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Avalonnectes
Avalonnectes
Avalonnectes
is an extinct genus of small-bodied rhomaleosaurid known from the Early Jurassic
Early Jurassic
period (most likely earliest Hettangian
Hettangian
stage) of the United Kingdom. It contains a single species, A. arturi.[1]Contents1 Discovery 2 Description 3 Etymology 4 See also 5 ReferencesDiscovery[edit] Avalonnectes
Avalonnectes
is known from the holotype specimen NHMUK 14550, which consists of the posterior portion of a skull, and a nearly complete, three-dimensionally preserved and articulated postcranial skeleton. Another partial postcranial skeleton which was referred to it is AGT uncatalogued. Both specimens were collected at Street, of Somerset, from the Pre-Planorbis beds of the Blue Lias Formation
Blue Lias Formation
of the Lower Lias Group. These beds likely occur below the first occurrence of the ammonite Psiloceras planorbis
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Early Jurassic
The Jurassic
Jurassic
( /dʒʊˈræsɪk/; from Jura Mountains) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic
Triassic
Period 201.3 million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period 145 Mya.[note 1] The Jurassic
Jurassic
constituted the middle period of the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
Era, also known as the Age of Reptiles. The start of the period was marked by the major Triassic–Jurassic extinction event
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Postcrania
Postcrania (postcranium, adjective: postcranial) in zoology and vertebrate paleontology refers to all or part of the skeleton apart from the skull. Frequently, fossil remains, e.g. of dinosaurs or other extinct tetrapods, consist of partial or isolated skeletal elements; these are referred to as "postcrania". Sometimes, there is disagreement over whether the skull and skeleton belong to the same or different animals. One example is the case of a Cretaceous
Cretaceous
sauropod skull of Nemegtosaurus
Nemegtosaurus
found in association with the postcranial skeleton Opisthocoelicaudia. In Paleoanthropological studies, reconstruction of relationship between various species/remains is considered to be better supported by cranial characters rather than postcranial characters. However, this assumption is largely untested. Notes[edit]This vertebrate anatomy-related article is a stub
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Megaannum
A year is the orbital period of the Earth
Earth
moving in its orbit around the Sun. Due to the Earth's axial tilt, the course of a year sees the passing of the seasons, marked by changes in weather, the hours of daylight, and, consequently, vegetation and soil fertility. In temperate and subpolar regions around the planet, four seasons are generally recognized: spring, summer, autumn and winter. In tropical and subtropical regions several geographical sectors do not present defined seasons; but in the seasonal tropics, the annual wet and dry seasons are recognized and tracked. The current year is 2018. A calendar year is an approximation of the number of days of the Earth's orbital period as counted in a given calendar. The Gregorian, or modern, calendar, presents its calendar year to be either a common year of 365 days or a leap year of 366 days, as do the Julian calendars; see below
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Geological Timescale
The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy) to time. It is used by geologists, paleontologists, and other Earth
Earth
scientists to describe the timing and relationships of events that have occurred during Earth's history
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Hettangian
The Hettangian
Hettangian
is the earliest age or lowest stage of the Jurassic period of the geologic timescale. It spans the time between 201.3 ± 0.2 Ma and 199.3 ± 0.3 Ma (million years ago).[2] The Hettangian follows the Rhaetian
Rhaetian
(part of the Triassic
Triassic
period) and is followed by the Sinemurian.[3] In European stratigraphy the Hettangian
Hettangian
is a part of the time span in which the Lias was deposited. An example is the British Blue Lias, which has an upper Rhaetian
Rhaetian
to Sinemurian
Sinemurian
age
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United Kingdom
The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(UK) or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe
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Holotype
A holotype is a single physical example (or illustration) of an organism, known to have been used when the species (or lower-ranked taxon) was formally described. It is either the single such physical example (or illustration) or one of several such, but explicitly designated as the holotype. Under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN), a holotype is one of several kinds of name-bearing types. In the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) and ICZN the definitions of types are similar in intent but not identical in terminology or underlying concept. For example, the holotype for the butterfly Lycaeides idas
Lycaeides idas
longinus is a preserved specimen of that species, held by the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University
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Natural History Museum, London
The Natural History Museum
Museum
in London
London
is a natural history museum that exhibits a vast range of specimens from various segments of natural history. It is one of three major museums on Exhibition Road
Exhibition Road
in South Kensington, the others being the Science Museum
Museum
and the Victoria and Albert Museum. The Natural History Museum's main frontage, however, is on Cromwell Road. The museum is home to life and earth science specimens comprising some 80 million items within five main collections: botany, entomology, mineralogy, paleontology and zoology. The museum is a centre of research specialising in taxonomy, identification and conservation. Given the age of the institution, many of the collections have great historical as well as scientific value, such as specimens collected by Charles Darwin
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Skull
The skull is a bony structure that forms the head in most vertebrates. It supports the structures of the face and provides a protective cavity for the brain.[1] The skull is composed of two parts: the cranium and the mandible. In the human these two parts are the neurocranium and the viscerocranium or facial skeleton that includes the mandible as its largest bone. The skull forms the anterior most portion of the skeleton and is a product of cephalisation—housing the brain, and several sensory structures such as the eyes, ears, nose, and mouth.[2] In humans these sensory structures are part of the facial skeleton. Functions of the skull include protection of the brain, fixing the distance between the eyes to allow stereoscopic vision, and fixing the position of the ears to enable sound localisation of the direction and distance of sounds
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Skeleton
The skeleton is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism. There are several different skeletal types: the exoskeleton, which is the stable outer shell of an organism, the endoskeleton, which forms the support structure inside the body, the hydroskeleton, and the cytoskeleton. The term comes from Greek σκελετός(skeletós), meaning 'dried up'.[1])Contents1 Types of skeletons1.1 Exoskeleton 1.2 Endoskeleton 1.3 Pliant skeletons 1.4 Rigid skeletons 1.5 Cytoskeleton 1.6 Fluid skeletons1.6.1 Hydrostatic skeleton (hydroskeleton)2 Organisms with skeletons2.1 Invertebrates2.1.1 Sponges 2.1.2 Echinoderms2.2 Vertebrates2.2.1 Fish 2.2.2 Birds 2.2.3 Marine mammals 2.2.4 Humans3 Bones and cartilage3.1 Bone 3.2 Cartilage4 In popular culture 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksTypes of skeletons[edit] There are two major types of skeletons: solid and fluid
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Extinct
In biology and ecology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species. The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of the species, although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before this point. Because a species' potential range may be very large, determining this moment is difficult, and is usually done retrospectively
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Street, Somerset
Street is a large village and civil parish in the county of Somerset, England. The 2011 census recorded the parish as having a population of 11,805.[1] It is situated on a dry spot in the Somerset
Somerset
Levels, at the end of the Polden Hills, 2 miles (3.2 km) south-west of Glastonbury. There is evidence of Roman occupation. Much of the history of the village is dominated by Glastonbury
Glastonbury
Abbey until the Dissolution of the Monasteries, and indeed its name comes from a 12th-century causeway from Glastonbury
Glastonbury
which was built to transport local Blue Lias
Blue Lias
stone from what is now Street to rebuild the Abbey, although it had previously been known as Lantokay and Lega. The Society of Friends had become established there by the mid-17th century
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Somerset
Somerset
Somerset
(/ˈsʌmərsɛt/ ( listen)) (or archaically, Somersetshire) is a county in South West England
England
which borders Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire
and Bristol
Bristol
to the north, Wiltshire
Wiltshire
to the east, Dorset
Dorset
to the south-east and Devon
Devon
to the south-west. It is bounded to the north and west by the Severn Estuary
Severn Estuary
and the Bristol
Bristol
Channel, its coastline facing southeastern Wales
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Lower Lias Group
The Lias Group or Lias is a lithostratigraphic unit (a sequence of rock strata) found in a large area of western Europe, including the British Isles, the North Sea, the Low Countries
Low Countries
and the north of Germany. It consists of marine limestones, shales, marls and clays. Lias is a Middle English term for hard limestone, used in this specific sense by geologists since 1833.[2] In the past, geologists used Lias not only for the sequence of rock layers, but also for the timespan during which they were formed. It was thus an alternative name for the Early Jurassic
Jurassic
epoch of the geologic timescale. It is now more specifically known that the Lias is Rhaetian
Rhaetian
to Toarcian
Toarcian
in age (over a period of c. 20 million years between 200 to 180 million years ago) and thus also includes a part of the Triassic
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Million Years Ago
The abbreviation myr, "million years", is a unit of a quantity of 7006100000000000000♠1,000,000 (i.e. 7006100000000000000♠1×106) years, or 31.6 teraseconds.Contents1 Usage 2 Debate 3 See also 4 ReferencesUsage[edit] Myr
Myr
is in common use where the term is often written, such as in Earth science and cosmology. Myr
Myr
is seen with mya, "million years ago". Together they make a reference system, one to a quantity, the other to a particular place in a year numbering system that is time before the present. Myr
Myr
is deprecated in geology, but in astronomy myr is standard
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