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Autonomous Regions Of The People's Republic Of China
In development or moral, political, and bioethical philosophy, autonomy[1] is the capacity to make an informed, un-coerced decision. Autonomous organizations or institutions are independent or self-governing. Autonomy can also be defined from human resource perspective and it means a level of discretion granted to an employee in his or her work.[2] In such cases, autonomy is known to bring some sense of job satisfaction among the employees. Autonomy is a term that is also widely used and in the field of medicine
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Autonomy (other)
Autonomy is the capacity of a rational individual to make an informed, un-coerced decision; or, in politics, self-government. Autonomy may also refer to: Autonomy (Eastern Christianity), the status of a hierarchical church Autonomy (novel), a 2009 novel based on the Doctor Who TV series HP Autonomy, an enterprise software company owned by Hewlett Packard, previously called
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Independence
Independence
Independence
is a condition of a nation, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over the territory. The opposite of independence is the status of a dependent territory.Contents1 Definition of independence1.1 Distinction between independence and autonomy2 Declarations of independence 3 Historical overview 4 Continents 5 Notes 6 See also 7 ReferencesDefinition of independence[edit] Whether the attainment of independence is different from revolution has long been contested, and has often been debated over the question of violence as legitimate means to achieving sovereignty.[1] While some revolutions seek and achieve national independence, others aim only to redistribute power — with or without an element of emancipation, such as in democratization — within a state, which as such may remain unaltered
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Fatalism
Related concepts and fundamentals:Agnosticism Epistemology Presupposition Probabilityv t e Fatalism is a philosophical doctrine that stresses the subjugation of all events or actions to destiny. Fatalism generally refers to any of the following ideas:The view that we are powerless to do anything other than what we actually do.[1] Included in this is that humans have no power to influence the future, or indeed, their own actions.[2] This belief is very similar to predeterminism. An attitude of resignation in the face of some future event or events which are thought to be inevitable. Friedrich Nietzsche
Friedrich Nietzsche
named this idea "Turkish fatalism"[3] in his book The Wanderer and His Shadow.[4] That acceptance is appropriate, rather than resistance against inevitability
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Determinism
Related concepts and fundamentals:Agnosticism Epistemology Presupposition Probabilityv t e Determinism
Determinism
is the philosophical theory that all events, including moral choices, are completely determined by previously existing causes. Determinism
Determinism
is usually understood to preclude free will because it entails that humans cannot act otherwise than they do. The theory holds that the universe is utterly rational because complete knowledge of any given situation assures that unerring knowledge of its future is also possible.[1] Some philosophers suggest variants around this basic definition.[2] Deterministic theories throughout the history of philosophy have sprung from diverse and sometimes overlapping motives and considerations
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Agency (philosophy)
Agency is the capacity of an actor to act in a given environment.[citation needed] The capacity to act does not at first imply a specific moral dimension to the ability to make the choice to act, and moral agency is therefore a distinct concept. In sociology, an agent is an individual engaging with the social structure. Notably, though, the primacy of social structure vs. individual capacity with regard to persons' actions is debated within sociology. This debate concerns, at least partly, the level of reflexivity an agent may possess.[citation needed] Agency may either be classified as unconscious, involuntary behavior, or purposeful, goal directed activity (intentional action). An agent typically has some sort of immediate awareness of their physical activity and the goals that the activity is aimed at realizing
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How To Make Good Decisions And Be Right All The Time
Decision may refer to: Decision making Decision support system Decision theoryContents1 Law and politics 2 Books 3 Sports 4 Film and TV 5 Music5.1 Albums 5.2 Songs6 See also6.1 Other disambiguation pagesLaw and politics[edit] Judgment (law), as the outcome of a lega
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Iain King
Iain Benjamin King CBE FRSA is a British writer.[1] King was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire
Order of the British Empire
in the 2013 Birthday Honours, for services to governance in Libya, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Kosovo.[2][3] He is a former Fe
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Moral Philosophy
Ethics
Ethics
or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.[1] The term ethics derives from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
ἠθικός (ethikos), from ἦθος (ethos), meaning 'habit, custom'. The branch of philosophy axiology comprises the sub-branches of ethics and aesthetics, each concerned with values.[2] Ethics
Ethics
seeks to resolve questions of human morality by defining concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong, virtue and vice, justice and crime
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Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
(/kænt/;[8] German: [ɪˈmaːnu̯eːl kant]; 22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.[9] Kant argues that the human mind creates the structure of human experience, that reason is the source of morality, that aesthetics arises from a faculty of disinterested judgment, that space and time are forms of human sensibility, and that the world as it is "in-itself" is independent of humanity's concepts of it. Kant took himself to have effected a "Copernican revolution" in philosophy, akin to Copernicus' reversal of the age-old belief that the sun revolves around the earth
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Contemporary Ethics
Ethics
Ethics
is, in general terms, the study of right and wrong. It can look descriptively at moral behaviour and judgements; it can give practical advice (normative ethics), or it can analyse and theorise about the nature of morality and ethics.[1] Contemporary study of ethics has many links with other disciplines in philosophy itself and other sciences.[2] Normative ethics has declined, while meta-ethics is increasingly followed
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Moral Rights
Moral rights are rights of creators of copyrighted works generally recognized in civil law jurisdictions and, to a lesser extent, in some common law jurisdictions. They include the right of attribution, the right to have a work published anonymously or pseudonymously, and the right to the integrity of the work.[1] The preserving of the integrity of the work allows the author to object to alteration, distortion, or mutilation of the work that is "prejudicial to the author's honor or reputation".[2] Anything else that may detract from the artist's relationship with the work even after it leaves the artist's possession or ownership may bring these moral rights into play. Moral rights are distinct from any economic rights tied to copyrights
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Moral Theory
Morality
Morality
(from Latin: mōrālis, lit. 'manner, character, proper behavior') is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.[1] Morality
Morality
can be a body of standards or principles derived from a code of conduct from a particular philosophy, religion or culture, or it can derive from a standard that a person believes should be universal.[2] Morality
Morality
may also be specifically synonymous with "goodness" or "rightness". Moral philosophy includes moral ontology, which is the origin of morals; and moral epistemology, which is the knowledge of morals. Different systems of expressing morality have been proposed, including deontological ethical systems which adhere to a set of established rules, and normative ethical systems which consider the merits of actions themselves
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Freedom
Freedom, generally, is having an ability to act or change without constraint. A thing is "free" if it can change its state easily and is not constrained in its present state. In philosophy and religion, it is associated with having free will and being without undue or unjust constraints, or enslavement, and is an idea closely related to the concept of liberty. A person has the freedom to do things that will not, in theory or in practice, be prevented by other forces. Outside of the human realm, freedom generally does not have this political or psychological dimension. A rusty lock might be oiled so that the key has freedom to turn, undergrowth may be hacked away to give a newly planted sapling freedom to grow, or a mathematician may study an equation having many degrees of freedom
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Metaphysical Philosophy
Metaphysics
Metaphysics
is a branch of philosophy that explores the fundamental questions, including the nature of concepts like being, existence, and reality.[1] It has two branches – cosmology and ontology. Traditional metaphysics seeks to answer, in a "suitably abstract and fully general manner", the questions:[2]What is there? And what is it like?Topics of metaphysical investigation include existence, objects and their properties, space and time, cause and effect, and possibility. A central branch of metaphysics is ontology, the investigation into the basic categories of being and how they relate to one another. There are two broad conceptions about what is the "world" studied by metaphysics. The strong, classical view assumes that the objects studied by metaphysics exist independently of any observer, so that the subject is the most fundamental of all sciences
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Rationality
Rationality is the quality or state of being rational – that is, being based on or agreeable to reason.[1][2] Rationality implies the conformity of one's beliefs with one's reasons to believe, and of one's actions with one's reasons for action. "Rationality" has different specialized meanings in philosophy,[3] economics, sociology, psychology, evolutionary biology, game theory and political science. To determine what behavior is the most rational, one needs to make several key assumptions, and also needs a quantifiable formulation[dubious – discuss] of the problem. When the goal or problem involves making a decision, rationality factors in all information that is available (e.g. complete or incomplete knowledge). Collectively, the formulation and background assumptions are the model within which rationality applies
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