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Austerity In Israel
From 1949 to 1959, the state of Israel
Israel
was, to a varying extent, under a regime of austerity (Hebrew: צנע‬, Tzena'), during which rationing and similar measures were enforced. Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
residents standing in line to buy food rations, 1954Contents1 Rationale 2 Life under austerity 3 End of austerity 4 Results 5 See also 6 ReferencesRationale[edit] Soon after establishment in 1948, the emerging state of Israel
Israel
found itself lacking in both food and foreign currency. In just three and a half years, the Jewish population of Israel
Israel
had doubled, increased by nearly 700,000 immigrants
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Tourism In Israel
Tourism in Israel
Israel
is one of Israel's major sources of income, with a record 3.6 million tourist arrivals in 2017, yielding a 25 percent growth since 2016 and contributed NIS 20 billion to the Israeli economy making it an all-time record.[1][2][3][4] Israel
Israel
offers a plethora of historical and religious sites, beach resorts, archaeological tourism, heritage tourism and ecotourism. Israel
Israel
has the highest number of museums per capita in the world.[5] In 2009, the two most visited sites were the Western Wall
Western Wall
and the grave of Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai;[6] the most popular paid tourist attraction is Masada.[7] The most visited city is Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and the most visited site was the Western Wall
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Government Budget Deficit
A government budget is a financial statement presenting the government's proposed revenues and spending for a financial year. The government budget balance, also alternatively referred to as general government balance,[1] public budget balance, or public fiscal balance, is the overall difference between government revenues and spending. A positive balance is called a government budget surplus, and a negative balance is a government budget deficit. A budget is prepared for each level of government (from national to local) and takes into account public social security obligations. The government budget balance can be broken down into the primary balance and interest payments on accumulated government debt; the two together give the budget balance
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United Kingdom
The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(UK or U.K.)[15] or Britain,[note 11] is a sovereign country located off the north­western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north­eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands.[16] Northern Ireland
Ireland
is the only part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland
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Kfar Saba
Kfar Saba
Kfar Saba
(Hebrew: כְּפַר סָבָא‬), officially Kefar Sava, is a city in the Sharon region, of the Central District of Israel
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Black Market
A black market, underground economy, or shadow economy is a clandestine market or series of transactions that has some aspect of illegality or is characterized by some form of noncompliant behavior with an institutional set of rules. If the rule defines the set of goods and services whose production and distribution is prohibited by law, non-compliance with the rule constitutes a black market trade since the transaction itself is illegal. Parties engaging in the production or distribution of prohibited goods and services are members of the illegal economy. Examples include the drug trade, prostitution (where prohibited), illegal currency transactions and human trafficking
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Germany
Coordinates: 51°N 9°E / 51°N 9°E / 51; 9Federal Republic
Republic
of GermanyBundesrepublik Deutschland (German)[a] Flag Coat of arms Motto: "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit" (de facto)(English: "Unity and Justice and Freedom")Anthem: "Deutschlandlied"[b](English: "Song of Germany")Show globeShow map of EuropeLocation of Germany (dark green)– in Europe (green & dark grey)– in the European Union (green)Capitaland largest cityBerlin[c]52
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Holocaust
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah,[b] was a genocide during World War II
World War II
in which Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered some six million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.[c] Jews
Jews
were targeted for extermination as part of a larger event involving the persecution and murder of other groups, including in particular the Roma, ethnic Poles, and "incurably sick",[6] as well as political opponents, homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, and Soviet prisoners of war.[7] Germany implemented the persecution in stages. Following Hitler's rise to power in 1933, the government passed laws to exclude Jews
Jews
from civil society, most prominently the Nuremberg Laws
Nuremberg Laws
in 1935
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Jam
Fruit
Fruit
preserves are preparations of fruits, vegetables and sugar, often canned or sealed for long-term storage. Many varieties of fruit preserves are made globally, including sweet fruit preserves, such as those made from strawberry or apricot, and savory preserves, such as those made from tomatoes or squash. The ingredients used and how they are prepared determine the type of preserves; jams, jellies, and marmalades are all examples of different styles of fruit preserves that vary based upon the fruit used
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Coffee
Coffee
Coffee
is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea
Coffea
plant. The genus Coffea
Coffea
is native to tropical Africa (specifically having its origin in Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and Sudan) and Madagascar, the Comoros, Mauritius, and Réunion
Réunion
in the Indian Ocean.[2] The plant was exported from Africa to countries around the world. Coffee
Coffee
plants are now cultivated in over 70 countries, primarily in the equatorial regions of the Americas, Southeast Asia, India, and Africa. The two most commonly grown are arabica and robusta. Once ripe, coffee berries are picked, processed, and dried. Dried coffee seeds (referred to as beans) are roasted to varying degrees, depending on the desired flavor
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Unemployment
Unemployment
Unemployment
is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed. The unemployment rate is a measure of the prevalence of unemployment and it is calculated as a percentage by dividing the number of unemployed individuals by all individuals currently in the labor force. During periods of recession, an economy usually experiences a relatively high unemployment rate.[1] According to International Labour Organization report, more than 200 million people globally or 6% of the world's workforce were without a job in 2012.[2] The causes of unemployment are heavily debated.[3] Classical economics, new classical economics, and the Austrian School
Austrian School
of economics argued that market mechanisms are reliable means of resolving unemployment
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Footwear
Footwear
Footwear
refers to garments worn on the feet, which originally serves to purpose of protection against adversities of the environment, usually regarding ground textures and temperature. Footwear
Footwear
in the manner of shoes therefore primarily serves the purpose to ease the locomotion and prevent injuries. Secondly footwear can also be used for fashion and adornment as well as to indicate the status or rank of the person within a social structure. Socks and other hosiery are typically worn additionally between the feet and other footwear for further comfort and relief. Cultures have different customs regarding footwear. These include not using any in some situations, usually bearing a symbolic meaning. This can however also be imposed on specific individuals to place them at a practical disadvantage against shod people, if they are excluded from having footwear available or are prohibited from using any
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Inflation
In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in the general price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.[1][2][3][4] When the general price level rises, each unit of currency buys fewer goods and services; consequently, inflation reflects a reduction in the purchasing power per unit of money – a loss of real value in the medium of exchange and unit of account within the economy.[5][6] The measure of inflation is the inflation rate, the annualized percentage change in a general price index, usually the consumer price index, over time.[7] The opposite of inflation is deflation, a sustained decrease in the general price level of goods and services. Inflation
Inflation
affects economies in various positive and negative ways
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Jewish Refugees
In Jewish
Jewish
history, Jews
Jews
have experienced numerous mass expulsions or ostracism by various local authorities and have sought refuge in other countries. The Land of Israel
Land of Israel
was always regarded by Jews
Jews
as the Jewish
Jewish
homeland, though throughout most of Jewish history
Jewish history
they were barred from the land. After its establishment in 1948, the State of Israel
State of Israel
adopted the 1950 Law of Return
Law of Return
restoring Israel as the Jewish
Jewish
homeland and making it the place of refuge for Jewish refugees
Jewish refugees
at the time and into the future
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Rationing In The United Kingdom
Rationing
Rationing
was introduced temporarily by the British government several times during the 20th century, during and immediately after a war.[1][2] At the start of the Second World War in 1939, the United Kingdom was importing 20,000,000 long tons of food per year, including about 70% of its cheese and sugar, nearly 80% of fruits and about 70% of cereals and fats. The UK also imported more than half of its meat, and relied on imported feed to support its domestic meat production. The civilian population of the country was about 50 million.[3] It was one of the principal strategies of the Germans in the Battle of the Atlantic
Battle of the Atlantic
to attack shipping bound for Britain, restricting British industry and potentially starving the nation into submission. To deal with sometimes extreme shortages, the Ministry of Food instituted a system of rationing
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Special Period
The Special
Special
Period in Time of Peace (Spanish: Período especial) in Cuba
Cuba
was an extended period of economic crisis that began in 1989[1] primarily due to the dissolution of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and, by extension, the Comecon. The economic depression of the Special
Special
Period was at its most severe in the early to mid-1990s before slightly declining in severity towards the end of the decade. It was defined primarily by the severe shortages of hydrocarbon energy resources in the form of gasoline, diesel, and other petroleum derivatives that occurred upon the implosion of economic agreements between the petroleum-rich Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Cuba
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