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Aufseherin
The Aufseherinnen were female guards in German concentration camps during the Holocaust. Of the 55,000 guards who served in German concentration camps, about 3,700 were women. In 1942, the first female guards arrived at Auschwitz
Auschwitz
and Majdanek
Majdanek
from Ravensbrück. The year after, the Nazis began conscripting women because of a guard shortage.The German title for this position, Aufseherin (plural Aufseherinnen) means female overseer or attendant
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The Holocaust
The Holocaust, also known as the Shoah,[b] was the World War II genocide of the European Jews. Between 1941 and 1945, across German-occupied Europe, Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and its collaborators systematically murdered some six million Jews, around two-thirds of Europe's Jewish population.[a][c] The murders were carried out in pogroms and mass shootings; by a policy of extermination through labour in concentration camps; and in gas chambers and gas vans in German extermination camps, chiefly Auschwitz, Bełżec, Chełmno, Majdanek, Sobibór, and Treblinka in occupied Poland.[5] Germany implemented the persecution in stages
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Mittelbau-Dora
Mittelbau-Dora
Mittelbau-Dora
(also Dora-Mittelbau and Nordhausen-Dora) was a German Nazi concentration camp
Nazi concentration camp
located near Nordhausen
Nordhausen
in Thuringia, Germany. It was established in late summer 1943 as a subcamp of Buchenwald concentration camp, supplying slave labour from many countries occupied by Germany
Germany
(including Italian POWs
POWs
and evacuated survivors of eastern extermination camps), for extending the nearby tunnels in the Kohnstein
Kohnstein
and for manufacturing the V-2 rocket
V-2 rocket
and the V-1 flying bomb. In the summer of 1944, Mittelbau became an independent concentration camp with numerous subcamps of its own. In 1945, most of the surviving inmates were evacuated by the SS. On 11 April 1945, US troops freed the remaining prisoners
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Nazi Concentration Camps
Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
maintained concentration camps (German: Konzentrationslager, KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled before and during the Second World War
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Ilse Koch
Ilse Koch
Ilse Koch
(22 September 1906 – 1 September 1967) was the wife of Karl-Otto Koch, commandant of the Nazi
Nazi
concentration camps Buchenwald (1937–1941) and Majdanek (1941–1943). In 1947, she became one of the first prominent Nazis tried by the U.S. military. After the trial received worldwide media attention, survivor accounts of her actions resulted in other authors describing her abuse of prisoners as sadistic, and the image of her as "the concentration camp murderess" was current in post-war German society.[1] She was accused of taking souvenirs from the skin of murdered inmates with distinctive tattoos, although those claims were rejected at both of her trials. She was known as "The Witch of Buchenwald" (Die Hexe von Buchenwald) by the inmates because of her cruelty and lasciviousness toward prisoners
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Karl Otto Koch
Karl-Otto Koch (German: [kɔx]; 2 August 1897 – 5 April 1945) was a mid-ranking commander in the SS of Nazi Germany
Germany
who was the first commandant of the Nazi concentration camps
Nazi concentration camps
at Buchenwald
Buchenwald
and Sachsenhausen
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Firebombing Of Dresden
The bombing of Dresden
Dresden
was a British/American aerial bombing attack on the city of Dresden, the capital of the German state of Saxony, during World War II
World War II
in the European Theatre. In four raids between 13 and 15 February 1945, 722 heavy bombers of the British Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
(RAF) and 527 of the United States
United States
Army Air Forces (USAAF) dropped more than 3,900 tons of high-explosive bombs and incendiary devices on the city.[1] The bombing and the resulting firestorm destroyed over 1,600 acres (6.5 km2) of the city centre.[2] An estimated 22,700[3] to 25,000[4] people were killed, although larger casualty figures have been claimed
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Gdańsk
Gdańsk
Gdańsk
(/ɡəˈdænsk/, also US: /ɡəˈdɑːnsk/,[2] Polish: [ɡdaj̃sk] (listen); Kashubian: Gduńsk; German: Danzig [ˈdantsɪç] (listen)) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast. With a population of 466,631,[1] Gdańsk
Gdańsk
is the capital and largest city of the Pomeranian Voivodeship
Pomeranian Voivodeship
and one of the most prominent cities within the cultural and geographical region of Kashubia
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Gross Rosen
Gross-Rosen concentration camp
Gross-Rosen concentration camp
(German: Konzentrationslager Groß-Rosen) was a German network of Nazi concentration camps
Nazi concentration camps
built and operated during World War II. The main camp was located in the German village of Gross-Rosen, now the modern-day Rogoźnica in Lower Silesian Voivodeship, Poland;[2] directly on the rail-line between the towns of Jawor
Jawor
(Jauer) and Strzegom (Striegau).[1][3] At its peak activity in 1944, the Gross-Rosen complex had up to 100 subcamps located in eastern Germany, Czechoslovakia, and on the territory of occupied Poland
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Langenbielau
Bielawa
Bielawa
[bʲɛˈlava] (listen) (German: Langenbielau; Silesian: Bjelawa), population 31,988 (2010), is a town in southwestern Poland. Since 1999, it has been situated in Dzierżoniów
Dzierżoniów
County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship. From 1975–1998, it was part of the Wałbrzych Voivodeship, and from the 13th century up to 1945 was inside of Germany
Germany
territory. Bielawa
Bielawa
lies in the central part of Lower Silesia, along the Bielawica stream in the Sowie Mountains region. The town covers an area in excess of 36 square kilometres (14 sq mi). Bielawa
Bielawa
lies at an altitude range of 280 and 964 m above sea level, in the Sowie Mountains. It is considered one of the most naturally beautiful regions of the Lower Silesian Voivodeship, and is a year-round tourist destination
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Mauthausen-Gusen Concentration Camp
Coordinates: 48°15′25″N 14°30′04″E / 48.25694°N 14.50111°E / 48.25694; 14.50111KZ Mauthausen
Mauthausen
and subcamps / Mauthausen-Gusen complexConcentration campGate to the garage yard in the Mauthausen
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Dachau Concentration Camp
Dachau
Dachau
concentration camp (/ˈdɑːxaʊ/;[3] German: Konzentrationslager (KZ) Dachau, IPA: [ˈdaxaʊ]) was the first of the Nazi concentration camps
Nazi concentration camps
opened in 1933, intended to hold political prisoners. It is located on the grounds of an abandoned munitions factory northeast of the medieval town of Dachau, about 16 km (10 mi) northwest of Munich
Munich
in the state of Bavaria, in southern Germany.[4] Opened by Heinrich Himmler, its purpose was enlarged to include forced labor, and eventually, the imprisonment of Jews, German and Austrian criminals, and eventually foreign nationals from countries that Germany
Germany
occupied or invaded
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Schutzstaffel
The Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
(SS; also stylized as with Armanen runes; German pronunciation: [ˈʃʊtsˌʃtafl̩] (listen); literally "Protection Squadron") was a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
and the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
(NSDAP) in Nazi Germany, and later throughout German-occupied Europe
German-occupied Europe
during World War II. It began with a small guard unit known as the Saal-Schutz ("Hall Security") made up of NSDAP
NSDAP
volunteers to provide security for party meetings in Munich. In 1925, Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
joined the unit, which had by then been reformed and given its final name. Under his direction (1929–45) it grew from a small paramilitary formation to one of the most powerful organizations in Nazi Germany
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Dora Mittelbau
Mittelbau-Dora
Mittelbau-Dora
(also Dora-Mittelbau and Nordhausen-Dora) was a German Nazi concentration camp
Nazi concentration camp
located near Nordhausen
Nordhausen
in Thuringia, Germany. It was established in late summer 1943 as a subcamp of Buchenwald concentration camp, supplying slave labour from many countries occupied by Germany
Germany
(including Italian POWs
POWs
and evacuated survivors of eastern extermination camps), for extending the nearby tunnels in the Kohnstein
Kohnstein
and for manufacturing the V-2 rocket
V-2 rocket
and the V-1 flying bomb. In the summer of 1944, Mittelbau became an independent concentration camp with numerous subcamps of its own. In 1945, most of the surviving inmates were evacuated by the SS. On 11 April 1945, US troops freed the remaining prisoners
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Natzweiler-Struthof
Natzweiler-Struthof
Natzweiler-Struthof
was a German-run concentration camp located in the Vosges Mountains
Vosges Mountains
close to the Alsatian village of Natzwiller
Natzwiller
(German Natzweiler) in France, and the town of Schirmeck, about 50 km (31 m) southwest of the city of Strasbourg. Natzweiler-Struthof was the only concentration camp established by the Nazis on French territory, though there were French-run temporary camps such as the one at Drancy. Between 1941 and 1944, Alsace
Alsace
was administered by Germany
Germany
as an integral part of the German Reich. The camp operated from 21 May 1941 and was evacuated early in September 1944. Only a small staff of Nazi SS personnel remained until the camp was liberated by the French First Army under the command of the U.S
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Flossenbürg
Flossenbürg
Flossenbürg
(Northern Bavarian: Flossenbirch) is a municipality in the district of Neustadt an der Waldnaab
Neustadt an der Waldnaab
in Bavaria
Bavaria
in Germany. The state-approved leisure area is located in the Bavarian Forest
Bavarian Forest
and borders the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
in the east. During World War II, the Flossenbürg concentration camp
Flossenbürg concentration camp
was located here.History[edit] The first reference of Flossenbürg’s existence was in 948. Its castle was the Hohenstaufen's stronghold. Later, Flossenbürg
Flossenbürg
belonged to the duchy of Neuburg-Sulzbach and came to the regional court of Floß
Floß
in the Electorate of Bavaria
Bavaria
in 1777
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