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Attention
CognitionConcept Reasoning Decision making Problem solvingNumerical cognitionNumerosity adaptation effect Approximate number system Parallel individuation systemv t eFocused attention Attention
Attention
is the behavioral and cognitive process of selectively concentrating on a discrete aspect of information, whether deemed subjective or objective, while ignoring other perceivable information. It is the taking possession by the mind in clear and vivid form of one out of what seem several simultaneous objects or trains of thought. Focalization, concentration of consciousness are of its esse
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Psychophysiology
Psychophysiology
Psychophysiology
(from Greek ψῡχή, psȳkhē, "breath, life, soul"; φύσις, physis, "nature, origin"; and -λογία, -logia) is the branch of psychology that is concerned with the physiological bases of psychological processes.[1] While psychophysiology was a general broad field of research in the 1960s and 1970s, it has now become quite specialized, and has branched into subspecializations such as social psychophysiology, cardiovascular psychophysiology, cognitive psychophysiology, and cognitive neuroscience.Contents1 Background 2 Measures 3 Uses 4 Emotion 5 Psychophysiological inference and physiological computer games 6 See also 7 References7.1 Citations 7.2 Bibliography8 External linksBackground[edit]This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Positron Emission Tomography
Positron-emission tomography (PET)[1] is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease. The system detects pairs of gamma rays emitted indirectly by a positron-emitting radionuclide (tracer), which is introduced into the body on a biologically active molecule. Three-dimensional images of tracer concentration within the body are then constructed by computer analysis. In modern PET-CT scanners, three-dimensional imaging is often accomplished with the aid of a CT X-ray
X-ray
scan performed on the patient during the same session, in the same machine. If the biologically active molecule chosen for PET is fludeoxyglucose (FDG), an analogue of glucose, the concentrations of tracer imaged will indicate tissue metabolic activity as it corresponds to the regional glucose uptake
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Neurons
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell (biology)cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals. These signals between neurons occur via specialized connections called synapses. Neurons can connect to each other to form neural networks. Neurons are the primary components of the central nervous system, which includes the brain and spinal cord, and of the peripheral nervous system, which comprises the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system. There are many types of specialized neurons. Sensory neurons
Sensory neurons
respond to one particular type of stimulus such as touch, sound, or light and all other stimuli affecting the cells of the sensory organs, and converts it into an electrical signal via transduction, which is then sent to the spinal cord or brain
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Neuronal Tuning
Neuronal tuning refers to the property of brain cells by which they selectively represent a particular type of sensory, association, motor, or cognitive information. Neuronal responses are optimally tuned to specific patterns through experience.[1] Neuronal tuning can be strong and sharp, as observed in primary visual cortex (area V1), or weak and broad, as observed in neural ensembles. Single neurons may be simultaneously tuned to several modalities, such as visual, auditory, and olfactory. Neurons that are tuned to different signals often integrate information from the different sources. In neural networks, such integration is the major principle of operation
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Neuroscience
Neuroscience
Neuroscience
(or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.[1] It is a multidisciplinary branch of biology,[2] that deals with the anatomy, biochemistry, molecular biology, and physiology of neurons and neural circuits. It also draws upon other fields, with the most obvious being pharmacology, psychology, and medicine.[3][4][5][6][7][8] The scope of neuroscience has broadened over time to include different approaches used to study the molecular, cellular, developmental, structural, functional, evolutionary, computational, psychosocial and medical aspects of the nervous system. Neuroscience
Neuroscience
has also given rise to such other disciplines as neuroeducation,[9] neuroethics, and neurolaw. The techniques used by neuroscientists have also expanded enormously, from molecular and cellular studies of individual neurons to imaging of sensory and motor tasks in the brain
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Artificial Intelligence
Artificial intelligence
Artificial intelligence
(AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals
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Philosophy
Philosophy
Philosophy
(from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom"[1][2][3][4]) is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.[5][6] The term was probably coined by Pythagoras
Pythagoras
(c. 570–495 BCE)
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Focalization
Focalisation is a term coined by the French narrative theorist Gerard Genette.[1] It refers to the perspective through which a narrative is presented.Contents1 Determinant 2 Narratology 3 See also 4 ReferencesDeterminant[edit] Focalisation in literature is similar to point-of-view (POV) in film-making. It occurs in a narrative where all information presented reflects the subjective perception of a certain character is said to be internally focalised. An omniscient narrator corresponds to zero focalisation
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John B. Watson
John Broadus Watson (January 9, 1878 – September 25, 1958) was an American psychologist who established the psychological school of behaviorism. Watson promoted a change in psychology through his address Psychology
Psychology
as the Behaviorist Views it, which was given at Columbia University
Columbia University
in 1913.[3] Through his behaviorist approach, Watson conducted research on animal behavior, child rearing, and advertising. In addition, he conducted the controversial "Little Albert" experiment and the Kerplunk experiment
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Parallel Individuation System
The parallel individuation system, also called object tracking system is a non-symbolic cognitive system that supports the representation of numerical values from zero to three (in infants) or four (in adults and non-human animals). It is one of the two cognitive systems responsible for the representation of number, the other one being the approximate number system.[1] Unlike the approximate number system, which is not precise and provides only an estimation of the number, the parallel individuation system is an exact system and encodes the exact numerical identity of the individual items.[2] The parallel individuation system has been attested in human adults, non-human animals,[2] such as fish[3] and human infants, although performance of infants is dependent on their age and task.[4] Evidence[edit] The evidence for parallel individuation system comes from a number of experiments on adults, infants and non-human animals
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Juan Luis Vives
Juan Luis Vives
Juan Luis Vives
(Latin: Ioannes Lodovicus Vives; Catalan: Joan Lluís Vives i March; Dutch: Jan Ludovicus Vives; 6 March 1493[1] – 6 May 1540) was a Spanish (Valencian) scholar and Renaissance humanist
Renaissance humanist
who spent most of his adult life in the Southern Netherlands. His beliefs on the soul, insight into early medical practice, and perspective on emotions, memory and learning earned him the title of the "father" of modern psychology
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Decision Making
In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the cognitive process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several alternative possibilities. Every decision-making process produces a final choice, which may or may not prompt action. Decision-making
Decision-making
is the process of identifying and choosing alternatives based on the values, preferences and beliefs of the decision-maker.Contents1 Overview 2 Problem analysis2.1 Analysis paralysis 2.2 Information overload 2.3 Post-decision analysis3 Decision-making
Decision-making
techniques3.1 Group 3.2 Individual4 Steps4.1 GOFER 4.2 DECIDE 4.3 Other 4.4 Group stages5 Rational and irrational 6 Cognitive and personal biases 7 Cognitive limitations in groups 8 Cognitive styles8.1 Optimizing
Optimizing
vs. satisficing 8.2 Intuitive vs. rational 8.3 Combinatorial vs
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Concept
Concepts are the fundamental building blocks of our thoughts and beliefs. They play an important role in all aspects of cognition.[1][2]When the mind makes a generalization such as the concept of tree, it extracts similarities from numerous examples; the simplification enables higher-level thinking.Concepts arise as abstractions or generalisations from experience; from the result of a transformation of existing ideas; or from innate properties.[3][unreliable source?] A concept is instantiated (reified) by all of its actual or potential instances, whether these are things in the real world or other ideas. Concepts are studied as components of human cognition in the cognitive science disciplines of linguistics, psychology and philosophy, where an ongoing debate asks whether all cognition must occur through concepts
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Reasoning
Reason
Reason
is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.[1] It is closely associated with such characteristically human activities as philosophy, science, language, mathematics, and art and is normally considered to be a distinguishing ability possessed by humans.[2] Reason, or an aspect of it, is sometimes referred to as rationality. Reasoning is associated with thinking, cognition, and intellect. The philosophical field of logic studies ways in which humans reason formally through argument.[3] Reasoning may be subdivided into forms of logical reasoning (forms associated with the strict sense): deductive reasoning, inductive reasoning, abductive reasoning; and other modes of reasoning considered more informal, such as intuitive reasoning and verbal reasoning
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Metalanguage
Broadly, any metalanguage is language or symbols used when language itself is being discussed or examined.[1] In logic and linguistics, a metalanguage is a language used to make statements about statements in another language (the object language)
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