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Audi A4
The Audi
Audi
A4 is a line of compact executive cars produced since 1994 by the German car manufacturer Audi, a subsidiary of the Volkswagen Group. The A4 has been built in five generations and is based on the Volkswagen Group
Volkswagen Group
B platform. The first generation A4 succeeded the Audi
Audi
80. The automaker's internal numbering treats the A4 as a continuation of the Audi 80
Audi 80
lineage, with the initial A4 designated as the B5-series, followed by the B6, B7, B8 and the B9
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Automobile Platform
A car platform is a shared set of common design, engineering, and production efforts, as well as major components over a number of outwardly distinct models and even types of cars, often from different, but related marques.[2] It is practiced in the automotive industry to reduce the costs associated with the development of products by basing those products on a smaller number of platforms. This further allows companies to create distinct models from a design perspective on similar underpinnings.[2]Contents1 Definition and benefits 2 Examples 3 Advantages 4 Disadvantages 5 Top Hat 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksDefinition and benefits[edit] Platform sharing is a product development method where different products and the brand attached share the same components.[3] The purpose with platform sharing is to reduce the cost and have a more efficient product development process.[4] The companies gain on reduced procurement cost by taking advantage of the commona
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Station Wagon
A station wagon, also called an estate car, estate wagon, or simply wagon or estate, is an automotive body-style variant of a sedan/saloon with its roof extended rearward[1] over a shared passenger/cargo volume with access at the back via a third or fifth door (the liftgate or tailgate), instead of a trunk/boot lid. The body style transforms a standard three-box design into a two-box design — to include an A, B, and C-pillar, as well as a D-pillar
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Multi-valve
In automotive engineering a multi-valve or multivalve engine is one where each cylinder has more than two valves. A multi-valve engine has better breathing and may be able to operate at higher revolutions per minute (RPM) than a two-valve engine, delivering more power.[1][2][3]Contents1 Multi-valve
Multi-valve
rationale1.1 Multi-valve
Multi-valve
engine design 1.2 Alternative technologies2 Cars and trucks2.1 Before 1914 2.2 Between 1914 and 1945 2.3 After 19452.3.1 Three valves 2.3.2 Four valves 2.3.3 Five valves 2.3.4 Six valves 2.3.5 Pushrod 2.3.6 Turbocharged3 Motorcycles 4 Aircraft 5 Boats 6 References 7 External links Multi-valve
Multi-valve
rationale[edit] Multi-valve
Multi-valve
engine design[edit] A multi-valve engine design typically has three, four, or five valves per cylinder to achieve improved performance
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Turbocharger
A turbocharger, or colloquially turbo, is a turbine-driven forced induction device that increases an internal combustion engine's efficiency and power output by forcing extra air into the combustion chamber.[1][2] This improvement over a naturally aspirated engine's power output is due to the fact that the compressor can force more air—and proportionately more fuel—into the combustion chamber than atmospheric pressure (and for that matter, ram air intakes) alone. Turbochargers were originally known as turbosuperchargers when all forced induction devices were classified as superchargers. Today the term "supercharger" is typically applied only to mechanically driven forced induction devices. The key difference between a turbocharger and a conventional supercharger is that a supercharger is mechanically driven by the engine, often through a belt connected to the crankshaft, whereas a turbocharger is powered by a turbine driven by the engine's exhaust gas
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Front-wheel Drive
Front-wheel drive
Front-wheel drive
(FWD) is a form of engine and transmission layout used in motor vehicles, where the engine drives the front wheels only. Most modern front-wheel-drive vehicles feature a transverse engine, rather than the conventional longitudinal engine arrangement generally found in rear-wheel-drive and four-wheel drive vehicles.Contents1 Front-wheel-drive arrangements 2 History2.1 Prior to 1900 2.2 Société Parisienne
Société Parisienne
- Victoria Combination 2.3 1900 – 1920 2.4 1920 – 1930 2.5 1930 – 1945 2.6 1945 – 1960 2.7 1960 – 19752.7.1 Giacosa innovation2.8 1975 – 1990 2.9 1990 – present3 Records 4 See also 5 ReferencesFront-wheel-drive arrangements[edit] Most FWD layouts are front-engined. Rear-engined layouts are possible, but rare
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V6 Engine
A V6 engine
V6 engine
is a V engine
V engine
with six cylinders mounted on the crankshaft in two banks of three cylinders, usually set at either a 60 or 90 degree angle to each other. The V6 is one of the most compact engine configurations, usually ranging from 2.0 L to 4.3 L displacement (however, much larger examples have been produced for use in trucks), shorter than the inline 4 and more compact than the V8 engine
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Diesel Engine
The diesel engine (also known as a compression-ignition or CI engine), named after Rudolf Diesel, is an internal combustion engine in which ignition of the fuel which is injected into the combustion chamber is caused by the elevated temperature of the air in the cylinder due to mechanical compression (adiabatic compression). Diesel engines work by compressing only the air. This increases the air temperature inside the cylinder to such a high degree that atomised diesel fuel that is injected into the combustion chamber ignites spontaneously. This contrasts with spark-ignition engines such as a petrol engine (gasoline engine) or gas engine (using a gaseous fuel as opposed to petrol), which use a spark plug to ignite an air-fuel mixture. In diesel engines, glow plugs (combustion chamber pre-warmers) may be used to aid starting in cold weather, or when the engine uses a lower compression-ratio, or both
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Turbocharged Direct Injection
Turbocharged direct injection
Turbocharged direct injection
or TDI[1] is a design of turbodiesel engines featuring turbocharging and cylinder-direct fuel injection[1] that was developed and produced by the Volkswagen Group
Volkswagen Group
(VW AG).[2] These TDI engines are widely used in all mainstream Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Group marques of passenger cars and light commercial vehicles made by the company[3] (particularly those sold in Europe). They are also used as marine engines in Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Marine[4][5][6] and Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Industrial Motor[7] applications. TDI engines installed in 2009 to 2015 model year Volkswagen Group
Volkswagen Group
cars sold through 18 September 2015 had an emissions defeat device,[8][9] which activated emissions controls only during emissions testing
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Inline-four Engine
The inline-four engine or straight-four engine is a type of inline internal combustion four-cylinder engine with all four cylinders mounted in a straight line, or plane along the crankcase. The single bank of cylinders may be oriented in either a vertical or an inclined plane with all the pistons driving a common crankshaft. Where it is inclined, it is sometimes called a slant-four. In a specification chart or when an abbreviation is used, an inline-four engine is listed either as I4 or L4 (for longitudinal, to avoid confusion between the digit 1 and the letter I). The inline-four layout is in perfect primary balance and confers a degree of mechanical simplicity which makes it popular for economy cars.[1] However, despite its simplicity, it suffers from a secondary imbalance which causes minor vibrations in smaller engines
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All-wheel Drive
An all-wheel drive vehicle (AWD vehicle) is one with a powertrain capable of providing power to all its wheels, whether full-time or on-demand. The most common forms of all-wheel drive are: 4×4
4×4
(also, four-wheel drive and 4WD) Reflecting two axles with both wheels on each capable of being powered. 6×6
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Manual Transmission
Animation: shifting mechanism of a gearbox with 4 gearsA manual transmission, also known as a manual gearbox, or colloquially in some countries (e.g. the United States) as a stick shift is a type of transmission used in motor vehicle applications. It uses a driver-operated clutch engaged and disengaged by a foot pedal (automobile) or hand lever (motorcycle), for regulating torque transfer from the engine to the transmission; and a gear selector operated by hand (automobile) or by foot (motorcycle). A conventional 5-speed manual transmission is often the standard equipment in a base-model vehicle, while more expensive manual vehicles are usually equipped with a 6-speed transmission instead; other options include automatic transmissions such as a traditional automatic (hydraulic planetary) transmission (often a manumatic), a semi-automatic transmission, or a continuously variable transmission (CVT)
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Sedan (automobile)
A sedan /sɪˈdæn/ (American, Canadian, Australian, and New Zealand English) or saloon (British, Irish and Indian English) is a passenger car in a three-box configuration with A, B & C-pillars and principal volumes articulated in separate compartments for engine, passenger and cargo.[1] The passenger compartment features two rows of seats and adequate passenger space in the rear compartment for adult passengers. The cargo compartment is typically in the rear, with the exception of some rear-engined models, such as the Renault Dauphine, Tatra T613, Volkswagen Type 3
Volkswagen Type 3
and Chevrolet Corvair. It is one of the most common car body styles
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Longitudinal Engine
In automotive engineering, a longitudinal engine is an internal combustion engine in which the crankshaft is oriented along the long axis of the vehicle, front to back.[1][2] This type of motor is usually used for rear-wheel drive cars, except for some Audi
Audi
and SAAB models equipped with longitudinal engines in front wheel drive. In front-wheel drive cars a transverse engine is usually used. Trucks often have longitudinal engines with rear-wheel drive. For motorcycles, the use of a particular type depends on the drive: in case of a chain or belt drive a transverse engine is usually used, and with shaft drives a longitudinal engine. Longitudinal engines in motorcycles do have one disadvantage: the "tipping point" of the crankshaft tilts along the entire motorcycle to a greater or lesser degree when accelerating
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Automatic Transmission
An automatic transmission, also called auto, self-shifting transmission, n-speed automatic (where n is its number of forward gear ratios), or AT, is a type of motor vehicle transmission that can automatically change gear ratios as the vehicle moves, freeing the driver from having to shift gears manually. Like other transmission systems on vehicles, it allows an internal combustion engine, best suited to run at a relatively high rotational speed, to provide a range of speed and torque outputs necessary for vehicular travel. The number of forward gear ratios is often expressed for manual transmissions as well (e.g., 6-speed manual). The most popular form found in automobiles is the hydraulic automatic transmission. Similar but larger devices are also used for heavy-duty commercial and industrial vehicles and equipment. This system uses a fluid coupling in place of a friction clutch, and accomplishes gear changes by hydraulically locking and unlocking a system of planetary gears
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Transmission (mechanics)
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. Often the term transmission refers simply to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed and torque conversions from a rotating power source to another device.[1][2] In British English, the term transmission refers to the whole drivetrain, including clutch, gearbox, prop shaft (for rear-wheel drive), differential, and final drive shafts. In American English, however, the term refers more specifically to the gearbox alone, and detailed usage differs.[note 1] The most common use is in motor vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a relatively high rotational speed, which is inappropriate for starting, stopping, and slower travel. The transmission reduces the higher engine speed to the slower wheel speed, increasing torque in the process
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