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Automobile Layout
In automotive design, the automobile layout describes where on the vehicle the engine and drive wheels are found. Many different combinations of engine location and driven wheels are found in practice, and the location of each is dependent on the application for which the vehicle will be used. Factors influencing the design choice include cost, complexity, reliability, packaging (location and size of the passenger compartment and boot), weight distribution, and the vehicle's intended handling characteristics. Layouts can roughly be divided into two categories: front- or rear-wheel drive
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Universal Joint
A universal joint (universal coupling, U-joint, Cardan joint, Spicer or Hardy Spicer joint, or Hooke's joint) is a joint or coupling connecting rigid rods whose axes are inclined to each other, and is commonly used in shafts that transmit rotary motion. It consists of a pair of hinges located close together, oriented at 90° to each other, connected by a cross shaft. The universal joint is not a constant-velocity joint.[1]Contents1 History 2 Equation of motion 3 Double Cardan shaft 4 Double Cardan joint 5 Thompson coupling 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksHistory[edit]Play mediaThis video shows different parts and operation of the universal shaft.The main concept of the universal joint is based on the design of gimbals, which have been in use since antiquity
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Fuel Efficiency
Fuel
Fuel
efficiency is a form of thermal efficiency, meaning the ratio from effort to result of a process that converts chemical potential energy contained in a carrier (fuel) into kinetic energy or work. Overall fuel efficiency may vary per device, which in turn may vary per application fuel efficiency, especially fossil fuel power plants or industries dealing with combustion, such as ammonia production during the Haber process. In the context of transport, fuel economy is the energy efficiency of a particular vehicle, given as a ratio of distance traveled per unit of fuel consumed. It is dependent on engine efficiency, transmission design, and tire design. Fuel
Fuel
economy is expressed in miles per gallon (mpg) in the USA and usually also in the UK (imperial gallon); there is sometimes confusion as the imperial gallon is 20% larger than the US gallon
US gallon
so that mpg values are not directly comparable
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Engine
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy.[1][2] Heat
Heat
engines burn a fuel to create heat which is then used to do work. Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical motion; pneumatic motors use compressed air; and clockwork motors in wind-up toys use elastic energy
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Centre Of Gravity
In physics, the center of mass of a distribution of mass in space is the unique point where the weighted relative position of the distributed mass sums to zero, or the point where if a force is applied it moves in the direction of the force without rotating. The distribution of mass is balanced around the center of mass and the average of the weighted position coordinates of the distributed mass defines its coordinates. Calculations in mechanics are often simplified when formulated with respect to the center of mass. It is a hypothetical point where entire mass of an object may be assumed to be concentrated to visualise its motion. In other words, the center of mass is the particle equivalent of a given object for application of Newton's laws of motion. In the case of a single rigid body, the center of mass is fixed in relation to the body, and if the body has uniform density, it will be located at the centroid
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Understeer
Understeer and oversteer
Understeer and oversteer
are vehicle dynamics terms used to describe the sensitivity of a vehicle to steering. Oversteer is what occurs when a car turns (steers) by more than the amount commanded by the driver. Conversely, understeer is what occurs when a car steers less than the amount commanded by the driver. Automotive engineers define understeer and oversteer based on changes in steering angle associated with changes in lateral acceleration over a sequence of steady-state circular turning tests
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Oversteer
Understeer and oversteer
Understeer and oversteer
are vehicle dynamics terms used to describe the sensitivity of a vehicle to steering. Oversteer is what occurs when a car turns (steers) by more than the amount commanded by the driver. Conversely, understeer is what occurs when a car steers less than the amount commanded by the driver. Automotive engineers define understeer and oversteer based on changes in steering angle associated with changes in lateral acceleration over a sequence of steady-state circular turning tests
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Fishtailing
Fishtailing
Fishtailing
is a vehicle handling problem which occurs when the rear wheels lose traction, resulting in oversteer. This can be caused by low friction surfaces (sand, gravel, rain, snow, ice, etc.). Rear-drive vehicles with sufficient power can induce this loss of traction on any surface, which is called power-oversteer. During fishtailing, the rear end of the car skids to one side, which must be offset by the driver counter-steering, which is turning the front wheels in the same direction as the skid, (e.g. left if the rear swings left) and reducing engine power. Overcorrection will result in a skid in the opposite direction; hence the name. Without a proper driver's reaction, the fishtailing vehicle will spin completely. Friction is the main reason this action is effective. If a car is moving across a surface in any direction other than the direction it is pointed, it is skidding (or sliding), and a sideways load is being imposed against the tires
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Lotus Cars
Lotus Cars
Lotus Cars
is a British company[2] that manufactures sports cars and racing cars in its headquarters in Hethel, United Kingdom, and is a subsidiary of Chinese automotive company Geely. Lotus cars include the Esprit, Elan, Europa, Elise, Exige and Evora sports cars and it had motor racing success with Team Lotus
Team Lotus
in Formula One. Lotus Cars
Lotus Cars
are based at the former site of RAF Hethel, a World War II
World War II
airfield in Norfolk
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Suggested Retail Price
The list price, also known as the manufacturer's suggested retail price (MSRP), or the recommended retail price (RRP), or the suggested retail price (SRP), of a product is the price at which the manufacturer recommends that the retailer sell the product. The intention was to help to standardize prices among locations. While some stores always sell at, or below, the suggested retail price, others do so only when items are on sale or closeout/clearance. Suggested pricing methods may conflict with competition theory, as they allow prices to be set higher than would otherwise be the case, potentially negatively affecting consumers
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Differential (mechanical Device)
A differential is a gear train with three shafts that has the property that the rotational speed of one shaft is the average of the speeds of the others, or a fixed multiple of that average.Contents1 Overview 2 History 3 Epicyclic differential 4 Spur-gear differential 5 Non-automotive applications 6 Application to vehicles 7 Functional description 8 Loss of traction 9 Active differentials 10 Automobiles without differentials 11 See also 12 References 13 External linksOverview[edit]Automotive differential: The drive gear 2 is mounted on the carrier 5 which supports the planetary bevel gears 4 which engage the driven bevel gears 3 attached to the axles 1.ZF Differential. The drive shaft enters from the front and the driven axles run left and right. Car
Car
differential of a Škoda 422In automobiles and other wheeled vehicles, the differential allows the outer drive wheel to rotate faster than the inner drive wheel during a turn
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Economy Of Scale
In microeconomics, economies of scale are the cost advantages that enterprises obtain due to their scale of operation (typically measured by amount of output produced), with cost per unit of output decreasing with increasing scale. Economies of scale
Economies of scale
apply to a variety of organizational and business situations and at various levels, such as a business or manufacturing unit, plant or an entire enterprise. When average costs start falling as output increases, then economies of scale are occurring
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Citroen
Citroën
Citroën
(French pronunciation: ​[si.tʁɔ.ˈɛn]) is a major French automobile manufacturer, part of the PSA Peugeot Citroën
PSA Peugeot Citroën
group since 1976, founded in 1919 by French industrialist André-Gustave Citroën
Citroën
(1878–1935)
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Saab Automobile
Saab Automobile
Automobile
AB[1][2] /ˈsɑːb/ was a manufacturer of automobiles that was founded in Sweden
Sweden
in 1945 when its parent company, SAAB AB ( listen (help·info)), began a project to design a small automobile. The first production model, the Saab 92, was launched in 1949. In 1968 the parent company merged with Scania-Vabis, and ten years later the Saab 900
Saab 900
was launched, in time becoming Saab's best-selling model. In the mid-1980s the new Saab 9000
Saab 9000
model also appeared. In 1989, the automobile division of Saab-Scania
Saab-Scania
was restructured into an independent company, Saab Automobile
Automobile
AB. The American manufacturer General Motors
General Motors
(GM) took 50 percent ownership with an investment of US$600 million
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Lift-off Oversteer
Lift-off oversteer (also known as snap-oversteer, trailing-throttle oversteer, throttle off oversteer, or lift-throttle oversteer) is a form of oversteer in automobiles that occurs while cornering when closing the throttle causes a deceleration, causing the vertical load on the tires to shift from the rear to the front, in a process called weight transfer. This decrease in vertical load on the rear tires causes a decrease in the lateral force they generate, so that their lateral acceleration (into the corner) is also decreased. This causes the vehicle to steer more tightly into the turn, hence oversteering. In other words, easing off the accelerator can cause the rear tires to lose traction, with the potential for the car to leave the road tail first.Contents1 Dynamics 2 In popular culture 3 See also 4 ReferencesDynamics[edit]The graphs to the right show the simulated effect of lifting off the throttle in the middle of a left turn
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Torque Steer
Torque steer is the unintended influence of engine torque on the steering, especially in front-wheel drive vehicles. For example, during heavy acceleration the steering may pull to one side, which may be disturbing to the driver. The effect is manifested either as a tugging sensation in the steering wheel, or a veering of the vehicle from the intended path. Torque steer is directly related to differences in the forces in the contact patches of the left and right drive wheels. The effect becomes more evident when high torques are applied to the drive wheels either because of a high overall reduction ratio between the engine and wheels,[1] high engine torque, or some combination of the two
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