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Avdiivka
AVDIIVKA (Ukrainian : Авдіївка Ukrainian pronunciation: , Russian : Авдеевка) is a city of oblast significance in Donetsk Oblast (province ) of Ukraine
Ukraine
. The city is located in center of the region just north from the city of Donetsk
Donetsk
. Avdiivka
Avdiivka
is best known for its big Avdiivka Coke Plant . Officially the town's population is 35,128 (2013 est.) ; in January 2017 BBC News estimated that the population ranged between 16,000 and 22,000. CONTENTS * 1 War in Donbass * 2 Demographics * 3 Industry and infrastructure * 4 Gallery * 5 References WAR IN DONBASS Main articles: War in Donbass and Battle of Avdiivka Starting Mid-April 2014 pro-Russian separatists captured several towns in Donetsk Oblast ; including Avdiivka. On 21 July, 2014, Ukrainian forces reportedly secured the city from separatists
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City Of Regional Significance (Ukraine)
CITY OF REGIONAL SIGNIFICANCE is a city municipality that is designated as a separate district within its region (i.e. oblast , Crimea
Crimea
). In Crimea
Crimea
, these cities are referred to as cities of republican significance, while in regular oblasts those municipalities are referred to as cities of oblast significance (Ukrainian : Місто обласного значення, Misto oblasnoho znachennya). The designation of regional significance was created with the introduction of oblasts back in 1932. Such city municipality is complex and usually combines the city proper as well as the adjacent populated places. The city of regional (oblast) significance is governed by a city council known as mis'krada which is chaired by a mayor
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Ukraine
UKRAINE (/juːˈkreɪn/ (_ listen ); Ukrainian : Україна, tr. Ukraina_ ), sometimes called THE UKRAINE , is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe , bordered by Russia
Russia
to the east, northeast, and south, Belarus
Belarus
to the northwest, Poland
Poland
and Slovakia
Slovakia
to the west, Hungary
Hungary
, Romania
Romania
, and Moldova
Moldova
to the southwest, and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively
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Administrative Divisions Of Ukraine
Ukraine is divided into several levels of territorial entities . On the first level there are 27 regions: 24 OBLASTS , one AUTONOMOUS REPUBLIC , and two "CITIES WITH SPECIAL STATUS ". Following the 2014 Crimean crisis , Crimea and Sevastopol became de facto administrated by the Russian Federation, which claims them as the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol . The international community recognises them as being Ukrainian territory. The administrative division in Ukraine was directly inherited (grandfathered) from the local republican administration of the Soviet Union , the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic , and has not changed significantly since the middle of the 20th century. It is somewhat complex as beside having several levels of a territorial subdivision, it also has a classification for various populated places , particularly cities
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Donetsk Oblast
DONETSK OBLAST (Ukrainian : Доне́цька о́бласть, _Donets'ka oblast'_, also referred to as DONECHCHYNA, Ukrainian : Донеччина _Donechchyna_, Russian : Доне́цкая о́бласть, _Donetskaya oblast_ ) is an oblast (province) of eastern Ukraine . It is the most populated oblast, with around 4.5 million residents. Its administrative center is Donetsk ; however, its Regional State Administration was temporarily relocated to Mariupol because of the ongoing crisis in Donetsk. Historically, the region is an important part of the Donbas region. Until November 1961, it bore the name _Stalino Oblast_ as Donetsk was then named "Stalino", in honour of Joseph Stalin . The oblast is known for its urban sprawl and is often associated with mining industry
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Time Zone
A TIME ZONE is a region of the globe that observes a uniform standard time for legal, commercial, and social purposes. Timezones tend to follow the boundaries of countries and their subdivisions because it is convenient for areas in close commercial or other communication to keep the same time. Most of the time zones on land are offset from Coordinated Universal Time(UTC) by a whole number of hours ( UTC−12to UTC+14), but a few zones are offset by 30 or 45 minutes (for example Newfoundland Standard Timeis UTC−03:30, NepalStandard Timeis UTC+05:45, and Indian Standard Timeis UTC+05:30). Some higher latitude and temperate zone countries use daylight saving time for part of the year, typically by adjusting local clock time by an hour. Many land time zones are skewed toward the west of the corresponding nautical time zones . This also creates a permanent daylight saving time effect
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UTC+2
UTC+02:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +02. In ISO 8601 the associated time would be written as 2017-08-09T10:11:53+02:00
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Daylight Saving Time
DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME (abbreviated DST), also sometimes erroneously referred to as DAYLIGHT SAVINGS TIME, is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months so that evening daylight lasts longer, while sacrificing normal sunrise times. Typically, regions that use daylight saving time adjust clocks forward one hour close to the start of spring and adjust them backward in the autumn to standard time. American inventor and politician Benjamin Franklin proposed a form of daylight time in 1784. He wrote an essay "An Economical Project for Diminishing the Cost of Light" to the editor of _The Journal of Paris _, suggesting, somewhat jokingly, that Parisians could economize candle usage by getting people out of bed earlier in the morning, making use of the natural morning light instead. New Zealander George Hudson proposed the idea of daylight saving in 1895
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UTC+3
UTC+03:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +03. In areas using this time offset, the time is three hours later than the Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) . Following the ISO 8601 standard, a time with this offset would be written as, for example, 2017-08-10T00:39:25+03:00 (boldface only here to be clear). Some areas in the world use UTC+03:00 all year, other areas only part of the year. CONTENTS* 1 As standard time (all year round) * 1.1 Europe * 1.2 Africa * 1.3 Asia * 1.3.1 Arabia Standard Time * 2 As daylight saving time (Northern Hemisphere summer only) * 2.1 Europe * 2.2 Western Asia * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References AS STANDARD TIME (ALL YEAR ROUND)EUROPE Main articles: Further-eastern European Time , Moscow Time , and Time in Turkey
Turkey
Most of European Russia , including Moscow
Moscow
, St
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Telephone Numbering Plan
A TELEPHONE NUMBERING PLAN is a type of numbering scheme used in telecommunication to assign telephone numbers to subscriber telephones or other telephony endpoints. Telephone numbers are the addresses of participants in a telephone network, reachable by a system of destination code routing. Telephone numbering plans are defined in each of administrative regions of the public switched telephone network (PSTN) and they are also present in private telephone networks. Numbering plans may follow a variety of design strategies which have often arisen from the historical evolution of individual telephone networks and local requirements. A broad division is commonly recognized, distinguishing open numbering plans and closed numbering plans. A closed numbering plan imposes a fixed number of digits assigned to every telephone, while an open numbering plan features a variable length of telephone numbers assigned to stations
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Köppen Climate Classification
KöPPEN CLIMATE CLASSIFICATION is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Russian German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen, notably in 1918 and 1936. Later, German climatologist Rudolf Geiger (1954, 1961) collaborated with Köppen on changes to the classification system, which is thus sometimes called the KöPPEN–GEIGER CLIMATE CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM. The Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
system has been further modified, within the Trewartha climate classification system in the middle 1960s (revised in 1980). The Trewartha system sought to create a more refined middle latitude climate zone, which was one of the criticisms of the Köppen system (the C climate group was too broad)
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Ukrainian Language
UKRAINIAN /juːˈkreɪniən/ (_ listen ) (українська мова ukrayins'ka mova_) is an East Slavic language . It is the official state language of Ukraine
Ukraine
and first of two principal languages of Ukrainians ; it is one of the three official languages in the unrecognized state of Transnistria
Transnistria
, the other two being Romanian and Russian . Written Ukrainian uses a variant of the Cyrillic
Cyrillic
script (see Ukrainian alphabet ). Historical linguists trace the origin of the Ukrainian language
Ukrainian language
to the Old East Slavic
Old East Slavic
of the early medieval state of Kievan Rus\' . After the fall of the Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
as well as the Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia , the language developed into a form called the Ruthenian language
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Russian Language
RUSSIAN (Russian: ру́сский язы́к, tr. _russkiy yazik_) is an East Slavic language and an official language in Russia , Belarus , Kazakhstan , Kyrgyzstan and many minor or unrecognised territories. It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Ukraine , and to a lesser extent, the other countries that were once constituent republics of the Soviet Union and former participants of the Eastern Bloc. Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages and is one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages . Written examples of Old East Slavonic are attested from the 10th century and beyond. It is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia and the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages
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Oblast
An OBLAST is a type of administrative division of Belarus
Belarus
, Bulgaria , Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
, Russia
Russia
, Ukraine
Ukraine
, and the former Soviet Union and Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes . The term is analogous to "state " or "province ". Official terms in successor states of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
differ, but some still use a cognate of the Russian term, e.g. _VOBLAST_ (_VOBLASTS_, _VOBLASTS\'_, ) is used for regions of Belarus
Belarus
, and _OBLYS_ (plural: _oblystar_) for regions of Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
. The word "oblast" is a loanword in English , but it is, nevertheless, often translated as "area ", "zone", "province ", or "region"
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Donetsk
DONETSK (Ukrainian : Донецьк, pronounced , translit. _Donets’k_; Russian : Доне́цк, tr. _Donetsk_; IPA: ; former names: ALEKSANDROVKA, HUGHESOVKA, YUZOVKA, STALINO (see also: cities\' alternative names )) is an industrial city in Ukraine
Ukraine
on the Kalmius River. The population was estimated at 929,063 (2016 est.) in the city, and over 2,000,000 in the metropolitan area (2011). According to the 2001 Ukrainian Census , Donetsk
Donetsk
was the fifth-largest city in Ukraine. Since April 2014, the city is controlled by pro-Russian separatists from the self-proclaimed Donetsk
Donetsk
People\'s Republic . Administratively, it has been the centre of Donetsk Oblast , while historically, it is the unofficial capital and largest city of the larger economic and cultural Donets Basin (_Donbass_) region
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