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Athlete's Foot
ATHLETE\'S FOOT, known medically as TINEA PEDIS, is a common skin infection of the feet caused by fungus. Signs and symptoms often include itching, scaling, and redness. In severe cases the skin may blister . Athlete's foot
Athlete's foot
fungus may infect any part of the foot, but most often grows between the toes. The next most common area is the bottom of the foot. The same fungus may also affect the nails or the hands . It is a member of the group of diseases known as tinea . Athlete's foot
Athlete's foot
is caused by a number of different fungi . These include species of Trichophyton , Epidermophyton , and Microsporum . The condition is typically acquired by coming into contact with infected skin, or fungus in the environment. Common places where the fungi can survive are around swimming pools and in locker rooms. They may also be spread from other animals
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Hyperkeratosis
HYPERKERATOSIS is thickening of the stratum corneum (the outermost layer of the epidermis ), often associated with the presence of an abnormal quantity of keratin , and also usually accompanied by an increase in the granular layer. As the corneum layer normally varies greatly in thickness in different sites, some experience is needed to assess minor degrees of hyperkeratosis. It can be caused by vitamin A deficiency or chronic exposure to arsenic . Hyperkeratosis
Hyperkeratosis
can also be caused by B-Raf inhibitor drugs such as Vemurafenib
Vemurafenib
and Dabrafenib
Dabrafenib
. It can be treated with urea-containing creams , which dissolve the intercellular matrix of the cells of the stratum corneum, promoting desquamation of scaly skin, eventually resulting in softening of hyperkeratotic areas
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Streptococcus Pyogenes
Streptococcus pyogenes is a species of Gram-positive bacteria. These bacteria are aerotolerant and an extracellular bacterium, made up of non-motile and non-sporing cocci. As expected with a streptococci, it is clinically important in human illness. It is an infrequent, but usually pathogenic, part of the skin flora. It is the predominant species harboring the Lancefield group A antigen, and is often called group A streptococcus (GAS). However, both Streptococcus dysgalactiae and the Streptococcus anginosus group can possess group A antigen. Group A streptococci when grown on blood agar typically produces small zones of beta-hemolysis, a complete destruction of red blood cells. (A zone size of 2–3 mm is typical.) It is thus also called group A (beta-hemolytic) streptococcus (GABHS), and can make colonies greater than 5 mm in size. [1] Like other cocci, streptococci are round bacteria
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Lesion
A LESION is any abnormal damage or change in the tissue of an organism, usually caused by disease or trauma . _Lesion_ is derived from the Latin _laesio_ "injury". Lesions may occur in plants as well as animals. CONTENTS* 1 Types * 1.1 Location * 1.2 Cause and behavior * 1.3 Size and shape * 2 Research using lesions * 2.1 Research with humans * 2.2 Research with animals * 3 Notable lesions * 4 See also * 5 References TYPESThere is no designated classification or naming convention for lesions. Because the definition of a lesion is so broad, the varieties of lesions are virtually endless. Although most frequently found in the mouth, on the skin, and in the brain, or anywhere where a tumor may occur, lesions can occur anywhere in the body that comprises soft tissue or osseous matter Generally, lesions may be classified by their patterns, their sizes, their locations, or their causes. Lesions are sometimes also named after the person who discovered them
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Vesiculobullous Disease
A VESICULOBULLOUS DISEASE is a type of mucocutaneous disease characterized by vesicles and bullae (i.e. blisters). Both vesicles and bullae are fluid-filled lesions , and they are distinguished by size (vesicles being less than 5–10 mm and bulla being larger than 5–10 mm, depending upon which definition is used). In the case of vesiculobullous diseases which are also immune disorders , the term immunobullous is sometimes used
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Microscope
A MICROSCOPE (from the Ancient Greek : μικρός, _mikrós_, "small" and σκοπεῖν, _skopeîn_, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye. Microscopy is the science of investigating small objects and structures using such an instrument. Microscopic means invisible to the eye unless aided by a microscope. There are many types of microscopes, and they may be grouped in different ways. One way is to describe the way the instruments interact with a sample to create images, either by sending a beam of light or electrons to a sample in its optical path, or by scanning across, and a short distance from, the surface of a sample using a probe. The most common microscope (and the first to be invented) is the optical microscope , which uses light to pass through a sample to produce an image
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Health Clubs
A HEALTH CLUB (also known as a FITNESS CLUB, FITNESS CENTRE, HEALTH SPA, and commonly referred to as a GYM ) is a place that houses exercise equipment for the purpose of physical exercise . CONTENTS* 1 Facilities and services * 1.1 Main workout area * 1.2 Cardio area/Theatre * 1.3 Group exercise classes * 1.4 Sports facilities * 1.5 Personal training
Personal training
* 1.6 Other services * 1.7 Levels of services and offerings * 1.8 Types of services in health clubs * 2 History * 3 References * 4 External links FACILITIES AND SERVICESMAIN WORKOUT AREAMost health clubs have a main workout area, which primarily consists of free weights including dumbbells , barbells and exercise machines . This area often includes mirrors so that exercisers can monitor and maintain correct posture during their workout
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Staphylococcus Aureus
_STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS_ is a gram-positive , round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes , and is frequently found in the nose , respiratory tract , and on the skin . It is often positive for catalase and nitrate reduction and is a facultative anaerobe that can grow without the need for oxygen. Although _S. aureus_ is not always pathogenic , it is a common cause of skin infections including abscesses , respiratory infections such as sinusitis , and food poisoning . Pathogenic strains often promote infections by producing virulence factors such as potent protein toxins , and the expression of a cell-surface protein that binds and inactivates antibodies . The emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of _S. aureus_ such as methicillin-resistant _S. aureus_ (MRSA) is a worldwide problem in clinical medicine . Despite much research and development there is no approved vaccine for _S. aureus_
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Lymphangitis
LYMPHANGITIS is an inflammation or an infection of the lymphatic channels that occurs as a result of infection at a site distal to the channel. The most common cause of lymphangitis in humans is Streptococcus pyogenes
Streptococcus pyogenes
(Group A strep), although it can also be caused by the fungus Sporothrix schenckii . Lymphangitis
Lymphangitis
is sometimes mistakenly called "blood poisoning". In reality, "blood poisoning" is synonymous with sepsis . Signs and symptoms include a deep reddening of the skin, warmth, lymphadenitis (inflammation of a lymphatic gland), and a raised border around the affected area. The person may also have chills and a high fever along with moderate pain and swelling. A person with lymphangitis should be hospitalized and closely monitored by medical professionals. Lymphangitis
Lymphangitis
is the inflammation of the lymphatic vessels and channels
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National Health Service
The NATIONAL HEALTH SERVICE (NHS) is the name of the public health services of England , Scotland and Wales , and is commonly used to refer to those of Northern Ireland . They were established together by the Labour Party as one of the major social reforms following the Second World War . The founding principles were being comprehensive, universal and free at the point of delivery. Today, each provides a comprehensive range of health services, the vast majority of which are free for people ordinarily resident in the United Kingdom . Taken together, the four National Health Services in 2015–16 employed around 1.6 million people with a combined budget of £136.7 billion. UK residents are not charged for most medical treatment, with exceptions such as a fixed charge for prescriptions (in England only); dental treatment is administered differently that people who are still in education get it free while adults have to pay, with standard charges for most procedures
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Hyperhidrosis
HYPERHIDROSIS is a condition characterized by abnormally increased sweating , in excess of that required for regulation of body temperature . Although primarily a physical burden, hyperhidrosis can deteriorate quality of life from a psychological, emotional, and social perspective. It has been called by some 'the silent handicap'. Both the words diaphoresis and hidrosis can mean either perspiration (in which sense they are synonymous with sweating ) or excessive perspiration, in which case they refer to a specific, narrowly defined, clinical disorder
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Parasitic
In biology , PARASITISM is a non-mutual relationship between species , where one species, the PARASITE, benefits at the expense of the other, the host . Traditionally parasite primarily meant an organism visible to the naked eye, or a macroparasite (such as a helminth ). Microparasites are typically far smaller, such as protozoa , viruses , and bacteria . Examples of parasites include the plants mistletoe and cuscuta , and animals such as hookworms . Unlike predators , parasites typically do not kill their host, are generally much smaller than their host, and often live in or on their host for an extended period. Both are special cases of consumer-resource interactions . Parasites show a high degree of specialization , and reproduce at a faster rate than their hosts. Classic examples include interactions between vertebrate hosts and tapeworms , flukes , the Plasmodium
Plasmodium
species, and fleas
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Anthropophilic
In parasitology , ANTHROPOPHILIA, from the Greek ἅνθρωπος (anthrōpos, "human being") and φιλία (philia, "friendship" or "love"), is a preference of a parasite or dermatophyte for humans over other animals. The related term ENDOPHILIA refers specifically to a preference for being in human habitats, especially inside dwellings. The term zoophilia, in this context, describes animals which prefer non-human animals for nourishment. Most usage of the term anthropophilia refers to hematophagous insects (see Anopheles
Anopheles
) that prefer human blood over animal blood (ZOOPHILY, but see other meanings of zoophily ). Examples other than haematophagy include geckoes that live close to humans, pied crows (Corvus albus), cockroaches, and many others. In the study of malaria and its disease vectors , researchers make the distinction between anthropophilic mosquitoes and other types as part of disease eradiction efforts
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Scratch Reflex
The SCRATCH REFLEX is a response to activation of sensory neurons whose peripheral terminals are located on the surface of the body. Some sensory neurons can be activated by stimulation with an external object such as a parasite on the body surface. Alternatively, some sensory neurons can respond to a chemical stimulus that produces an itch sensation. During a scratch reflex, a nearby limb reaches toward and rubs against the site on the body surface that has been stimulated. The scratch reflex has been extensively studied to understand the functioning of neural networks in vertebrates. Despite decades of research, key aspects of the scratch reflex are still unknown, such as the neural mechanisms by which the reflex is terminated
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Id Reaction
ID REACTIONS (also known as "Disseminated eczema," and "Generalized eczema" ) present with a variety of infectious disorders, often occurring in response to an inflammatory tinea of the feet, resulting in an eczematous dermatitis. :81 The inflammation is in the absence of a locally visible cause. CONTENTS * 1 Cause * 2 Diagnosis * 3 Treatment * 4 See also * 5 References CAUSE THIS SECTION IS EMPTY. You can help by adding to it . (September 2017)DIAGNOSIS THIS SECTION IS EMPTY. You can help by adding to it . (September 2017)TREATMENTId reactions are frequently unresponsive to corticosteroid therapy, but clear when the focus of infection or infestation is treated. :81 SEE ALSO * Candidid * Dermatophytid * Leukemid * List of cutaneous conditions
List of cutaneous conditions
REFERENCES * ^ A B Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. (2007). Dermatology: 2-Volume Set. St
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Hyphae
A HYPHA (plural HYPHAE, from Greek ὑφή, huphḗ, “web”) is a long, branching filamentous structure of a fungus , oomycete , or actinobacterium . In most fungi, hyphae are the main mode of vegetative growth, and are collectively called a mycelium . CONTENTS * 1 Structure * 2 Growth * 3 Behavior * 4 Modifications * 5 Types * 5.1 Classification based on cell division * 5.2 Classification based on cell wall and overall form * 5.3 Classification based on refractive appearance * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links STRUCTUREA hypha consists of one or more cells surrounded by a tubular cell wall . In most fungi, hyphae are divided into cells by internal cross-walls called "septa" (singular septum ). Septa are usually perforated by pores large enough for ribosomes , mitochondria and sometimes nuclei to flow between cells
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