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Australian Archaeology
Australian archaeology is a large sub-field in the discipline of archaeology. Archaeology in Australia takes three main forms, Aboriginal archaeology (the archaeology of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia before and after European settlement), historical archaeology (the archaeology of Australia after European settlement) and maritime archaeology. Bridging these sub-disciplines is the important concept of cultural heritage management which encompasses Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander sites, historical sites and maritime sites. Archaeological studies or investigations of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and culture in Australia have had many different agendas through time. Initial archaeological investigation was often focused on finding the oldest sites. By the 1970s, archaeological research was concerned with the environment and the way it impacted on humans
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Environmental Determinism
Environmental determinism (also known as climatic determinism or geographical determinism) is the study of how the physical environment predisposes societies and states towards particular development trajectories.[1] Many scholars underscore that this approach supported colonialism and eurocentrism, and devalued human agency in non-Western societies.[2][3] Jared Diamond, Jeffrey Herbst, Ian Morris, and other social scientists sparked a revival of the theory during the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries
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Warratyi
Coordinates: 30°35′32″S 138°57′33″E / 30.5921°S 138.9592°E / -30.5921; 138.9592[1] The site is located in the ancestral lands of the Adnyamathanha, an Indigenous Australian people. It lies in a gorge at the southern end of the Lake Eyre basin in the northern Flinders Ranges.[3] Its discovery came about by chance during an exploratory trip into the Flinders Range by Clifford Coulthard, an Adnyamathanha elder, and Giles Hamm, an archaeologist from La Trobe University.[4] While Coulthard was searching for a place to go to the toilet, the two men found a spring surrounded by rock art and a soot-blackened fissure in the rock nearby.[3] They realised immediately that the soot indicated that the fissure had been used as a shelter where fires had been lit.[The site is located in the ancestral lands of the Adnyamathanha, an Indigenous Australian people
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Taphonomy
Taphonomy is the study of how organisms decay and become fossilized or preserved in the archaeological record. The term taphonomy (from the Greek taphos, τάφος meaning "burial", and nomos, νόμος meaning "law") was introduced to paleontology in 1940[1] by Soviet scientist Ivan Efremov to describe the study of the transition of remains, parts, or products of organisms from the biosphere to the lithosphere.[2][3] Taphonomic phenomena are grouped into two phases: biostratinomy; events that occur between death of the organism and the burial, and diagenesis; events that occur after the burial.[1] Since Efremov's definition, taphonomy has expanded to include the fossilization of organic and inorganic materials through both cultural and environmental influences. This is a multidisciplinary concept and is used in slightly different contexts throughout different fields of study
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Landbridge
A land bridge, in biogeography, is an isthmus or wider land connection between otherwise separate areas, over which animals and plants are able to cross and colonise new lands. A land bridge can be created by marine regression, in which sea levels fall, exposing shallow, previously submerged sections of continental shelf; or when new land is created by plate tectonics; or occasionally when the sea floor rises due to post-glacial rebound after an ice age. In the 19th century a number of scientists noted puzzling geological and zoological similarities between widely separated areas
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Human Genome Diversity Project
The Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP) was started by Stanford University's Morrison Institute in 1990s along with collaboration of scientists around the world.[1] It is the result of many years of work by Luigi Cavalli-Sforza, one of the most cited scientists in the world, who has published extensively in the use of genetics to understand human migration and evolution. The HGDP data sets have often been cited in papers on such topics as population genetics, anthropology, and heritable disease research.[2][3] The project has noted the need to record the genetic profiles of indigenous populations, as isolated populations are the best way to understand the genetic frequencies that have clues into our distant past. Knowing about the relationship between such populations makes it possible to infer the journey of humankind from the humans who left Africa and populated the world to the humans of today
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Tim Flannery

Timothy Fridtjof Flannery FAA (born 28 January 1956) is an Australian mammalogist, palaeontologist, environmentalist, conservationist,[3] explorer,[4] and public scientist. He has discovered more than 30 mammal species[5] (including new species of tree kangaroos[6]). He served as the Chief Commissioner of the Climate Commission, a Federal Government body providing information on climate change to the Australian public before the Commission was abolished by the Abbott Government as its first act of government. On 23 September 2013, Flannery announced that he would join other sacked commissioners to form the independent Climate Council, that would be funded entirely by the community, and continue to provide independent climate science to the Australian public
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Broad Spectrum Revolution
The broad spectrum revolution (BSR) hypothesis, proposed by Kent Flannery in a 1968 paper presented to a London University symposium,[1] suggested that the emergence of the Neolithic in southwest Asia was prefaced by increases in dietary breadth among foraging societies. The broad spectrum revolution followed the most recent ice age around 15,000 BP in the Middle East and 12,000 BP in Europe. During this time, there was a transition from focusing on a few main food sources to gathering/hunting a "broad spectrum" of plants and animals. Flannery's hypothesis was meant to help explain the adoption of agriculture in the Neolithic Revolution. Unpersuaded by "the facile explanation of prehistoric environmental change"[2] Flannery suggested (following Lewis Binford's equilibrium model) that population growth in optimal habitats led to demographic pressure within nearby marginal habitats as daughter groups migrated
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Anthropogenic Effects
Human impact on the environment or anthropogenic impact on the environment includes changes to biophysical environments[1] and ecosystems, biodiversity, and natural resources[2][3] caused directly or indirectly by humans, including global warming,[1][4] environmental degradation[1] (such as ocean acidification[1][5]), mass extinction and biodiversity loss,[6][7][8][9] ecological crisis, and ecological collapse
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Overkill Hypothesis
The Quaternary period (from 2.588 ± 0.005 million years ago to the present) has seen the extinctions of numerous predominantly megafaunal species, which have resulted in a collapse in faunal density and diversity and the extinction of key ecological strata across the globe. The most prominent event in the Late Pleistocene is differentiated from previous Quaternary pulse extinctions by the widespread absence of ecological succession to replace these extinct species, and the regime shift of previously established faunal relationships and habitats as a consequence. The earliest casualties were incurred at 130,000 BCE (the start of the Late Pleistocene). However, the great majority of extinctions in Afro-Eurasia and the Americas occurred during the transition from the Pleistocene to the Holocene epoch (13,000 BCE to 8,000 BCE)
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