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Augustus
Augustus
Augustus
(Latin: Imperator
Imperator
Caesar Divi filius Augustus;[note 1] 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who served as the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome
Rome
from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.[note 2] His status as the founder of the Roman Principate
Principate
has consolidated an enduring legacy as one of the most effective and controversial leaders in human history.[1][2] He was born Gaius Octavius Thurinus into an old and wealthy equestrian branch of the plebeian gens Octavia. His maternal great-uncle Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC, and Octavius was named in Caesar's will as his adopted son and heir
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Anglicisation
Anglicisation (or anglicization, see English spelling differences), occasionally anglification, anglifying, englishing, refers to modifications made to foreign words, names and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or understand in English.[1][2] It commonly refers to the respelling of foreign words, often to a more drastic degree than romanisation. One example is the word "dandelion", modified from the French dent-de-lion (“lion’s tooth”, because of the sharply indented leaves). Anglicising non-English words for use in English is just one case of the widespread domestication of foreign words that is common to many languages, sometimes involving shifts in meaning
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Military Dictatorship
A military dictatorship (also known as a military junta) is a form of government different from civilian dictatorship for a number of reasons: their motivations for seizing power, the institutions through which they organize their rule and the ways in which they leave power. Often viewing itself as saving the nation from the corrupt or myopic civilian politicians, a military dictatorship justifies its position as "neutral" arbiters on the basis of their membership within the armed forces. For example, many juntas adopt titles, such as "National Redemption Council", "Committee of National Restoration", or "National Liberation Committee"
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Plebs
The plebs were, in ancient Rome, the general body of free Roman citizens who were not patricians, as determined by the census. The precise origins of the group and the term are unclear, though it may be that they began as a limited political movement in opposition to the elite (patricians) which became more widely applied.[1]Contents1 In ancient Rome1.1 Noble Plebeians2 Derivatives2.1 United States military academies 2.2 British Empire3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksIn ancient Rome[edit] In Latin the word plebs is a singular collective noun, and its genitive is plebis. The origin of the separation into orders is unclear, and it is disputed when the Romans were divided under the early kings into patricians and plebeians, or whether the clientes (or dependents) of the patricians formed a third group
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Dynasty
A dynasty (UK: /ˈdɪnəsti/, US: /ˈdaɪnəsti/) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,[1] usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "house",[2] which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital", etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends, and artifacts of that period ("a Ming-dynasty vase")
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Year Of The Four Emperors
The Year of the Four Emperors, 69 AD, was a year in the history of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in which four emperors ruled in succession: Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and Vespasian. The suicide of the emperor Nero
Nero
in 68 was followed by a brief period of civil war, the first Roman civil war since Mark Antony's death in 30 BC. Between June of 68 and December of 69 Galba, Otho, and Vitellius
Vitellius
successively rose and fell before the July 69 accession of Vespasian, who founded the Flavian dynasty
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Octavian (other)
Octavian may refer to:People Octavian Abrudan (b.1984), Romanian footballer Octavian Belu
Octavian Belu
(b.1951), Romanian gymnastics coach Octavian Bodișteanu (b.1977), Moldovan politician
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Latin Language
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium.[4] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language in Italy, and subsequently throughout the western Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, French, Portuguese, Romanian, and Spanish. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Assassination Of Julius Caesar
The assassination of Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
was the result of a conspiracy by many Roman senators led by Gaius Cassius Longinus, Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus, and Marcus Junius Brutus.[1][2] They stabbed Julius Caesar to death in a location adjacent to the Theatre of Pompey
Theatre of Pompey
on the Ides of March
Ides of March
(March 15), 44 BC. Caesar was the dictator of the Roman Republic, having recently been declared dictator perpetuo by the Senate of the Roman Republic
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Octavius (other)
Octavius was the birth name of Augustus, the first Roman emperor. Octavius may also refer to:Contents1 People with the name 2 Measurement 3 Other uses 4 See alsoPeople with the name[edit]Members of the gens OctaviaMain article: Octavia (gens)Gaius Octavius (other)Gaius Octavius (63 BC – AD 14), the emperor AugustusGnaeus Octavius (other) Marcus Octavius (other) Lucius Octavius (other) Marcus Octavius, tribunus plebis in 133 B.C., a colleague and opponent of Tiberius Sempronius GracchusOther ancient figuresPeople with the praenomen Octavius Octavius Mamilius, 5th-century BC ruler of TusculumModern figures
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Claudius (gens)
The gens Claudia (Classical Latin: [ˈklawdɪa]), sometimes written Clodia, was one of the most prominent patrician houses at Rome. The gens traced its origin to the earliest days of the Roman Republic. The first of the Claudii to obtain the consulship was Appius Claudius
Claudius
Sabinus Regillensis, in 495 BC, and from that time its members frequently held the highest offices of the state, both under the Republic and in imperial times.[1] Plebeian Claudii are found fairly early in Rome's history
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Nola
Nola
Nola
is town and a modern municipality in the Metropolitan City of Naples
Naples
in Italy. It lies on the plain between Mount Vesuvius
Mount Vesuvius
and the Apennines
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Gaius Octavius (other)
Gaius Octavius was a name used for men among the gens Octavia. Gaius was one of the four chief praenomina used by the Octavii, the other three being Gnaeus, Marcus and Lucius. The most celebrated member was the dictator Gaius Julius Caesar's great-nephew and adoptive son, who later became the first Roman emperor, famously known as Augustus. Gaius Octavius also refers to men from several families of the gens Octavia: Relatives of Augustus, member of the so-called Octavii Rufi: Gaius Octavius (tribune 216 BC) (fl. 216 BC), military tribune in 216 BC, son of the previous and great-grandfather of Augustus; Gaius Octavius (proconsul)
Gaius Octavius (proconsul)
(c
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Roman Dictator
A dictator was a magistrate of the Roman Republic, entrusted with the full authority of the state to deal with a military emergency or to undertake a specific duty. All other magistrates were subordinate to his imperium, and the right of the plebeian tribunes to veto his actions or of the people to appeal from them was extremely limited. However, in order to prevent the dictatorship from threatening the state itself, severe limitations were placed upon its powers: a dictator could only act within his intended sphere of authority; and he was obliged to resign his office once his appointed task had been accomplished, or at the expiration of six months. Dictators were regularly appointed from the earliest period of the Republic down to the Second Punic War, but the magistracy then went into abeyance for over a century, until it was revived in a significantly modified form, first by Sulla, and then by Julius Caesar
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Battle Of Philippi
The Battle of Philippi
Philippi
was the final battle in the Wars of the Second Triumvirate between the forces of Mark Antony
Mark Antony
and Octavian (of the Second Triumvirate) and the leaders of Julius Caesar's assassination, Marcus Junius Brutus and Caius Cassius Longinus
Caius Cassius Longinus
in 42 BC, at Philippi in Macedonia. The Second Triumvirate
Second Triumvirate
declared this civil war ostensibly to avenge Julius Caesar's assassination in 44 BC, but the underlying cause was a long-brewing conflict between the so-called Optimates and the so-called Populares. The battle consisted of two engagements in the plain west of the ancient city of Philippi. The first occurred in the first week of October; Brutus faced Octavian, while Antony's forces fought those of Cassius. At first, Brutus pushed back Octavian and entered his legions' camp
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Roman Magistrate
The Roman magistrates were elected officials in Ancient Rome. During the period of the Roman Kingdom, the King of Rome
King of Rome
was the principal executive magistrate.[1] His power, in practice, was absolute. He was the chief priest, lawgiver, judge, and the sole commander of the army.[1][2] When the king died, his power reverted to the Roman Senate, which then chose an Interrex to facilitate the election of a new king. During the transition from monarchy to republic, the constitutional balance of power shifted from the executive (the Roman king) to the Roman Senate. When the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
was founded in 509 BC, the powers that had been held by the king were transferred to the Roman consuls, of which two were to be elected each year
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