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Automobile Layout
In automotive design , the AUTOMOBILE LAYOUT describes where on the vehicle the engine and drive wheels are found. Many different combinations of engine location and driven wheels are found in practice, and the location of each is dependent on the application for which the vehicle will be used. Factors influencing the design choice include cost, complexity, reliability, packaging (location and size of the passenger compartment and boot ), weight distribution , and the vehicle's intended handling characteristics . Layouts can roughly be divided into two categories: front- or rear-wheel drive. Four-wheel-drive vehicles may take on the characteristics of either, depending on how power is distributed to the wheels. CONTENTS* 1 Front-wheel-drive layouts * 1.1 Characteristics * 1.2 Advantages * 1.3 Disadvantages * 2 Rear-wheel-drive layouts * 2.1 Characteristics * 2.2 Advantages * 2.3 Disadvantages * 3 Four-wheel-drive layouts * 3.1 Advantages * 3.2 Disadvantages * 3.3 Unusual 4WD layouts * 4 History and current use * 5 See also * 6 References FRONT-WHEEL-DRIVE LAYOUTS Main article: front-wheel drive FF layout Front-wheel-drive layouts are those in which the front wheels of the vehicle are driven. The most popular layout used in cars today is the front-engine, front-wheel drive, with the engine in front of the front axle, driving the front wheels
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Automotive Design
AUTOMOTIVE DESIGN is the profession involved in the development of the appearance, and to some extent the ergonomics , of motor vehicles or more specifically road vehicles. This most commonly refers to automobiles but also refers to motorcycles , trucks , buses , coaches , and vans . The functional design and development of a modern motor vehicle is typically done by a large team from many different disciplines included within automotive engineering . Automotive design in this context is primarily concerned with developing the visual appearance or aesthetics of the vehicle, though it is also involved in the creation of the product concept. Automotive design is practiced by designers who usually have an art background and a degree in industrial design or transportation design. CONTENTS* 1 Design elements * 1.1 Exterior design * 1.2 Interior design * 1.3 Color and trim design * 1.4 Graphic design * 1.5 Computer-aided styling and Class-A development * 2 Development process * 2.1 Styling development cycle * 2.2 Development team * 3 Components * 4 History * 4.1 U.S
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Engine
An ENGINE or MOTOR is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy . Heat engines burn a fuel to create heat , which is then used to create a force . Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical motion; pneumatic motors use compressed air and clockwork motors in wind-up toys use elastic energy . In biological systems, molecular motors , like myosins in muscles , use chemical energy to create forces and eventually motion
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Drive Wheel
A DRIVE WHEEL is a wheel of a motor vehicle that transmits force, transforming torque into tractive force from the tires to the road, causing the vehicle to move. The powertrain delivers enough torque to the wheel to overcome stationary forces, resulting in the vehicle moving forwards or backwards. A two-wheel drive vehicle has two driven wheels, typically both at the front or back, while a four-wheel drive has four. A steering wheel is a wheel that turns to change the direction of a vehicle. A trailer wheel is one that is neither a drive wheel, nor a steer wheel. Front-wheel drive vehicles typically have the rear wheels as trailer wheels. CONTENTS* 1 Drive wheel
Drive wheel
configurations * 1.1 Front-wheel drive * 1.2 Rear-wheel drive * 1.3 Two-wheel drive * 1.4 All-wheel drive * 1.4.1 Four-wheel drive or * 1.4.2 Six-wheel drive * 1.4.3 Eight-wheel drive * 1.4.4 Twelve-wheel drive * 2 Notes * 3 See also DRIVE WHEEL CONFIGURATIONSFRONT-WHEEL DRIVE Main article: Front-wheel drive Front-wheel drive (FWD) vehicles' engines drive the front wheels. Using the front wheels for delivery of power as well as steering allows the driving force to act in the same direction as the wheel is pointing. This layout is commonly used in modern passenger cars
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Trunk (automobile)
The TRUNK ( American English ) or BOOT ( British English ) of a car is the vehicle's main storage compartment. CONTENTS * 1 Designs * 2 Openings * 2.1 Door * 2.2 Lid * 2.3 Design history * 2.4 Locks * 3 Etymology * 4 Classification * 5 Safety * 5.1 Active safety by luggage retention * 5.2 Passive safety by luggage retention * 5.3 Barrier nets/grids * 5.4 Inside trunk release * 5.5 Riding in the trunk * 6 Additional functions * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links DESIGNS A trunk in the rear will often contain a spare tire Front storage compartment on a Volkswagen Beetle An open trunk lid on a 1955 Hudson Rambler The trunk or luggage compartment is most often located at the rear of the vehicle. Early designs included an exterior rack mounted on the rear of the vehicle to which it was possible to attach a real luggage trunk . Later designs integrated the storage area into the vehicle's body and evolved to provide a streamlined appearance. The main storage compartment is normally provided at the end of the vehicle opposite to which the engine is located. Some mid-engined or electric cars have luggage compartments both in the front and in the rear of the vehicle
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Weight Distribution
WEIGHT DISTRIBUTION is the apportioning of weight within a vehicle , especially cars , airplanes , and trains . Typically, it is written in the form _x_/_y_, where _x_ is the percentage of weight in the front, and _y_ is the percentage in the back. In a vehicle which relies on gravity in some way, weight distribution directly affects a variety of vehicle characteristics, including handling , acceleration , traction , and component life. For this reason weight distribution varies with the vehicle's intended usage. For example, a drag car maximizes traction at the rear axle while countering the reactionary pitch-up torque. It generates this counter-torque by placing a small amount of counterweight at a great distance forward of the rear axle. In the airline industry , load balancing is used to evenly distribute the weight of passengers, cargo, and fuel throughout an aircraft, so as to keep the aircraft's center of gravity close to its center of pressure to avoid losing pitch control. In military transport aircraft, it is common to have a loadmaster as a part of the crew; their responsibilities include calculating accurate load information for center of gravity calculations, and ensuring cargo is properly secured to prevent its shifting
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Car Handling
AUTOMOBILE HANDLING and VEHICLE HANDLING are descriptions of the way a wheeled vehicle responds and reacts to the inputs of a driver, as well as how it moves along a track or road. It is commonly judged by how a vehicle performs particularly during cornering , acceleration, and braking as well as on the vehicle's directional stability when moving in steady state condition. In the automotive industry, handling and braking are the major components of a vehicle's "active" safety, as well as its ability to perform in Auto Racing . The maximum lateral acceleration is sometimes discussed separately as "road holding". (This discussion is directed at road vehicles with at least three wheels, but some of it may apply to other ground vehicles). Automobiles driven on public roads whose engineering requirements emphasize handling over comfort and passenger space are named sports cars
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Front-wheel Drive
FRONT-WHEEL DRIVE (FWD) is a form of engine and transmission layout used in motor vehicles , where the engine drives the front wheels only. Most modern front-wheel-drive vehicles feature a transverse engine , rather than the conventional longitudinal engine arrangement generally found in rear-wheel-drive and four-wheel drive vehicles. CONTENTS * 1 Front-wheel-drive arrangements * 2 History * 2.1 Prior to 1900 * 2.2 Société Parisienne - Victoria Combination * 2.3 1900 – 1920 * 2.4 1920 – 1930 * 2.5 1930 – 1945 * 2.6 1945 – 1960 * 2.7 1960 – 1975 * 2.7.1 Giacosa innovation * 2.8 1975 – 1990 * 2.9 1990 – present * 3 Records * 4 See also * 5 References FRONT-WHEEL-DRIVE ARRANGEMENTSMost FWD layouts are front-engined. Rear-engined layouts are possible, but rare. Historically they fall into three categories: * Front-engine transversely mounted/ Front-wheel drive * Front-engine longitudinally mounted/ Front-wheel drive * Front Mid-engine/ Front-wheel drive HISTORY _ This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2007)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_PRIOR TO 1900Experiments with front-wheel-drive cars date to the early days of the automobile
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Prop-shaft
A DRIVE SHAFT, DRIVESHAFT, DRIVING SHAFT, PROPELLER SHAFT (PROP SHAFT), or CARDAN SHAFT is a mechanical component for transmitting torque and rotation, usually used to connect other components of a drive train that cannot be connected directly because of distance or the need to allow for relative movement between them. As torque carriers, drive shafts are subject to torsion and shear stress , equivalent to the difference between the input torque and the load. They must therefore be strong enough to bear the stress, whilst avoiding too much additional weight as that would in turn increase their inertia . To allow for variations in the alignment and distance between the driving and driven components, drive shafts frequently incorporate one or more universal joints , jaw couplings , or rag joints , and sometimes a splined joint or prismatic joint . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Automotive drive shaft * 2.1 Vehicles * 2.1.1 Front-engine, rear-wheel drive * 2.1.2 Front-wheel drive * 2.1.3 Four wheel and all-wheel drive * 2.2 Research and development * 3 Motorcycle
Motorcycle
drive shafts * 4 Marine drive shafts * 5 Locomotive drive shafts * 6 Drive shafts in bicycles * 6.1 Advantages * 6.2 Disadvantages * 7 Drive shaft
Drive shaft
production * 8 See also * 9 References HISTORYThe term DRIVE SHAFT first appeared during the mid 19th century
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Traction (engineering)
TRACTION, or TRACTIVE FORCE, is the force used to generate motion between a body and a tangential surface, through the use of dry friction , though the use of shear force of the surface is also commonly used. Traction can also refer to the maximum tractive force between a body and a surface, as limited by available friction; when this is the case, traction is often expressed as the ratio of the maximum tractive force to the normal force and is termed the coefficient of traction (similar to coefficient of friction ). CONTENTS * 1 Definitions * 2 Coefficient of traction * 2.1 Factors affecting coefficient of traction * 2.2 Traction coefficient in engineering design * 3 See also * 4 References DEFINITIONSTraction is defined as: A physical process in which a tangential force is transmitted across an interface between two bodies through dry friction or an intervening fluid film resulting in motion, stoppage or the transmission of power (Copyright: "Mechanical Wear Fundamentals and Testing" by Raymond George Bayer) In vehicle dynamics, tractive force is closely related to the terms tractive effort and drawbar pull , though all three terms have different definitions
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Traction Control System
A TRACTION CONTROL SYSTEM (TCS), also known as ASR (from German ANTRIEBSSCHLUPFREGELUNG, ENGINE SLIPPAGE REGULATION), is typically (but not necessarily) a secondary function of the electronic stability control (ESC) on production motor vehicles , designed to prevent loss of traction of driven road wheels. TCS is activated when throttle input and engine torque are mismatched to road surface conditions. Intervention consists of one or more of the following: * Brake force applied to one or more wheels * Reduction or suppression of spark sequence to one or more cylinders * Reduction of fuel supply to one or more cylinders * Closing the throttle, if the vehicle is fitted with drive by wire throttle * In turbocharged vehicles, a boost control solenoid is actuated to reduce boost and therefore engine power.Typically, traction control systems share the electrohydraulic brake actuator (which does not use the conventional master cylinder and servo) and wheel speed sensors with ABS. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Overview * 3 Operation * 4 Components of traction control * 5 Use of traction control * 5.1 Controversy in motorsports * 6 Traction control in cornering * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links HISTORYThe predecessor of modern electronic traction control systems can be found in high-torque, high-power rear-wheel drive cars as a limited slip differential
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Transverse Engine
A TRANSVERSE ENGINE is an engine mounted in a vehicle so that the engine's crankshaft axis is perpendicular to the long axis of the vehicle. Many modern front wheel drive vehicles use this engine mounting configuration. (Most rear wheel drive vehicles use a longitudinal engine configuration, where the engine's crankshaft axis is parallel to the long axis of the vehicle, except for some rear-mid engine vehicles, which use a transverse engine and transaxle mounted in the rear instead of the front.) CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Position placement of transverse engines * 3 Common types of transversely placed engines * 4 Alternative convention with twin-cylinder motorcycles * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 See also HISTORY Transversely mounted engine in Mini Cooper The Critchley light car , made by the Daimler Motor Company in 1899, had a transverse engine with belt drive to the rear axle. A 1911 front-wheel drive car had a transverse engine with a clutch at each end, driving the front wheels directly. The first successful transverse-engine cars were the two-cylinder DKW "Front" series of cars, which first appeared in 1931. After the Second World War , SAAB used the configuration in their first model, the Saab 92 , in 1947. The arrangement was also used for Borgward 's Goliath and Hansa brand cars and in a few other German cars
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Longitudinal Engine
In automotive engineering , a LONGITUDINAL ENGINE is an internal combustion engine in which the crankshaft is oriented along the long axis of the vehicle , front to back. This type of motor is usually used for rear-wheel drive cars, except for some Audi and SAAB models equipped with longitudinal engines in front wheel drive. In front-wheel drive cars a transverse engine is usually used. Trucks often have longitudinal engines with rear-wheel drive. For motorcycles, the use of a particular type depends on the drive: in case of a chain or belt drive a transverse engine is usually used, and with shaft drives a longitudinal engine. Longitudinal engines in motorcycles do have one disadvantage: the "tipping point" of the crankshaft tilts along the entire motorcycle to a greater or lesser degree when accelerating. This is partly resolved by having other components, such as the generator and the gearbox, rotate in the opposite direction to the crankshaft. Most larger, "premium" vehicles use this engine orientation, both front and rear wheel driven , because powerful engines such as the inline-6 and 90° big-bore V8 are usually too long to fit in a FF transverse engine bay, while most mainstream modern vehicles use front wheel drive along with a transverse engine arrangement
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Inline-4
The INLINE-FOUR ENGINE or STRAIGHT-FOUR ENGINE is a type of inline internal combustion four-cylinder engine with all four cylinders mounted in a straight line, or plane along the crankcase . The single bank of cylinders may be oriented in either a vertical or an inclined plane with all the pistons driving a common crankshaft . Where it is inclined, it is sometimes called a SLANT-FOUR. In a specification chart or when an abbreviation is used, an inline-four engine is listed either as I4 or L4 (for longitudinal, to avoid confusion between the digit 1 and the letter I). The inline-four layout is in perfect primary balance and confers a degree of mechanical simplicity which makes it popular for economy cars . However, despite its simplicity, it suffers from a secondary imbalance which causes minor vibrations in smaller engines. These vibrations become more powerful as engine size and power increase, so the more powerful engines used in larger cars generally are more complex designs with more than four cylinders. Today almost all manufacturers of four-cylinder engines for automobiles produce the inline-four layout, with Subaru and Porsche 718 flat-four engines being notable exceptions, and so FOUR-CYLINDER is usually synonymous with and a more widely used term than inline-four. The inline-four is the most common engine configuration in modern cars, while the V6 engine is the second most popular
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V6
A V6 ENGINE is a V engine with six cylinders mounted on the crankshaft in two banks of three cylinders, usually set at either a 60 or 90 degree angle to each other. The V6 engine
V6 engine
is more difficult to drive compared to the V8 The V6 is one of the most compact engine configurations, usually ranging from 2.0 L to 4.3 L displacement (however, much larger examples have been produced for use in trucks), shorter than the inline 4 and more compact than the V8 engine
V8 engine
. Because of its short length, the V6 fits well in the widely used transverse engine front-wheel drive layout. CONTENTS * 1 Applications * 2 History * 3 Balance and smoothness * 4 V angles * 4.1 60 degrees * 4.2 90 degrees * 4.3 120 degrees * 4.4 Narrow angle VR6 * 4.5 Other angles * 5 Odd and even firing * 6 Racing use * 7 Motorcycle use * 8 Marine use * 9 Notes * 10 References * 11 External links APPLICATIONSThe V6 is commercially successful in mid-size cars in the modern age of high fuel prices and price sensitive consumers because it is less expensive to build and has better fuel consumption than the V8, while being smoother in large sizes than the inline 4, which develops increasingly serious vibration problems in larger engines
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Inline-6
The STRAIGHT-SIX ENGINE or INLINE-SIX ENGINE (often abbreviated I6 or L6) is an internal combustion engine with the cylinders mounted in a straight line along the crankcase with all the pistons driving a common crankshaft (straight engine ). The bank of cylinders may be oriented at any angle, and where the bank is inclined to the vertical, the engine is sometimes called a SLANT-SIX. The straight-six layout is the simplest engine layout that possesses both primary and secondary mechanical engine balance , resulting in much less vibration than engines with fewer cylinders. CONTENTS * 1 Displacement range * 2 Modern trends * 2.1 Cars * 2.2 Trucks * 3 Balance and smoothness * 3.1 Inertial Torque * 3.2 Two Stroke * 4 Crankshaft design * 5 History * 5.1 Continental Europe * 5.2 United Kingdom * 5.3 United States