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Athlete's Foot
Athlete's foot, known medically as tinea pedis, is a common skin infection of the feet caused by fungus.[2] Signs and symptoms often include itching, scaling, and redness.[3] In rare cases the skin may blister.[6] Athlete's foot
Athlete's foot
fungus may infect any part of the foot, but most often grows between the toes.[3] The next most common area is the bottom of the foot.[6] The same fungus may also affect the nails or the hands.[4] It is a member of the group of diseases known as tinea.[7] Athle
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Hyperhidrosis
Hyperhidrosis
Hyperhidrosis
is a condition characterized by abnormally increased sweating,[3] in excess of that required for regulation of body temperature.[4] Although primarily a physical burden, hyperhidrosis can deteriorate quality of life from a psychological, emotional, and social perspective.[5] It has been called by some 'the silent handicap'.[6] Both the words diaphoresis and hidrosis can mean either perspiration (in which sense they are synonymous with sweating[7][8]) or excessive perspiration, in which case they refer to a specific, nar
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Hyphae
A hypha (plural hyphae, from Greek ὑφή, huphḗ, “web”) is a long, branching filamentous structure of a fungus, oomycete, or actinobacterium.[1] In most fungi, hyphae are the main mode of vegetative growth, and are collectively called a mycelium.Contents1 Structure 2 Growth 3 Behavior 4 Modifications 5 Types5.1 Classification based on cell division 5.2 Classification based on cell wall and overall form 5.3 Classification based on refractive appearance6 See also 7 References 8 External linksStructure[edit] A hypha consists of one or more cells surrounded by a tubular cell wall. In most fungi, hyphae are divided into cells by internal cross-walls called "septa" (singular septum). Septa are usually perforated by pores large enough for ribosomes, mitochondria and sometimes nuclei to flow between cells. The major structural polymer in fungal cell walls is typically chitin, in contrast to plants and oomycetes that have cellulosic cell walls
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National Health Service
The National Health Service
National Health Service
(NHS) is the name used for each of the public health services in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
– the National Health Service in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, and Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland – as well as a term to describe them collectively. They were established together in 1948 as one of the major social reforms following the Second World War
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Parasitic
In biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.[1] The entomologist E. O. Wilson
E. O. Wilson
has characterised parasites as "predators that eat prey in units of less than one".[2] Parasites include protozoa such as the agents of malaria, sleeping sickness, and amoebic dysentery; animals such as hookworms, lice, and mosquitoes; plants such as mistletoe and dodder; and fungi such as honey fungus and ringworm
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Anthropophilic
In parasitology, anthropophilia, from the Greek ἅνθρωπος (anthrōpos, "human being") and φιλία (philia, "friendship" or "love"), is a preference of a parasite or dermatophyte for humans over other animals.[1][2] The related term endophilia refers specifically to a preference for being in human habitats, especially inside dwellings.[3] The term zoophilia, in this context, describes animals which prefer non-human animals for nourishment.[4] Most usage of the term anthropophilia refers to hematophagous insects (see Anopheles) that prefer human blood[5] over animal blood (zoophily, but see other meanings of zoophily). Examples other than haematophagy include geckoes that live close to humans,[6] pied crows (Corvus albus),[7] cockroaches, and many others
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Scratch Reflex
The scratch reflex is a response to activation of sensory neurons whose peripheral terminals are located on the surface of the body.[1] Some sensory neurons can be activated by stimulation with an external object such as a parasite on the body surface. Alternatively, some sensory neurons can respond to a chemical stimulus that produces an itch sensation. During a scratch reflex, a nearby limb reaches toward and rubs against the site on the body surface that has been stimulated
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Lymphangitis
Lymphangitis is an inflammation or an infection of the lymphatic channels[1] that occurs as a result of infection at a site distal to the channel. The most common cause of lymphangitis in humans is Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A strep), although it can also be caused by the fungus Sporothrix schenckii.[2] Lymphangitis is sometimes mistakenly called "blood poisoning". In reality, "blood poisoning" is synonymous with sepsis. Signs and symptoms include a deep reddening of the skin, warmth, lymphadenitis (inflammation of a lymphatic gland), and a raised border around the affected area. The person may also have chills and a high fever along with moderate pain and swelling. A person with lymphangitis should be hospitalized and closely monitored by medical professionals.[3] Lymphangitis is the inflammation of the lymphatic vessels and channels. This is characterized by certain inflammatory conditions of the skin caused by bacterial infections
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Staphylococcus Aureus
Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus
aureus (also known as golden staph) is a Gram-positive, round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes, and it is a member of the normal flora of the body, frequently found in the nose, respiratory tract, and on the skin. It is often positive for catalase and nitrate reduction and is a facultative anaerobe that can grow without the need for oxygen.[1] Although S. aureus is not always pathogenic (and can commonly be found existing as a commensal), it is a common cause of skin infections including abscesses, respiratory infections such as sinusitis, and food poisoning. Pathogenic strains often promote infections by producing virulence factors such as potent protein toxins, and the expression of a cell-surface protein that binds and inactivates antibodies. The emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of S. aureus such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is a worldwide problem in clinical medicine
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Streptococcus Pyogenes
Streptococcus
Streptococcus
pyogenes is a species of Gram-positive bacteria. These bacteria are aerotolerant and an extracellular bacterium, made up of non-motile and non-sporing cocci. As expected with a streptococci, it is clinically important in human illness. It is an infrequent, but usually pathogenic, part of the skin microbiota. It is the predominant species harboring the Lancefield group A antigen, and is often called group A streptococcus (GAS). However, both Streptococcus
Streptococcus
dysgalactiae and the Streptococcus
Streptococcus
anginosus group can possess group A antigen. Group A streptococci
Group A streptococci
when grown on blood agar typically produces small zones of beta-hemolysis, a complete destruction of red blood cells
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Hyperkeratosis
Hyperkeratosis is thickening of the stratum corneum (the outermost layer of the epidermis), often associated with the presence of an abnormal quantity of keratin,[1] and also usually accompanied by an increase in the granular layer
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Specialty (medicine)
A specialty, or speciality, in medicine is a branch of medical practice. After completing medical school, physicians or surgeons usually further their medical education in a specific specialty of medicine by completing a multiple year residency to become a medical specialist.[1]Contents1 History of medical specialization 2 Classification of medical specialization 3 Specialties that are common worldwide 4 List of specialties recognized in the European Union and European Economic Area 5 List of North American medical specialties and others 6 Physician
Physician
compensation 7 Specialties by country7.1 Australia and New Zealand 7.2 Canada 7.3 Germany 7.4 India 7.5 United States 7.6 Specialty and Physician
Physician
Location8 Other uses 9 Training 10 Satisfaction 11 See also 12 ReferencesHistory of medical specialization[edit] To a certain extent, medical practitioners have always been specialized
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Lesion
A lesion is any abnormal damage or change in the tissue of an organism, usually caused by disease or trauma. It is also seen as a cell. Lesion is derived from the Latin laesio "injury".[1] Lesions may occur in plants as well as animals.Contents1 Types1.1 Location 1.2 Cause and behavior 1.3 Size and shape2 Research using lesions2.1 Research with humans 2.2 Research with animals3 Notable lesions 4 See also 5 ReferencesTypes[edit] There is no designated classification or naming convention for lesions. Because the definition of a lesion is so broad, the varieties of lesions are virtually endless. Although most frequently found in the mouth, on the skin, and in the brain, or anywhere where a tumor may occur,[citation needed] lesions can occur anywhere in the body that comprises soft tissue or osseous matter. Generally, lesions may be classified by their patterns, their sizes, their locations, or their causes
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Vesiculobullous Disease
A vesiculobullous disease is a type of mucocutaneous disease characterized by vesicles and bullae (i.e. blisters). Both vesicles and bullae are fluid-filled lesions, and they are distinguished by size (vesicles being less than 5–10 mm and bulla being larger than 5–10 mm, depending upon which definition is used). In the case of vesiculobullous diseases which are also immune disorders, the term immunobullous[1] is sometimes used. Examples of vesiculobullous diseases include:Infectious: (viral)Herpes simplex Varicella-Zoster infection Hand, foot and mouth disease Herpangina Measles (Rubeola)Immunobullous:Pemphigus vulgaris[2] Pemphigoid Dermatitis herpetiformis[1] Linear immunoglobulin-A disease (linear IgA disease)Genetic:Epidermolysis bullosa[3]Some features are as follows:Name Acantholysis? Igepidermolysis bullosa yes mostly IgGbullous pemphigoid no mostly IgGdermatitis herpetiformis no IgAReferences[edit]^ Magro, C
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Health Clubs
A health club (also known as a fitness club, fitness centre, health spa, and commonly referred to as a gym) is a place that houses exercise equipment for the purpose of physical exercise.Contents1 Facilities and services1.1 Main workout area 1.2 Cardio area/exercise theatre 1.3 Group exercise classes 1.4 Sports facilities 1.5 Personal training 1.6 Other services 1.7 Levels of services and offerings 1.8 Types of services in health clubs2 History 3 References 4 External linksFacilities and services[edit] Main workout area[edit] Most health clubs have a main workout area, which primarily consists of free weights including dumbbells and barbells and the stands and benches used with these items and exercise machines, which use gears, cables and other mechanisms to guide the user's exercise. This area often includes mirrors so that exercisers can monitor and maintain correct posture during their workout
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Microscope
A microscope (from the Ancient Greek: μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye. Microscopy
Microscopy
is the science of investigating small objects and structures using such an instrument. Microscopic means invisible to the eye unless aided by a microscope. There are many types of microscopes, and they may be grouped in different ways. One way is to describe the way the instruments interact with a sample to create images, either by sending a beam of light or electrons to a sample in its optical path, or by scanning across, and a short distance from, the surface of a sample using a probe. The most common microscope (and the first to be invented) is the optical microscope, which uses light to pass through a sample to produce an image
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