve B. The overflow from the stage is free of solids and consists of only solvent C and dissolved B. The underflow consists of slurry of liquid of similar composition in the liquid overflow and solid carrier A. In an ideal leaching equilibrium stage, all the solute is dissolved by the solvent; none of the carrier is dissolved
[...More...]

"Leaching (chemical Science)" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Saline Water
Saline water
Saline water
(more commonly known as salt water) is water that contains a significant concentration of dissolved salts (mainly NaCl). The salt concentration is usually expressed in parts per thousand (permille, ‰) or parts per million (ppm). The United States Geological Survey classifies saline water in three salinity categories. Salt
Salt
concentration in slightly saline water is around 1,000 to 3,000 ppm (0.1–0.3%), in moderately saline water 3,000 to 10,000 ppm (0.3–1%) and in highly saline water 10,000 to 35,000 ppm (1–3.5%). Seawater
Seawater
has a salinity of roughly 35,000 ppm, equivalent to 35 grams of salt per one liter (or kilogram) of water. The saturation level is dependent on the temperature of the water. At 20 °C one milliliter of water can dissolve about 0.357 grams of salt; a concentration of 26.3%
[...More...]

"Saline Water" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Precipitation (chemistry)
Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution. When the reaction occurs in a liquid solution, the solid formed is called the 'precipitate'. The chemical that causes the solid to form is called the 'precipitant'. Without sufficient force of gravity (settling) to bring the solid particles together, the precipitate remains in suspension. After sedimentation, especially when using a centrifuge to press it into a compact mass, the precipitate may be referred to as a 'pellet'. Precipitation can be used as a medium. The precipitate-free liquid remaining above the solid is called the 'supernate' or 'supernatant'. Powders derived from precipitation have also historically been known as 'flowers'. When the solid appears in the form of cellulose fibers which have been through chemical processing, the process is often referred to as regeneration. Sometimes the formation of a precipitate indicates the occurrence of a chemical reaction
[...More...]

"Precipitation (chemistry)" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Chloroform
Chloroform, or trichloromethane, is an organic compound with formula CHCl3. It is a colorless, sweet-smelling, dense liquid that is produced on a large scale as a precursor to PTFE. It is also a precursor to various refrigerants.[4] It is one of the four chloromethanes and a trihalomethane.Contents1 Structure 2 Natural occurrence 3 History 4 Production4.1 Deuterochloroform 4.2 Inadvertent formation of chloroform5 Uses5.1 Solvent 5.2 Reagent 5.3 Anesthetic 5.4 Criminal use6 Safety6.1 Exposure 6.2 Pharmacology 6.3 Conversion to phosgene 6.4 Regulation7 References 8 External linksStructure[edit] The molecule adopts tetrahedral molecular geometry with C3v symmetry. Natural occurrence[edit] The total global flux of chloroform through the environment is approximately 7005660000000000000♠660000 tonnes per year,[5] and about 90% of emissions are natural in origin
[...More...]

"Chloroform" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Hydrolysis
Hydrolysis
Hydrolysis
(/haɪˈdrɒlɪsɪs/; from Ancient Greek hydro-, meaning 'water', and lysis, meaning 'to unbind') usually means the cleavage of chemical bonds by the addition of water. When a carbohydrate is broken into its component sugar molecules by hydrolysis (e.g. sucrose being broken down into glucose and fructose), this is termed saccharification
[...More...]

"Hydrolysis" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Enzyme
Enzymes /ˈɛnzaɪmz/ are macromolecular biological catalysts. Enzymes accelerate chemical reactions. The molecules upon which enzymes may act are called substrates and the enzyme converts the substrates into different molecules known as products. Almost all metabolic processes in the cell need enzyme catalysis in order to occur at rates fast enough to sustain life.[1]:8.1 Metabolic pathways depend upon enzymes to catalyze individual steps. The study of enzymes is called enzymology and a new field of pseudoenzyme analysis has recently grown up, recognising that during evolution, some enzymes have lost the ability to carry out biological catalysis, which is often reflected in their amino acid sequences and unusual 'pseudocatalytic' properties.[2][3] Enzymes are known to catalyze more than 5,000 biochemical reaction types.[4] Most enzymes are proteins, although a few are catalytic RNA molecules. The latter are called ribozymes
[...More...]

"Enzyme" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Fractionation
Fractionation is a separation process in which a certain quantity of a mixture (gas, solid, liquid, enzymes, suspension, or isotope) is divided during a phase transition, into a number of smaller quantities (fractions) in which the composition varies according to a gradient. Fractions are collected based on differences in a specific property of the individual components. A common trait in fractionations is the need to find an optimum between the amount of fractions collected and the desired purity in each fraction. Fractionation makes it possible to isolate more than two components in a mixture in a single run. This property sets it apart from other separation techniques. Fractionation is widely employed in many branches of science and technology. Mixtures of liquids and gases are separated by fractional distillation by difference in boiling point
[...More...]

"Fractionation" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Protein
Proteins (/ˈproʊˌtiːnz/ or /ˈproʊti.ɪnz/) are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide. A protein contains at least one long polypeptide. Short polypeptides, containing less than 20–30 residues, are rarely considered to be proteins and are commonly called peptides, or sometimes oligopeptides. The individual amino acid residues are bonded together by peptide bonds and adjacent amino acid residues
[...More...]

"Protein" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Bacterial Transformation
In molecular biology, transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct uptake and incorporation of exogenous genetic material from its surroundings through the cell membrane(s). For transformation to take place, the recipient bacteria must be in a state of competence, which might occur in nature as a time-limited response to environmental conditions such as starvation and cell density, and may also be induced in a laboratory.[1] Transformation is one of three processes for horizontal gene transfer, in which exogenous genetic material passes from one bacterium to another, the other two being conjugation (transfer of genetic material between two bacterial cells in direct contact) and transduction (injection of foreign DNA by a bacteriophage virus into the host bacterium).[1] In transformation, the genetic material passes through the intervening medium, and uptake is completely dependent on the recipient bacterium.[1] As of 2014 about 80 species of bacteria wer
[...More...]

"Bacterial Transformation" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Trypsin
Trypsin
Trypsin
(EC 3.4.21.4) is a serine protease from the PA clan superfamily, found in the digestive system of many vertebrates, where it hydrolyzes proteins.[2][3] Trypsin
Trypsin
is formed in the small intestine when its proenzyme form, the trypsinogen produced by the pancreas, is activated. Trypsin
Trypsin
cleaves peptide chains mainly at the carboxyl side of the amino acids lysine or arginine, except when either is followed by proline. It is used for numerous biotechnological processes
[...More...]

"Trypsin" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Chymotrypsin
Chymotrypsin
Chymotrypsin
(EC 3.4.21.1, chymotrypsins A and B, alpha-chymar ophth, avazyme, chymar, chymotest, enzeon, quimar, quimotrase, alpha-chymar, alpha-chymotrypsin A, alpha-chymotrypsin) is a digestive enzyme component of pancreatic juice acting in the duodenum, where it performs proteolysis, the breakdown of proteins and polypeptides.[2] Chymotrypsin
Chymotrypsin
preferentially cleaves peptide amide bonds where the side chain of the amino acid N-terminal to the scissile amide bond (the P1 position) is a large hydrophobic amino acid (tyrosine, tryptophan, and phenylalanine). These amino acids contain an aromatic ring in their side chain that fits into a hydrophobic pocket (the S1 position) of the enzyme. It is activated in the presence of trypsin
[...More...]

"Chymotrypsin" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
.