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Asuka Period
The ASUKA PERIOD (飛鳥時代, _Asuka jidai_) was a period in the history of Japan lasting from 538 to 710 (or 592 to 645), although its beginning could be said to overlap with the preceding Kofun period . The Yamato polity evolved greatly during the Asuka period, which is named after the Asuka region, about 25 km south of the modern city of Nara . The Asuka period is known for its significant artistic, social, and political transformations, having their origins in the late Kofun period but largely affected by the arrival of Buddhism from China. The introduction of Buddhism marked a change in Japanese society. The Asuka period is also distinguished by the change in the name of the country from Wa (倭) to Nihon (日本)
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History Of Japan
It is widely accepted that first human habitation in the Japanese archipelago can be traced back to prehistoric times . The Jōmon period , named after its "cord-marked" pottery, was followed by the Yayoi in the first millennium BC, when new technologies were introduced from continental Asia. During this period, in the first century AD, the first known written reference to Japan was recorded in the Chinese _ Book of Han _. Between the fourth century and the ninth century, Japan's many kingdoms and tribes gradually came to be unified under a centralized government, nominally controlled by the Emperor . The imperial dynasty established at this time continues to reign over Japan to this day. In 794, a new imperial capital was established at Heian-kyō (modern Kyoto ), marking the beginning of the Heian period , which lasted until 1185
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Hōryū-ji
HōRYū-JI (法隆寺, lit. Temple of the Flourishing Law) is a Buddhist temple that was once one of the powerful Seven Great Temples , in Ikaruga , Nara Prefecture
Nara Prefecture
, Japan
Japan
. Its full name is Hōryū Gakumonji (法隆学問寺), or Learning Temple of the Flourishing Law, the complex serving as both a seminary and monastery. The temple's pagoda is widely acknowledged to be one of the oldest wooden buildings existing in the world, underscoring Hōryū-ji's place as one of the most celebrated temples in Japan. In 1993, Hōryū-ji
Hōryū-ji
was inscribed together with Hokki-ji as a UNESCO World Heritage Site under the name Buddhist Monuments in the Hōryū-ji
Hōryū-ji
Area . The Japanese government lists several of its structures, sculptures and artifacts as National Treasures
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Japanese Paleolithic
The JAPANESE PALEOLITHIC PERIOD (旧石器時代, _kyūsekki jidai_) is the period of human inhabitation in Japan that lasted from around 40,000 BCE to 14,000 BCE, which corresponds to the beginning of the Mesolithic Jōmon period . The 35,000 BCE date is most generally accepted: Any date of human presence before 35,000 BCE is controversial, with artifacts supporting a pre-35,000 BCE human presence on the archipelago being of questionable authenticity. The earliest human bones were discovered in Hamamatsu, Shizuoka . Radiocarbon dating has shown that the fossils date back to around 14,000–18,000 years ago. CONTENTS * 1 Ground stone and polished tools * 2 Paleoanthropology * 3 Archaeology of the Paleolithic period * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Bibliography * 7 External links GROUND STONE AND POLISHED TOOLS _ Polished stone tools or axes
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Before Christ
The terms ANNO DOMINI (AD) and BEFORE CHRIST (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars . The term _anno Domini_ is Medieval Latin and means "in the year of the Lord", but is often translated as "in the year of our Lord". This calendar era is based on the traditionally reckoned year of the conception or birth of Jesus of Nazareth , with _AD_ counting years from the start of this epoch , and _BC_ denoting years before the start of the era. There is no year zero in this scheme, so the year AD 1 immediately follows the year 1 BC. This dating system was devised in 525 by Dionysius Exiguus of Scythia Minor , but was not widely used until after 800. The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used calendar in the world today
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Jōmon Period
The JōMON PERIOD (縄文時代, Jōmon jidai) is the time in Japanese prehistory , traditionally dated between c. 14,000 – 300
300
BCE , while recently revised until 1000 BCE, when Japan
Japan
was inhabited by a hunter-gatherer culture, which reached a considerable degree of sedentism and cultural complexity. The name "cord-marked" was first applied by the American scholar Edward S. Morse , who discovered sherds of pottery in 1877 and subsequently translated it into Japanese as jōmon. The pottery style characteristic of the first phases of Jōmon culture was decorated by impressing cords into the surface of wet clay and is generally accepted to be among the oldest in East Asia and the world. The Jomon period was rich in tools and jewelry made from bone, stone, shell, and antler; pottery figurines and vessels; and lacquerware
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Yayoi Period
The YAYOI PERIOD (弥生時代, _Yayoi jidai_) is an Iron Age era in the history of Japan traditionally dated 300 BC–300 AD. Since the 1980s, scholars have argued that a period previously classified as a transition from the Jōmon period should be reclassified as Early Yayoi. The date of the beginning of this transition is controversial, with estimates ranging from the 10th to the 6th centuries BC. The period is named after the neighborhood of Tokyo where archaeologists first uncovered artifacts and features from that era. Distinguishing characteristics of the Yayoi period include the appearance of new Yayoi pottery styles and the start of an intensive rice agriculture in paddy fields . A hierarchical social class structure dates from this period. Techniques in metallurgy based on the use of bronze and iron were also introduced to Japan in this period
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Anno Domini
The terms ANNO DOMINI (AD) and BEFORE CHRIST (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars . The term _anno Domini_ is Medieval Latin and means "in the year of the Lord", but is often translated as "in the year of our Lord". This calendar era is based on the traditionally reckoned year of the conception or birth of Jesus of Nazareth , with _AD_ counting years from the start of this epoch , and _BC_ denoting years before the start of the era. There is no year zero in this scheme, so the year AD 1 immediately follows the year 1 BC. This dating system was devised in 525 by Dionysius Exiguus of Scythia Minor , but was not widely used until after 800. The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used calendar in the world today
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Kofun Period
The KOFUN PERIOD (古墳時代, _ Kofun jidai_) is an era in the history of Japan from around 250 to 538 AD. It follows the Yayoi period . The word _kofun _ is Japanese for the type of burial mounds dating from this era. The Kofun and the subsequent Asuka periods are sometimes referred to collectively as the Yamato period . The Kofun period is the earliest era of recorded history in Japan; as the chronology of its historical sources tends to be very distorted, studies of this period require deliberate criticism and the aid of archaeology. The Kofun period is divided from the Asuka period by its cultural differences. The Kofun period is characterized by a Shinto culture which existed prior to the introduction of Buddhism
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Nara Period
The NARA PERIOD (奈良時代, _Nara jidai_) of the history of Japan covers the years from AD 710 to 794. Empress Genmei established the capital of Heijō-kyō (present-day Nara ). Except for a five-year period (740–745), when the capital was briefly moved again, it remained the capital of Japanese civilization until Emperor Kanmu established a new capital, Nagaoka-kyō , in 784, before moving to Heian-kyō , or Kyoto , a decade later in 794. Most of Japanese society during this period was agricultural in nature and centered on villages . Most of the villagers followed a religion based on the worship of natural and ancestral spirits called _kami _. The capital at Nara was modeled after Chang\'an , the capital city of Tang China
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Heian Period
The HEIAN PERIOD (平安時代, _Heian jidai_) is the last division of classical Japanese history , running from 794 to 1185. The period is named after the capital city of Heian-kyō , or modern Kyōto . It is the period in Japanese history when Buddhism
Buddhism
, Taoism and other Chinese influences were at their height. The Heian period
Heian period
is also considered the peak of the Japanese imperial court and noted for its art , especially poetry and literature . Although the Imperial House of Japan
Japan
had power on the surface, the real power was in the hands of the Fujiwara clan , a powerful aristocratic family who had intermarried with the imperial family . Many emperors actually had mothers from the Fujiwara family. _Heian_ (平安) means "peace" in Japanese
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Kamakura Period
The KAMAKURA PERIOD (鎌倉時代, _ Kamakura jidai_, 1185–1333) is a period of Japanese history that marks the governance by the Kamakura shogunate , officially established in 1192 in Kamakura by the first shogun , Minamoto no Yoritomo . The period is known for the emergence of the samurai , the warrior caste, and for the establishment of feudalism in Japan. The Kamakura period ended in 1333 with the destruction of the shogunate and the short re-establishment of imperial rule under Emperor Go-Daigo by Ashikaga Takauji , Nitta Yoshisada , and Kusunoki Masashige
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Kenmu Restoration
The KENMU (or _Kemmu_) RESTORATION (建武の新政, _Kenmu no shinsei_) (1333–1336) is the name given to both the three-year period of Japanese history between the Kamakura period and the Muromachi period , and the political events that took place in it. The restoration was an effort made by Emperor Go-Daigo to bring the Imperial House back into power, thus restoring a civilian government after almost a century and a half of military rule. The attempted restoration ultimately failed and was replaced by the Ashikaga shogunate (1336–1575). This was to be the last time the Emperor had any power until the Meiji restoration of 1867. The many and serious political errors made by the Imperial House during this three-year period were to have important repercussions in the following decades and end with the rise to power of the Ashikaga dynasty
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Muromachi Period
The MUROMACHI PERIOD (室町時代, _Muromachi jidai_, also known as the MUROMACHI ERA, the ASHIKAGA ERA, or the ASHIKAGA PERIOD) is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1336 to 1573. The period marks the governance of the Muromachi or Ashikaga shogunate (_Muromachi bakufu_ or _Ashikaga bakufu_), which was officially established in 1338 by the first Muromachi shogun , Ashikaga Takauji , two years after the brief Kenmu Restoration (1333–36) of imperial rule was brought to a close. The period ended in 1573 when the 15th and last shogun of this line, Ashikaga Yoshiaki , was driven out of the capital in Kyoto by Oda Nobunaga . From a cultural perspective, the period can be divided into the Kitayama and Higashiyama periods (later 15th – early 16th centuries). The early years from 1336 to 1392 of the Muromachi period are known as the _Nanboku-chō _ or Northern and Southern Court period
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Nanboku-chō Period
The NANBOKU-CHō PERIOD (南北朝時代, Nanboku-chō jidai, "South and North courts period", also known as the NORTHERN AND SOUTHERN COURTS PERIOD), spanning from 1336 to 1392, was a period that occurred during the formative years of the Muromachi bakufu
Muromachi bakufu
of Japanese history . The Imperial seats during the Nanboku-chō period
Nanboku-chō period
were in relatively close proximity, but geographically distinct. They were conventionally identified as: * Northern capital : Kyoto
Kyoto
* Southern capital : Yoshino .During this period, there existed a Northern Imperial Court , established by Ashikaga Takauji
Ashikaga Takauji
in Kyoto
Kyoto
, and a Southern Imperial Court , established by Emperor Go-Daigo in Yoshino . Ideologically, the two courts fought for fifty years, with the South giving up to the North in 1392
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Sengoku Period
The SENGOKU PERIOD (戦国時代, _Sengoku jidai_, "Age of Warring States"; c. 1467 – c. 1603) is a period in Japanese history marked by social upheaval, political intrigue and near-constant military conflict. Japanese historians named it after the otherwise unrelated Warring States period in China. It is initiated by Ōnin War , which collapsed the Japanese feudal system under Ashikaga shogunate , and came to an end when the system was re-established under the Tokugawa shogunate by Tokugawa Ieyasu
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