HOME TheInfoList.com
Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff
[::MainTopicLength::#1500] [::ListTopicLength::#1000] [::ListLength::#15] [::ListAdRepeat::#3]

picture info

Avery–MacLeod–McCarty Experiment
The AVERY–MACLEOD–MCCARTY EXPERIMENT was an experimental demonstration, reported in 1944 by Oswald Avery
Oswald Avery
, Colin MacLeod , and Maclyn McCarty , that DNA
DNA
is the substance that causes bacterial transformation , in an era when it had been widely believed that it was proteins that served the function of carrying genetic information (with the very word protein itself coined to indicate a belief that its function was primary)
[...More...]

"Avery–MacLeod–McCarty Experiment" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Chloroform
CHLOROFORM, or TRICHLOROMETHANE, is an organic compound with formula C H Cl 3. It is a colorless, sweet-smelling, dense liquid that is produced on a large scale as a precursor to PTFE . It is also a precursor to various refrigerants . It is one of the four chloromethanes and a trihalomethane . CONTENTS * 1 Structure * 2 Natural occurrence * 3 History * 4 Production * 4.1 Deuterochloroform * 4.2 Inadvertent formation of chloroform * 5 Uses * 5.1 Solvent * 5.2 Reagent * 5.3 Anesthetic * 5.4 Criminal use * 6 Safety * 6.1 Exposure * 6.2 Pharmacology * 6.3 Conversion to phosgene * 6.4 Regulation * 7 References * 8 External links STRUCTUREThe molecule adopts tetrahedral molecular geometry with C3v symmetry . NATURAL OCCURRENCEThe total global flux of chloroform through the environment is approximately 7005660000000000000♠660000 tonnes per year, and about 90% of emissions are natural in origin
[...More...]

"Chloroform" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Hydrolysis
HYDROLYSIS (/haɪˈdrɒlᵻsɪs/ ; from Greek hydro-, meaning 'water', and lysis, meaning 'to unbind') usually means the cleavage of chemical bonds by the addition of water . When a carbohydrate is broken into its component sugar molecules by hydrolysis (e.g. sucrose being broken down into glucose and fructose ), this is termed SACCHARIFICATION. Generally, hydrolysis or saccharification is a step in the degradation of a substance OR in the language of chemistry "The reaction of cation and anion or both with water molecule due to which pH is altered, cleavage of H-O bond in hydrolysis takes place." Hydrolysis
Hydrolysis
can be the reverse of a condensation reaction in which two molecules join together into a larger one and eject a water molecule. Thus hydrolysis adds water to break down, whereas condensation builds up by removing water
[...More...]

"Hydrolysis" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Enzyme
ENZYMES /ˈɛnzaɪmz/ are macromolecular biological catalysts . Enzymes accelerate chemical reactions . The molecules upon which enzymes may act are called substrates and the enzyme converts the substrates into different molecules known as products . Almost all metabolic processes in the cell need enzyme catalysis in order to occur at rates fast enough to sustain life. :8.1 Metabolic pathways depend upon enzymes to catalyze individual steps. The study of enzymes is called enzymology and a new field of pseudoenzyme analysis has recently grown up, recognising that during evolution, some enzymes have lost the ability to carry out biological catalysis, which is often reflected in their amino acid sequences and unusual 'pseudocatalytic' properties. Enzymes are known to catalyze more than 5,000 biochemical reaction types. Most enzymes are proteins , although a few are catalytic RNA molecules . The latter are called ribozymes
[...More...]

"Enzyme" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Fractionation
FRACTIONATION is a separation process in which a certain quantity of a mixture (gas, solid, liquid, enzymes, suspension, or isotope ) is divided during a phase transition , into a number of smaller quantities (fractions ) in which the composition varies according to a gradient . Fractions are collected based on differences in a specific property of the individual components. A common trait in fractionations is the need to find an optimum between the amount of fractions collected and the desired purity in each fraction. Fractionation
Fractionation
makes it possible to isolate more than two components in a mixture in a single run. This property sets it apart from other separation techniques. Fractionation
Fractionation
is widely employed in many branches of science and technology. Mixtures of liquids and gases are separated by fractional distillation by difference in boiling point
[...More...]

"Fractionation" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Precipitation (chemistry)
PRECIPITATION is the creation of a solid from a solution. When the reaction occurs in a liquid solution, the solid formed is called the 'precipitate'. The chemical that causes the solid to form is called the 'precipitant'. Without sufficient force of gravity (settling ) to bring the solid particles together, the precipitate remains in suspension . After sedimentation , especially when using a centrifuge to press it into a compact mass, the precipitate may be referred to as a 'pellet'. Precipitation can be used as a medium. The precipitate-free liquid remaining above the solid is called the 'supernate' or 'supernatant'. Powders derived from precipitation have also historically been known as 'flowers'. When the solid appears in the form of cellulose fibers which have been through chemical processing, the process is often referred to as REGENERATION. Sometimes the formation of a precipitate indicates the occurrence of a chemical reaction
[...More...]

"Precipitation (chemistry)" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Saline Water
SALINE WATER (more commonly known as SALT WATER) is water that contains a significant concentration of dissolved salts (mainly NaCl ). The salt concentration is usually expressed in parts per thousand (permille, ‰) or parts per million (ppm). The United States Geological Survey classifies saline water in three salinity categories. Salt concentration in slightly saline water is around 1,000 to 3,000 ppm (0.1–0.3%), in moderately saline water 3,000 to 10,000 ppm (0.3–1%) and in highly saline water 10,000 to 35,000 ppm (1–3.5%). Seawater has a salinity of roughly 35,000 ppm, equivalent to 35 grams of salt per one liter (or kilogram) of water. The saturation level is dependent on the temperature of the water. At 20 °C one milliliter of water can dissolve about 0.357 grams of salt; a concentration of 26.3%. At boiling (100 °C) the amount that can be dissolved in one milliliter of water increases to about 0.391 grams or 28.1% saline solution
[...More...]

"Saline Water" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

In Vivo
Studies that are IN VIVO (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English ) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells , usually animals, including humans, and plants as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism. This is not to be confused with experiments done in vitro ("within the glass"), i.e., in a laboratory environment using test tubes, petri dishes , etc. Examples of investigations in vivo include: the pathogenesis of disease by comparing the effects of bacterial infection with the effects of purified bacterial toxins; the development of antibiotics, antiviral drugs, and new drugs generally; and new surgical procedures. Consequently, animal testing and clinical trials are major elements of in vivo research. In vivo testing is often employed over in vitro because it is better suited for observing the overall effects of an experiment on a living subject
[...More...]

"In Vivo" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Aqueous Solution
An AQUEOUS SOLUTION is a solution in which the solvent is water . It is usually shown in chemical equations by appending (aq) to the relevant chemical formula . For example, a solution of table salt , or sodium chloride (NaCl), in water would be represented as Na+(aq) + Cl−(aq). The word aqueous means pertaining to, related to, similar to, or dissolved in water. As water is an excellent solvent and is also naturally abundant, it is a ubiquitous solvent in chemistry . Substances that are hydrophobic ('water-fearing') often do not dissolve well in water, whereas those that are hydrophilic ('water-friendly') do. An example of a hydrophilic substance is sodium chloride . Acids and bases are aqueous solutions, as part of their Arrhenius definitions . The ability of a substance to dissolve in water is determined by whether the substance can match or exceed the strong attractive forces that water molecules generate between themselves
[...More...]

"Aqueous Solution" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Antibody
An ANTIBODY (AB), also known as an IMMUNOGLOBULIN (IG), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as bacteria and viruses . The antibody recognizes a unique molecule of the harmful agent , called an antigen , via the Fab\'s variable region . Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody contains a paratope (analogous to a lock) that is specific for one particular epitope (similarly analogous to a key) on an antigen, allowing these two structures to bind together with precision. Using this binding mechanism, an antibody can tag a microbe or an infected cell for attack by other parts of the immune system, or can neutralize its target directly (for example, by blocking a part of a microbe that is essential for its invasion and survival). Depending on the antigen, the binding may impede the biological process causing the disease or may activate macrophages to destroy the foreign substance
[...More...]

"Antibody" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Leaching (chemical Science)
LEACHING is the process of extracting substances from a solid by dissolving them in a liquid , either in nature or through an industrial process . In the chemical processing industry, leaching has a variety of commercial applications, including separation of metal from ore using acid , and sugar from beets using hot water . Another term for this is lixiviation, or the extraction of a soluble particle from its constituent parts . In a typical leaching operation, the solid mixture to be separated consists of particles, inert insoluble carrier A and solute B. The solvent , C, is added to the mixture to selectively dissolve B. The overflow from the stage is free of solids and consists of only solvent C and dissolved B. The underflow consists of slurry of liquid of similar composition in the liquid overflow and solid carrier A. In an ideal leaching equilibrium stage, all the solute is dissolved by the solvent; none of the carrier is dissolved
[...More...]

"Leaching (chemical Science)" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

RNA
RIBONUCLEIC ACID (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding , decoding , regulation , and expression of genes . RNA
RNA
and DNA
DNA
are nucleic acids , and, along with lipids , proteins and carbohydrates , constitute the four major macromolecules essential for all known forms of life . Like DNA, RNA
RNA
is assembled as a chain of nucleotides , but unlike DNA
DNA
it is more often found in nature as a single-strand folded onto itself, rather than a paired double-strand. Cellular organisms use messenger RNA
RNA
(MRNA) to convey genetic information (using the letters G, U, A, and C to denote the nitrogenous bases guanine , uracil , adenine , and cytosine ) that directs synthesis of specific proteins. Many viruses encode their genetic information using an RNA
RNA
genome
[...More...]

"RNA" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Protein
PROTEINS (/ˈproʊˌtiːnz/ or /ˈproʊti.ᵻnz/ ) are large biomolecules , or macromolecules , consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues . Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms , including catalysing metabolic reactions , DNA replication
DNA replication
, responding to stimuli , and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes , and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide . A protein contains at least one long polypeptide. Short polypeptides, containing less than 20–30 residues, are rarely considered to be proteins and are commonly called peptides , or sometimes oligopeptides
[...More...]

"Protein" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Nucleotide Base
NUCLEOBASES, also known as nitrogenous bases or often simply bases, are nitrogen-containing biological compounds that form nucleosides , which in turn are components of nucleotides , with all of these monomers constituting the basic building blocks of nucleic acids . The ability of nucleobases to form base pairs and to stack one upon another leads directly to long-chain helical structures such as ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Five nucleobases—adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), thymine (T), and uracil (U)—are called primary or canonical. They function as the fundamental units of the genetic code , with the bases A, G, C, and T being found in DNA while A, G, C, and U are found in RNA. Thymine and uracil are identical excepting that T includes a methyl group that U lacks. Adenine and guanine have a fused-ring skeletal structure derived of purine , hence they are called PURINE BASES
[...More...]

"Nucleotide Base" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Adenine
ADENINE /ˈædɪnɪn/ (A, ADE) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative). Its derivatives have a variety of roles in biochemistry including cellular respiration , in the form of both the energy-rich adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). It also has functions in protein synthesis and as a chemical component of DNA
DNA
and RNA
RNA
. The shape of adenine is complementary to either thymine in DNA or uracil in RNA
RNA
. The image on the right shows pure adenine, as an independent molecule. When connected into DNA, a covalent bond is formed between deoxyribose sugar and the bottom left nitrogen, so removing the hydrogen. The remaining structure is called an adenine residue, as part of a larger molecule
[...More...]

"Adenine" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Phoebus Levene
PHOEBUS AARON THEODORE LEVENE, M.D. (25 February 1869 – 6 September 1940) was an American biochemist who studied the structure and function of nucleic acids . He characterized the different forms of nucleic acid, DNA
DNA
from RNA
RNA
, and found that DNA
DNA
contained adenine , guanine , thymine , cytosine , deoxyribose , and a phosphate group. He was born into a Litvak (Lithuanian Jewish) family as Fishel Rostropovich Levin in the town of Žagarė in Lithuania
Lithuania
, then part of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
, but grew up in St. Petersburg
St. Petersburg
. There he studied medicine at the Imperial Military Medical Academy (M.D., 1891) and developed an interest in biochemistry
[...More...]

"Phoebus Levene" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
.