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Avalokiteshvara
AVALOKITEśVARA (/ˌʌvloʊkɪˈteɪʃvərə, ˌʌvə-/ UV-loh-kih-TAY-shvər-ə, UV-ə- ; Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: अवलोकितेश्वर) is a bodhisattva who embodies the compassion of all Buddhas . This bodhisattva is variably depicted, described and is portrayed in different cultures as either female or male. In Chinese Buddhism , Avalokiteśvara has become the somewhat different female figure Guanyin
Guanyin
. In Cambodia
Cambodia
, he appears as LOKESVARAK, and in Japan he is called KANZEON or KANNON
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God
In monotheistic thought, GOD is believed to be the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith . The concept of God
God
, as described by theologians , commonly includes the attributes of omniscience (all-knowing), omnipotence (unlimited power), omnipresence (present everywhere), and as having an eternal and necessary existence. Depending on one’s kind of theism, these attributes are used either in way of analogy, or in a literal sense as distinct properties of the God. God
God
is most often held to be incorporeal (immaterial), and to be without gender, although many religions describe God
God
using masculine terminology, using such terms as "Him" or "Father" and some religions (such as Judaism
Judaism
) attribute only a purely grammatical "gender" to God
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Shiva
SHIVA (/ˈʃivə/ ; IAST
IAST
: Śiva, lit. the auspicious one) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism
Hinduism
. He is the Supreme Being within Shaivism
Shaivism
, one of the major traditions within contemporary Hinduism. Shiva
Shiva
is the "destroyer and transformer" within the Trimurti
Trimurti
, the Hindu
Hindu
trinity that includes Brahma
Brahma
and Vishnu
Vishnu
. In Shaivism tradition, Shiva
Shiva
is the Supreme being who creates, protects and transforms the universe
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Classical Tibetan
CLASSICAL TIBETAN refers to the language of any text written in Tibetic after the Old Tibetan period; though it extends from the 7th century until the modern day, it particularly refers to the language of early canonical texts translated from other languages, especially Sanskrit . The phonology implied by Classical Tibetan orthography is basically identical to the phonology of Old Tibetan, but the grammar varies greatly depending on period and geographic origin of the author. Such variation is an under-researched topic. In 816, during the reign of King Sadnalegs , literary Tibetan underwent a thorough reform aimed at standardizing the language and vocabulary of the translations being made from Indian texts, which resulted in what is now called Classical Tibetan
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Tibetan Alphabet
Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE * Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCE * Demotic 7 c. BCE * Meroitic 3 c. BCE* Proto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCE * Ugaritic 15 c. BCE* Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCE * Ge’ez 5–6 c. BCE* Phoenician 12 c. BCE * Paleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCE * Samaritan 6 c. BCE* Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
3 c. BCE * Tifinagh * Paleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE* Aramaic 8 c. BCE * Kharoṣṭhī 4 c. BCE* Brāhmī 4 c. BCE * Brahmic family
Brahmic family
(see) * E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE * Hangul
Hangul
(core letters only) 1443* Devanagari
Devanagari
13 c. CE * Canadian syllabics 1840 * Hebrew 3 c. BCE* Pahlavi 3 c. BCE * Avestan 4 c. CE * Palmyrene 2 c. BCE* Syriac 2 c. BCE * Nabataean 2 c. BCE * Arabic 4 c
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Karmapa
The KARMAPA (honorific title His Holiness the Gyalwa (རྒྱལ་བ་, Victorious One) Karmapa, more formally as Gyalwang (རྒྱལ་དབང་ཀརྨ་པ་, King of Victorious Ones) Karmapa, and informally as the Karmapa
Karmapa
Lama) is the head of the Karma Kagyu , the largest sub-school of the Kagyu (བཀའ་བརྒྱུད, Wylie : bka' brgyud), itself one of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism . The historical seat of the Karmapas is Tsurphu Monastery
Tsurphu Monastery
in the Tolung valley of Tibet
Tibet
. The Karmapa's principal seat in exile is the Dharma
Dharma
Chakra Centre at Rumtek Monastery
Rumtek Monastery
in Sikkim
Sikkim
, India
India

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Vaishnavism
VAISHNAVISM ( Vaishnava dharma) is one of the major traditions within Hinduism
Hinduism
along with Shaivism
Shaivism
, Shaktism
Shaktism
, and Smartism . It is also called Vishnuism, its followers are called Vaishnavas, and it considers Vishnu
Vishnu
as the Supreme Lord. The tradition is notable for its avatar doctrine, wherein Vishnu
Vishnu
is revered in one of many distinct incarnations. Of these, ten avatars of Vishnu
Vishnu
are the most studied. Krishna
Krishna
, Rama
Rama
, Narayana , Vāsudeva , Hari , Vithoba , Kesava, Madhava, Govinda and Jagannath are among the popular names used for the same supreme
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Vishnu
VISHNU ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
pronunciation: ; Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: विष्णु, IAST
IAST
: Viṣṇu) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism
Hinduism
, and the Supreme Being in its Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
tradition. Vishnu
Vishnu
is the "preserver" in the Hindu
Hindu
trinity ( Trimurti
Trimurti
) that includes Brahma
Brahma
and Shiva
Shiva

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Avalokitesvara (film)
AVALOKITESVARA, also known as BU KEN QU GUAN YIN (literally "the Guanyin
Guanyin
who refuses to leave"), is a 2013 Chinese religious film directed by Zhang Xin. It is loosely based on a legend about how Mount Putuo in China's Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Province became the bodhimaṇḍa of the bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara , who is better known in Chinese as Guanyin
Guanyin
. The film starred Li Chun, Nie Yuan , Nakaizumi Hideo, Siqin Gaowa , Nakano Ryoko and Mou Fengbin in the leading roles. It was shown at the 37th Montreal World Film Festival
Montreal World Film Festival
in 2013 and was named one of the four World Greats. CONTENTS * 1 Plot * 2 Cast * 3 Production * 4 Awards * 5 References * 6 External links PLOTThe film is set in China during the reign of Emperor Wuzong of the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty

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Kumārajīva
KUMāRAJīVA ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: कुमारजीव, simplified Chinese : 鸠摩罗什; traditional Chinese : 鳩摩羅什; pinyin : Jiūmóluóshí; Wade–Giles : Chiu1 mo2 lo2 shih2, 344–413 CE) was a Buddhist monk , scholar, and translator from the Kingdom of Kucha
Kucha
. He first studied teachings of the Sarvastivadin schools, later studied under Buddhasvāmin , and finally became an adherent of Mahayana Buddhism
Buddhism
, studying the Mādhyamaka doctrine of Nāgārjuna . Kumārajīva
Kumārajīva
settled in Chang\'an during the Sixteen Kingdoms
Sixteen Kingdoms
era. He is mostly remembered for the prolific translation of Buddhist texts written in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
to Chinese he carried out during his later life
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Pinyin
HANYU PINYIN ROMANIZATION (simplified Chinese : 汉语拼音; traditional Chinese : 漢語拼音; literally: "Han Chinese spelling of sounds"), often abbreviated to PINYIN, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
in mainland China
China
and to some extent in Taiwan
Taiwan
. It is often used to teach Standard (Mandarin) Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters
Chinese characters
. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones . Pinyin
Pinyin
without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet , and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang , based on earlier form romanizations of Chinese
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Hinduism
ARTS * Bharatanatyam
Bharatanatyam
* Kathak * Kathakali
Kathakali
*
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Lama
LAMA (Tibetan : བླ་མ་, Wylie : bla-ma; "chief" or "high priest" ) is a title for a teacher of the Dharma
Dharma
in Tibetan Buddhism . The name is similar to the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
term guru . Historically, the term was used for venerated spiritual masters or heads of monasteries. Today the title can be used as an honorific title conferred on a monk , nun or (in the Nyingma , Kagyu and Sakya schools) advanced tantric practitioner to designate a level of spiritual attainment and authority to teach, or may be part of a title such as Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
or Panchen Lama
Panchen Lama
applied to a lineage of reincarnate lamas (Tulkus ). Perhaps due to misunderstandings by early western scholars attempting to understand Tibetan Buddhism, the term lama has historically been erroneously applied to Tibetan monks in general
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Palm-leaf Manuscript
PALM-LEAF MANUSCRIPTS are manuscripts made out of dried palm leaves. Palm leaves were used as writing materials in South Asia
South Asia
and in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
dating back to the 5th century BCE, and possibly much earlier. Their use began in South Asia
South Asia
, and spread elsewhere, as texts on dried and smoke treated palm leaves of Borassus species (Palmyra palm) or the Ola leaf (leaf of Corypha umbraculifera or the talipot palm). One of the oldest surviving palm leaf manuscript is a Sanskrit Shaivism
Shaivism
text from the 9th-century, discovered in Nepal
Nepal
, now preserved at the Cambridge University Library
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Longer Sukhāvatīvyūha Sūtra
The LONGER SUKHāVATīVYūHA SūTRA is one of the two Indian Mahayana sutras which describe the pure land of Amitābha
Amitābha
. Together with the Shorter Sukhāvatīvyūha Sūtra , this text is highly influential in China and Japan where it is revered by the Jōdo-shū
Jōdo-shū
and Jōdo Shinshū congregations. The original Sanskrit
Sanskrit
versions of the Shorter Sukhāvatīvyūha Sūtra and Longer Sukhāvatīvyūha Sūtra
Longer Sukhāvatīvyūha Sūtra
were translated into English by Luis Gomez in The Land of Bliss
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Lotus Sutra
The LOTUS SūTRA ( Sanskrit : Saddharma Puṇḍarīka Sūtra, literally "Sūtra on the White Lotus of the Sublime Dharma" ) is one of the most popular and influential Mahayana sutras , and the basis on which the Tiantai , Tendai , Cheontae , and Nichiren schools of Buddhism were established
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