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Automation
IEEE Robotics and Automation
Automation
Award ------------------------- ROBOTS Industrial robot Autonomous research robot
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Vending Machine
A VENDING MACHINE is an automated machine that provides items such as snacks , beverages , alcohol , cigarettes and lottery tickets to consumers after money or a credit card is inserted into the machine. The first modern vending machines were developed in England
England
in the early 1880s that dispensed postcards . Vending machines exist in many countries, and in more recent times, specialized vending machines that provide less common products compared to traditional vending machine items have been created and provided to consumers
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The Zeitgeist Movement
THE ZEITGEIST MOVEMENT is a non-profit organization established in the United States in 2008 by Peter Joseph . The organization advocates a transformation of society and its economic system to a non-monetary system based on resource allocation and environmentalism. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Origin of movement * 3 The Zeitgeist Movement book * 4 Events * 5 Response * 6 See also * 7 References OVERVIEWIn 2007 Peter Joseph produced and self-financed a live performance art piece which ran for six nights in lower Manhattan that he entitled "Zeitgeist". According to Joseph in an interview in 2012, he was surprised after a version he made of this performance (Zeitgeist: The Movie), the first film in the Zeitgeist film series, went viral on social media with millions of views
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Hydraulics
HYDRAULICS (From Greek : Υδραυλική) is a technology and applied science using engineering , chemistry , and other sciences involving the mechanical properties and use of liquids . At a very basic level, hydraulics is the liquid counterpart of pneumatics , which concerns gases . Fluid mechanics
Fluid mechanics
provides the theoretical foundation for hydraulics, which focuses on the applied engineering using the properties of fluids. In its fluid power applications, hydraulics is used for the generation, control, and transmission of power by the use of pressurized liquids. Hydraulic topics range through some parts of science and most of engineering modules, and cover concepts such as pipe flow , dam design, fluidics and fluid control circuitry, pumps . The principles of hydraulics are in use naturally in the human body within the heart and the penile erection
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Telephone Switchboard
A TELEPHONE SWITCHBOARD is a telecommunications system used in the public switched telephone network or in enterprises to interconnect circuits of telephones to establish telephone calls between the subscribers or users, or between other exchanges. The switchboard was an essential component of a manual telephone exchange , and was operated by switchboard operators who used electrical cords or switches to establish the connections. The electromechanical automatic telephone exchange , invented by Almon Strowger in 1888, gradually replaced manual switchboards in central telephone exchanges around the world. In 1919, the Bell System in the United States also adopted automatic switching as its future technology, after years of reliance on manual systems. Nevertheless, many manual branch exchanges remained operational into the second half of the 20th century in many enterprises
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Robotic Lawn Mower
A ROBOTIC LAWN MOWER is an autonomous robot used to cut lawn grass. A typical robotic lawn mower (in particular earlier generation models) requires the user to set up a border wire around the lawn that defines the area to be mowed. The robot uses this wire to locate the boundary of the area to be trimmed and in some cases to locate a recharging dock. Robotic
Robotic
mowers are capable of maintaining up to 20,000 m2 (220,000 sq ft) of grass. Robotic
Robotic
lawn mowers are increasingly sophisticated, are self-docking and some contain rain sensors if necessary, nearly eliminating human interaction. Robotic
Robotic
lawn mowers represented the second largest category of domestic robots used by the end of 2005. Possibly the first commercial robotic lawn mower was the MowBot, introduced and patented in 1969 and already showing many features of today's most popular products
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Automatic Painting (robotic)
INDUSTRIAL PAINT ROBOTS have been used for decades in automotive paint applications. Early paint robots were hydraulic versions - which are still in use today but are of inferior quality and safety - to the latest electronic offerings. The newest robots are accurate and deliver results with uniform film builds and exact thicknesses. Originally industrial paint robots were large and expensive, but today the price of the robots have come down to the point that general industry can now afford to have the same level of automation that only the big automotive manufacturers could once afford. The selection of today’s paint robot varies much more in size and payload to allow many configurations for painting items of all sizes. The prices vary as well as the new robot market becomes more competitive and the used market continues to expand. Painting robots generally have five or six axis motion, three for the base motions and up to three for applicator orientation
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Pop Music Automation
POP MUSIC AUTOMATION is a field of study among musicians and computer scientists with a goal of producing successful pop music algorithmically. It is often based on the premise that pop music is especially formulaic, unchanging, and easy to compose. The idea of automating pop music composition is related to many ideas in algorithmic music , Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence
(AI) and computational creativity . CONTENTS * 1 Overview: automation in music * 2 Automatic accompaniment * 3 Melody generation * 4 Lyric composition * 5 Software * 5.1 More or less free * 5.2 Commercial * 6 See also * 7 References OVERVIEW: AUTOMATION IN MUSICAlgorithms (or, at the very least, formal sets of rules) have been used to compose music for centuries; the procedures used to plot voice-leading in counterpoint , for example, can often be reduced to algorithmic determinacy
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Pneumatics
PNEUMATICS (From Greek: πνεύμα) is a branch of engineering that makes use of gas or pressurized air . Pneumatic systems used in industry are commonly powered by compressed air or compressed inert gases . A centrally located and electrically powered compressor powers cylinders , air motors , and other pneumatic devices. A pneumatic system controlled through manual or automatic solenoid valves is selected when it provides a lower cost, more flexible, or safer alternative to electric motors and actuators . Pneumatics
Pneumatics
also has applications in dentistry , construction , mining , and other areas
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Computer
A COMPUTER is a device that can be instructed to carry out an arbitrary set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. The ability of computers to follow generalized sequences of operations, called programs , enable them to perform a wide range of tasks. Such computers are used as control systems for a very wide variety of industrial and consumer devices . This includes simple special purpose devices like microwave ovens and remote controls , factory devices such as industrial robots and computer assisted design , but also in general purpose devices like personal computers and mobile devices such as smartphones . The Internet
Internet
is run on computers and it connects millions of other computers. Since ancient times, simple manual devices like the abacus aided people in doing calculations
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Block Diagram
A BLOCK DIAGRAM is a diagram of a system in which the principal parts or functions are represented by blocks connected by lines that show the relationships of the blocks. They are heavily used in engineering in hardware design , electronic design , software design , and process flow diagrams . Block diagrams are typically used for higher level, less detailed descriptions that are intended to clarify overall concepts without concern for the details of implementation. Contrast this with the schematic diagrams and layout diagrams used in electrical engineering, which show the implementation details of electrical components and physical construction. CONTENTS * 1 Usage * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links USAGEAs an example, a block diagram of a radio is not expected to show each and every connection and dial and switch, but the schematic diagram is
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Control Loop
A CONTROL LOOP is the fundamental building block of industrial control systems . It consists of all the physical components and control functions necessary to automatically adjust the value of a measured process variable (PV) to equal the value of a desired set-point (SP). It includes the process sensor, the controller function, and the final control element (FCE) which are all required for automatic control. APPLICATION Example of a single industrial control loop; showing continuously modulated control of process flow. The accompanying diagram shows a control loop with a single PV input, a control function, and the control output (CO) which modulates the action of the final control element (FCE) to alter the value of the manipulated variable (MV). In this example, a flow control loop is shown, but can be level, temperature, or any one of many process parameters which need to be controlled
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Feedback Mechanism
Collective intelligence
Collective intelligence
Collective action
Collective action
Self-organized criticality
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Sensor
In the broadest definition, a SENSOR is an electronic component , module, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor . A sensor is always used with other electronics, whether as simple as a light or as complex as a computer. Sensors are used in everyday objects such as touch-sensitive elevator buttons (tactile sensor ) and lamps which dim or brighten by touching the base, besides innumerable applications of which most people are never aware. With advances in micromachinery and easy-to-use microcontroller platforms, the uses of sensors have expanded beyond the traditional fields of temperature, pressure or flow measurement, for example into MARG sensors
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Electricity
ELECTRICITY is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence of electric charge . Although initially considered a phenomenon separate from magnetism , since the development of Maxwell's Equations, both are recognized as part of a single phenomenon: electromagnetism . Various common phenomena are related to electricity, including lightning , static electricity , electric heating , electric discharges and many others. In addition, electricity is at the heart of many modern technologies. The presence of an electric charge, which can be either positive or negative, produces an electric field . On the other hand, the movement of electric charges, which is known as electric current , produces a magnetic field . When a charge is placed in a location with non-zero electric field, a force will act on it. The magnitude of this force is given by Coulomb\'s Law . Thus, if that charge were to move, the electric field would be doing work on the electric charge
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Airplane
An AIRPLANE or AEROPLANE (informally PLANE) is a powered , fixed-wing aircraft that is propelled forward by thrust from a jet engine or propeller . Airplanes come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and wing configurations . The broad spectrum of uses for airplanes includes recreation , transportation of goods and people, military , and research. Commercial aviation
Commercial aviation
is a massive industry involving the flying of tens of thousands of passengers daily on airliners . Most airplanes are flown by a pilot on board the aircraft, but some are designed to be remotely or computer-controlled . The Wright brothers invented and flew the first airplane in 1903, recognized as "the first sustained and controlled heavier-than-air powered flight". They built on the works of George Cayley dating from 1799, when he set forth the concept of the modern airplane (and later built and flew models and successful passenger-carrying gliders )
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