HOME TheInfoList.com
Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff
[::MainTopicLength::#1500] [::ListTopicLength::#1000] [::ListLength::#15] [::ListAdRepeat::#3]

Atomism
ATOMISM (from Greek ἄτομον, atomon, i.e. "uncuttable", "indivisible" ) is a natural philosophy that developed in several ancient traditions. The atomists theorized that nature consists of two fundamental principles: atom and void. Unlike their modern scientific namesake in atomic theory , philosophical atoms come in an infinite variety of shapes and sizes, each indestructible, immutable and surrounded by a void where they collide with the others or hook together forming a cluster. Clusters of different shapes, arrangements, and positions give rise to the various macroscopic substances in the world. References to the concept of atomism and its atoms are found in ancient India
India
and ancient Greece . In the West, atomism emerged in the 5th century BCE with Leucippus
Leucippus
and Democritus
Democritus

[...More...]

"Atomism" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Electrons
The ELECTRON is a subatomic particle , symbol e− or β− , with a negative elementary electric charge . Electrons belong to the first generation of the lepton particle family, and are generally thought to be elementary particles because they have no known components or substructure. The electron has a mass that is approximately 1/1836 that of the proton . Quantum mechanical properties of the electron include an intrinsic angular momentum (spin ) of a half-integer value, expressed in units of the reduced Planck constant , ħ. As it is a fermion , no two electrons can occupy the same quantum state , in accordance with the Pauli exclusion principle . Like all elementary particles, electrons exhibit properties of both particles and waves : they can collide with other particles and can be diffracted like light
[...More...]

"Electrons" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Neutrons
5000000000000000000♠0 e 3021799999999999999♠(−2±8)×10−22 e (experimental limits) ELECTRIC DIPOLE MOMENT < 6974290000000000000♠2.9×10−26 e⋅cm (experimental upper limit) ELECTRIC POLARIZABILITY 6997116000000000000♠1.16(15)×10−3 fm3 MAGNETIC MOMENT 3026033763500000000♠−0.96623650(23)×10−26 J ·T −1 3002895812437000000♠−1.04187563(25)×10−3 μB 2999808695726999999♠−1.91304273(45) μN MAGNETIC POLARIZABILITY 6996370000000000000♠3.7(20)×10−4 fm3 SPIN 1/2 ISOSPIN −1/2 PARITY +1 CONDENSED I (J P ) = 1/2(1/2+)The NEUTRON is a subatomic particle , symbol n or n0 , with no net electric charge and a mass slightly larger than that of a proton . Protons and neutrons constitute the nuclei of atoms . Since protons and neutrons behave similarly within the nucleus, and each has a mass of approximately one atomic mass unit , they are both referred to as nucleons . Their properties and interactions are described by nuclear physics
[...More...]

"Neutrons" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Chemists
A CHEMIST (from Greek chēm (ía) alchemy + -ist; replacing chymist from Medieval Latin alchimista ) is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry . Chemists study the composition of matter and its properties. Chemists carefully describe the properties they study in terms of quantities, with detail on the level of molecules and their component atoms . Chemists carefully measure substance proportions, reaction rates, and other chemical properties . The word 'chemist' is also used to address Pharmacists
Pharmacists
in Commonwealth English. Chemists use this knowledge to learn the composition, and properties of unfamiliar substances, as well as to reproduce and synthesize large quantities of useful naturally occurring substances and create new artificial substances and useful processes. Chemists may specialize in any number of subdisciplines of chemistry . Materials scientists and metallurgists share much of the same education and skills with chemists
[...More...]

"Chemists" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Tetrahedron
In geometry , a TETRAHEDRON (plural: TETRAHEDRA or TETRAHEDRONS), also known as a TRIANGULAR PYRAMID, is a polyhedron composed of four triangular faces , six straight edges , and four vertex corners . The tetrahedron is the simplest of all the ordinary convex polyhedra and the only one that has fewer than 5 faces. The tetrahedron is the three-dimensional case of the more general concept of a Euclidean simplex , and may thus also be called a 3-SIMPLEX. The tetrahedron is one kind of pyramid , which is a polyhedron with a flat polygon base and triangular faces connecting the base to a common point. In the case of a tetrahedron the base is a triangle (any of the four faces can be considered the base), so a tetrahedron is also known as a "triangular pyramid". Like all convex polyhedra , a tetrahedron can be folded from a single sheet of paper. It has two such nets
[...More...]

"Tetrahedron" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Octahedron
In geometry , an OCTAHEDRON (plural: octahedra) is a polyhedron with eight faces, twelve edges, and six vertices. The term is most commonly used to refer to the REGULAR octahedron, a Platonic solid
Platonic solid
composed of eight equilateral triangles , four of which meet at each vertex. A regular octahedron is the dual polyhedron of a cube . It is a rectified tetrahedron . It is a square bipyramid in any of three orthogonal orientations. It is also a triangular antiprism in any of four orientations. An octahedron is the three-dimensional case of the more general concept of a cross polytope . A regular octahedron is a 3-ball in the Manhattan (ℓ1) metric
[...More...]

"Octahedron" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Protons
6973167262189800000♠1.672621898(21)×10−27 kg 7002938272081300000♠938.2720813(58) MeV/c2 7000100727646687900♠1.007276466879(91) u MEAN LIFETIME > 7036662709600000000♠2.1×1029 years (stable) ELECTRIC CHARGE 6981160217648700000♠+1 e 6981160217662079999♠1.6021766208(98)×10−19 C CHARGE RADIUS 6999875100000000000♠0.8751(61) fm ELECTRIC DIPOLE MOMENT < 6976540000000000000♠5.4×10−24 e⋅cm ELECTRIC POLARIZABILITY 6997119999999999999♠1.20(6)×10−3 fm3 MAGNETIC MOMENT 6974141060678730000♠1.4106067873(97)×10−26 J ⋅T −1 6997152103220530000♠1.5210322053(46)×10−3 μB 7000279284735079999♠2.7928473508(85) μN MAGNETIC POLARIZABILITY 6996190000000000000♠1.9(5)×10−4 fm3 SPIN 1/2 ISOSPIN 1/2 PARITY +1 CONDENSED I (J P ) = 1/2(1/2+)A PROTON is a subatomic particle , symbol p or p+ , with a positive electric charge of +1e elementary charge and mass slightly less than that of a neutron
[...More...]

"Protons" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Quarks
A QUARK (/ˈkwɔːrk/ or /ˈkwɑːrk/ ) is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter . Quarks combine to form composite particles called hadrons , the most stable of which are protons and neutrons , the components of atomic nuclei . Due to a phenomenon known as color confinement , quarks are never directly observed or found in isolation; they can be found only within hadrons, such as baryons (of which protons and neutrons are examples) and mesons . For this reason, much of what is known about quarks has been drawn from observations of the hadrons themselves. Quarks have various intrinsic properties, including electric charge , mass , color charge , and spin
[...More...]

"Quarks" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Substance Theory
SUBSTANCE THEORY, or SUBSTANCE ATTRIBUTE THEORY, is an ontological theory about objecthood , positing that a _substance_ is distinct from its properties . A _thing-in-itself _ is a property-bearer that must be distinguished from the properties it bears. _Substance_ is a key concept in ontology and metaphysics , which may be classified into monist , dualist , or pluralist varieties according to how many substances or individuals are said to populate, furnish, or exist in the world. According to monistic views, there is only one substance. Stoicism and Spinoza , for example, hold monistic views, that pneuma or God , respectively, is the one substance in the world. These modes of thinking are sometimes associated with the idea of immanence . Dualism sees the world as being composed of two fundamental substances, for example, the Cartesian substance dualism of mind and matter
[...More...]

"Substance Theory" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Kalapas
In Theravada Buddhist
Buddhist
phenomenology , KALAPAS are defined as the smallest units of physical matter . Kalapas are described as tiny units of materiality, “tens of thousands of times smaller than a particle of dust,” coming into existence and disappearing in as little as a billionth of a second or a trillionth of the blink of an eye. Kalapas are understood by some Therevada thinkers as actual subatomic particles and the smallest units of materiality. Kalapas are not mentioned in the earliest Buddhists texts, such as the Tripitaka
Tripitaka
, but only in the Abhidhammattha Saïgaha, an Abhidhamma commentary that was composed between the 5th and 11th centuries. They are not universally accepted in Theravada Buddhism , and the Buddha never directly speaks of kalapas
[...More...]

"Kalapas" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Reductionism
REDUCTIONISM refers to several related philosophical ideas regarding the associations between phenomena which can be described in terms of other phenomena, the latter of which are considered in some manner simpler or more fundamental. The Oxford Companion to Philosophy suggests that reductionism is "one of the most used and abused terms in the philosophical lexicon" and suggests a three part division: * ONTOLOGICAL REDUCTIONISM: a belief that the whole of reality consists of a minimal number of parts. * METHODOLOGICAL REDUCTIONISM: the scientific attempt to provide explanation in terms of ever smaller entities. * THEORY REDUCTIONISM: the suggestion that a newer theory does not replace or absorb an older one, but reduces it to more basic terms. Theory reduction itself is divisible into three parts: translation, derivation and explanation
[...More...]

"Reductionism" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Elementary Particle
In particle physics , an ELEMENTARY PARTICLE or FUNDAMENTAL PARTICLE is a particle whose substructure is unknown; thus, it is unknown whether it is composed of other particles. Known elementary particles include the fundamental fermions (quarks , leptons , antiquarks , and antileptons ), which generally are "matter particles" and "antimatter particles", as well as the fundamental bosons (gauge bosons and the Higgs boson ), which generally are "force particles" that mediate interactions among fermions. A particle containing two or more elementary particles is a _composite particle _. Everyday matter is composed of atoms , once presumed to be matter's elementary particles—_atom_ meaning "unable to cut" in Greek—although the atom's existence remained controversial until about 1910, as some leading physicists regarded molecules as mathematical illusions, and matter as ultimately composed of energy. Soon, subatomic constituents of the atom were identified
[...More...]

"Elementary Particle" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Icosahedron
In geometry , an ICOSAHEDRON (/ˌaɪkɒsəˈhiːdrən, -kə-, -koʊ-/ or /aɪˌkɒsəˈhiːdrən/ ) is a polyhedron with 20 faces. The name comes from Greek εἴκοσι (eíkosi), meaning 'twenty', and ἕδρα (hédra), meaning 'seat'. The plural can be either "icosahedra" (/-drə/ ) or "icosahedrons". There are many kinds of icosahedra, with some being more symmetrical than others. The best known is the Platonic , convex regular icosahedron
[...More...]

"Icosahedron" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Cube (geometry)
In geometry , a CUBE is a three-dimensional solid object bounded by six square faces, facets or sides, with three meeting at each vertex . The cube is the only regular hexahedron and is one of the five Platonic solids . It has 6 faces, 12 edges, and 8 vertices. The cube is also a square parallelepiped , an equilateral cuboid and a right rhombohedron . It is a regular square prism in three orientations, and a trigonal trapezohedron in four orientations. The cube is dual to the octahedron . It has cubical or octahedral symmetry
[...More...]

"Cube (geometry)" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

History Of India
The HISTORY OF INDIA includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent ; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation ; the rise of Hinduism , Jainism
[...More...]

"History Of India" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Nausiphanes
NAUSIPHANES (Greek : Ναυσιφάνης; lived c. 325 BC), a native of Teos
Teos
, was attached to the philosophy of Democritus , and was a pupil of Pyrrho
Pyrrho