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Autophradates
AUTOPHRADATES (in Greek Aυτoφραδάτης; lived 4th century BC) was a Persian who distinguished himself as a general in the reign of Artaxerxes III and Darius Codomannus . During the reign of the Artaxerxes III , Autophradates
Autophradates
captured Artabazus , the satrap of Lydia and Ionia who had revolted against Persian king, and made him his prisoner, but afterwards set him free and joined the Revolt of the Satraps . After the death of the Persian admiral, Memnon , in 333 BC, Autophradates
Autophradates
and Pharnabazus undertook the command of the fleet, and reduced Mytilene , the siege of which had been begun by Memnon. Pharnabazus now sailed with his prisoners to Lycia
Lycia
, and Autophradates attacked the other islands in the Aegean sea which supported Alexander the Great . But Pharnabazus soon after joined Autophradates
Autophradates
again, and both sailed against Tenedos , which was induced by fear to surrender to the Persians. During these expeditions Autophradates
Autophradates
also laid siege to the town of Atarneus in Mysia , but without success
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek
Modern Greek
: ελληνικά , _elliniká_, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα (_ listen ), ellinikí glóssa_, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B
Linear B
and the Cypriot syllabary
Cypriot syllabary
, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems. The Greek language
Greek language
holds an important place in the history of the Western world
Western world
and Christianity
Christianity
; the canon of ancient Greek literature includes seminal works in the Western canon such as the epic poems _ Iliad
Iliad
_ and _ Odyssey
Odyssey
_
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Persian People
The PERSIANS are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran
Iran
. They share a common cultural system and are native speakers of the Persian language
Persian language
, as well as closely related languages. The ancient Persians were a nomadic branch of the ancient Iranian population that entered modern-day Iran
Iran
by the early 10th century BC. Together with their compatriot allies, they established and ruled some of the world's most powerful empires, well-recognized for their massive cultural, political, and social influence covering much of the territory and population of the ancient world. Throughout history, the Persians have contributed greatly to various forms of art , owning one of the world\'s most prominent literary traditions , and have made contributions in numerous other fields, including mathematics, theology, medicine, and various other sciences . In contemporary terminology, people of Persian heritage native to present-day Afghanistan and Tajikistan are referred to as _ Tajiks _
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Artaxerxes III Of Persia
ARTAXERXES III OCHUS OF PERSIA /ˌɑːrtəˈzɜːrksiːz/ c. 425 BC – 338 BC; (Old Persian : Artaxšaçā) was the Great King (Shah) of Persia
Persia
and the eleventh king of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
, as well as the first Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of the 31st dynasty of Egypt
Egypt
. He was the son and successor of Artaxerxes II and was succeeded by his son, Arses of Persia
Persia
(also known as Artaxerxes IV). His reign coincided with the reign of Philip II in Macedon and Nectanebo II
Nectanebo II
in Egypt. Before ascending the throne Artaxerxes was a satrap and commander of his father's army. Artaxerxes came to power after one of his brothers was executed, another committed suicide, the last murdered and his father, Artaxerxes II died. Soon after becoming king, Artaxerxes murdered all of the royal family to secure his place as king. He started two major campaigns against Egypt. The first campaign failed, and was followed up by rebellions throughout the western part of his empire. In 343 BC, Artaxerxes defeated Nectanebo II
Nectanebo II
, the Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Egypt, driving him from Egypt
Egypt
, stopping a revolt in Phoenicia on the way
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Darius III Of Persia
DARIUS III (c. 380 – July 330 BC), originally named ARTASHATA and called CODOMANNUS by the Greeks, was the last king of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia from 336 BC to 330 BC. Artashata adopted Darius as a dynastic name. His empire was unstable, with large portions governed by jealous and unreliable satraps and inhabited by disaffected and rebellious subjects. In 334 BC, Alexander the Great began his invasion of the Persian Empire and subsequently defeated the Persians in a number of battles before looting and destroying the capital Persepolis , by fire, in 331 BC. With the Persian Empire now effectively under Alexander's control, Alexander then decided to pursue Darius. Before Alexander reached him, however, Darius was killed by the satrap Bessus , who was also his cousin. CONTENTS * 1 Early reign * 2 Conflict with the Greeks * 2.1 Philip\'s campaign * 2.2 Alexander\'s campaign * 3 Flight, imprisonment and death * 4 Popular Culture * 5 References * 6 Bibliography * 7 External links EARLY REIGN nomen or birth name Darius in hieroglyphs Artashata was the son of Arsames, son of Ostanes , and Sisygambis , daughter of Artaxerxes II Mnemon . He had distinguished himself in a combat of champions in a war against the Cadusii and was serving at the time as a royal courier
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Artabazos II Of Phrygia
ARTABAZUS (in Greek Αρτάβαζος) (fl. 389 BC – 328 BC) was a Persian general and satrap . He was the son of the Persian satrap of Phrygia , Pharnabazus , and younger kinsman (brother or rather nephew) of Ariobarzanes of Phrygia who revolted against Artaxerxes II around 356 BC. CONTENTS * 1 Revolt by Ariobarzan * 2 Rebellion against the Persian King * 3 Return to Persia * 4 Family * 5 References * 6 Notes * 7 External links REVOLT BY ARIOBARZANIn 362 BC, Artabazus was sent by Artaxerxes II to capture Datames
Datames
, the satrap of Cappadocia
Cappadocia
, who had joined in the Satraps\' revolt by Artabazus' brother, Ariobarzanes. However, Artabazus was defeated by the bravery and resolution of Datames. REBELLION AGAINST THE PERSIAN KINGFollowing the capture and death of his brother, Artabazus was made satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia , but in 356 BC he refused obedience to the Persian king, Artaxerxes III . Artabazus then became involved in a revolt against the king and against other satraps who acknowledged the authority of Artaxerxes III. However, Artabazus was at first supported by Chares , the Athenian , and his mercenaries, whom he rewarded very generously. Afterwards Artabazus was also supported by the Thebans , who sent him 5,000 men under Pammenes . With the assistance of these and other allies, Artabazus defeated his enemies in two great battles
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Satrap
SATRAPS were the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as in the Sasanian Empire and the Hellenistic empires. The word SATRAP is also often used metaphorically in modern literature to refer to world leaders or governors who are heavily influenced by larger world superpowers or hegemonies and act as their surrogates. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Medo-Persian satraps * 3 Hellenistic satraps * 4 Parthian and Sassanian satraps * 5 Western satraps * 6 Satraps today * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links ETYMOLOGYThe word _satrap_ is derived via Latin _satrapes_ from Greek _satrápēs_ (σατράπης), itself borrowed from an Old Iranian _*xšaθra-pā/ă-_. In Old Persian , which was the native language of the Achaemenids, it is recorded as _xšaçapāvan_ (𐎧𐏁𐏂𐎱𐎠𐎺𐎠, literally "protector of the province"). The Median form is reconstructed as _*xšaθrapāwan-_. It is cognate with Sanskrit _kshatrapam_ (क्षत्रपम्) or _kshtrapa_, from _xšaça_ ("realm" or "province") and _pāvan_ ("protector") and is the origin of the word "kshatriya ". In the Parthian (language of the Arsacid Empire ) and Middle Persian (the language of the Sassanian Empire ), it is recorded in the forms _šahrab_ and _šasab_, respectively
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Lydia
LYDIA (Assyrian : _Luddu_; Greek : Λυδία, Turkish : _Lidya_) was an Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the modern western Turkish provinces of Uşak , Manisa and inland İzmir . Its population spoke an Anatolian language known as Lydian . At its greatest extent, the Kingdom of Lydia covered all of western Anatolia . Lydia (_Sparda_ in Old Persian ) was a satrapy of the Achaemenid Persian Empire , with Sardis as its capital. Tabalus , appointed by Cyrus the Great , was the first satrap. Lydia was later the name of a Roman province . Coins are said to have been invented in Lydia around the 7th century BC
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Ionia
IONIA ( Ancient Greek : Ἰωνία or Ἰωνίη) is an ancient region of central coastal Anatolia in present-day Turkey , the region nearest İzmir , which was historically Smyrna . It consisted of the northernmost territories of the Ionian League of Greek settlements. Never a unified state, it was named after the Ionian tribe who, in the Archaic Period (600–480 BC), settled mainly the shores and islands of the Aegean Sea . Ionian states were identified by tradition and by their use of Eastern Greek . IONIA proper comprised a narrow coastal strip from Phocaea in the north near the mouth of the river Hermus (now the Gediz ), to Miletus in the south near the mouth of the river Maeander , and included the islands of Chios and Samos . It was bounded by Aeolia to the north, Lydia to the east and Caria to the south. The cities within the region figured large in the strife between the Persian Empire and the Greeks. According to Greek tradition, the cities of Ionia were founded by colonists from the other side of the Aegean. Their settlement was connected with the legendary history of the Ionic people in Attica , which asserts that the colonists were led by Neleus and Androclus, sons of Codrus , the last king of Athens
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Revolt Of The Satraps
The GREAT SATRAPS\' REVOLT, or the REVOLT OF THE SATRAPS, was a rebellion in the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
of several satraps against the authority of the Great King Artaxerxes II Mnemon . Datames , the satrap of Cappadocia and a talented military commander, had inherited his satrapy from his father Camissares after 384 BC and he was a respected military commander but later problems with the court led him to revolt in 372 BC. The court commanded the neighboring satraps, Autophradates of Lydia and Artumpara of Lycia , to crush the rebellion but Datames successfully resisted their attacks. Ariobarzanes , satrap of Phrygia and a son of the ruler of Pontus , had been made acting satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia until Artabazos , the legitimate heir of the satrapy could take office. But when Artabazos was ready to take the satrapy Ariobarzanes refused to surrender it and joined Datames' revolt in 366 BC. Ariobarzanes sought foreign aid and he received it from King Agesilaus II of Sparta . Ariobarzanes withstood a siege from Mausolus
Mausolus
of Caria and Autophradates of Lydia until Agesilaus negotiated the besiegers' retreat. Ariobarzanes was killed in 363, betrayed by his son Mithradates
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Memnon Of Rhodes
MEMNON OF RHODES (Μέμνων ὁ Ῥόδιος, 380 – 333 BC) was the commander of the Greek mercenaries in the service of the Persian king Darius III when Alexander the Great of Macedonia invaded the Persian Empire in 334 BC. Memnon famously advocated a scorched earth policy against Alexander, aware of the Macedonian's lack of supplies and funds. He commanded the mercenaries at the Battle of the Granicus River , where his troops were massacred by the victorious Macedonians. He then began a campaign to capture the Aegean islands using the Persian fleet and led a direct assault on Macedonia , while Alexander was resting at Phaselis
Phaselis
. Memnon managed to capture the island of Chios and most of Lesbos
Lesbos
. Demosthenes , after hearing of Memnon's successes, began to prepare Athens
Athens
for a revolt against Alexander, along with other Greek cities, while Sparta
Sparta
began to prepare for war. By a stroke of fortune for Alexander, Memnon died of illness at Mytilene after transferring command to his nephew, Pharnabazus . Many scholars maintain that had Memnon's campaign been successful, Alexander would have had difficulty in continuing his campaign in Asia, and might have soon been defeated
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Pharnabazus, Son Of Artabazus
PHARNABAZUS III (in Greek Φαρνάβαζος; c. 370 BC - after 320 BC) was a Persian satrap who fought against Alexander the Great . CONTENTS * 1 Youth * 2 War against Alexander * 3 Later life * 4 Notes YOUTHPharnabazus was the son of Artabazus , satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia . However, Artabazus was exiled after a failed rebellion against Artaxerxes III in 358 BC. The family went into exile to Macedonia , where they met the young Alexander. With Artabazus and Pharnabazus was Memnon of Rhodes , a Greek mercenary and relative by marriage. Artabazus, Pharnabazus and Memnon were later allowed to return to Persia, where Memnon took command of the Persian navy in the Aegean with Pharnabazus in support. WAR AGAINST ALEXANDERWhen Alexander invaded the Persian empire, Memnon defended the strategically important town of Halicarnassus , which Alexander was then diverted to capture, forcing him to seek reinforcements. This allowed the Persians time to regroup. Memnon and Pharnabazus then directed their strategy to disrupt Alexander's supply lines by taking Aegean islands near the Hellespont and by fomenting rebellion in southern Greece. At around the same time, the Spartan king Agis III and the Athenian statesman Demosthenes organised forces to liberate their cities from the Macedonians
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Mytilene
MYTILENE (Greek : Μυτιλήνη _Mytilini_ ) is an city founded in the 11th century BC. Mytilene
Mytilene
is the capital and port of the island of Lesbos
Lesbos
and also the capital of the North Aegean Region. The seat of governor of the North Aegean Region is Mytilene. Mytilene
Mytilene
is also one of 13 municipalities (counties) on the island of Lesbos
Lesbos
. Mytilene
Mytilene
is built on the southeast edge of the island. It is also the seat of a metropolitan bishop of the Orthodox church
Orthodox church
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Geography and climate * 2.1 Province * 2.2 Climate * 3 Demographics * 4 Economy * 5 Landmarks and architecture * 6 Archaeology * 7 Education * 8 Sporting teams * 9 Famous Mytilenians * 9.1 Ancient * 9.2 Religious * 9.3 Modern * 9.4 Fictional * 10 Twin cities * 11 Gallery * 12 See also * 13 References * 14 External links HISTORY Pittacus of Mytilene
Mytilene
(c. 640 - 568 BC), one of the Seven Sages of Greece; woodcut from the Nuremberg Chronicle
Nuremberg Chronicle
. View of the port, with the dome of St.Therapon
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Lycia
LYCIA (Lycian : 𐊗𐊕𐊐𐊎𐊆𐊖 _Trm̃mis_; Greek : Λυκία _Lykia_, Turkish : _Likya_) was a geopolitical region in Anatolia
Anatolia
in what are now the provinces of Antalya and Muğla on the southern coast of Turkey
Turkey
, and Burdur Province inland. Known to history since the records of ancient Egypt
Egypt
and the Hittite Empire in the Late Bronze Age , it was populated by speakers of the Luwian language group. Written records began to be inscribed in stone in the Lycian language (a later form of Luwian) after Lycia's involuntary incorporation into the Achaemenid
Achaemenid
Empire in the Iron Age. At that time (546 BC) the Luwian speakers were decimated, and Lycia
Lycia
received an influx of Persian speakers. Lycia
Lycia
fought for the Persians in the Persian Wars , but on the defeat of the Achaemenid
Achaemenid
Empire by the Greeks, it became intermittently a free agent
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Aegean Sea
The AEGEAN SEA (/ᵻˈdʒiːən/ ; Greek : Αιγαίο Πέλαγος (_ listen ); Turkish : Ege Denizi_ Turkish pronunciation: ) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas , i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey . In the north, it is connected to the Marmara Sea and Black Sea by the Dardanelles and Bosphorus . The Aegean Islands are within the sea and some bound it on its southern periphery, including Crete and Rhodes . The sea was traditionally known as _the Archipelago _ (in Greek , _Αρχιπέλαγος_, meaning "chief sea"), but in English the meaning of Archipelago has changed to refer to the Aegean Islands and, generally, to any island group. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Geography * 2.1 Extent * 2.2 Hydrography * 3 History * 3.1 Ancient History * 3.2 Modern history * 4 Economy and politics * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links ETYMOLOGYIn ancient times, there were various explanations for the name _Aegean_
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Alexander The Great
ALEXANDER III OF MACEDON (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as ALEXANDER THE GREAT (Greek : Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας, _Aléxandros ho Mégas_ Koine Greek: ), was a king