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Astronomy
Astronomy
Astronomy
(from Greek: ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena. It applies mathematics, physics, and chemistry, in an effort to explain the origin of those objects and phenomena and their evolution. Objects of interest include planets, moons, stars, galaxies, and comets; the phenomena include supernova explosions, gamma ray bursts, and cosmic microwave background radiation. More generally, all phenomena that originate outside Earth's atmosphere
Earth's atmosphere
are within the purview of astronomy. A related but distinct subject, physical cosmology, is concerned with the study of the Universe
Universe
as a whole.[1] Astronomy
Astronomy
is one of the oldest of the natural sciences
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Atmosphere Of Earth
The atmosphere of Earth
Earth
is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth
Earth
and is retained by Earth's gravity. The atmosphere of Earth
Earth
protects life on Earth
Earth
by creating pressure allowing for liquid water to exist on the Earth's surface, absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention (greenhouse effect), and reducing temperature extremes between day and night (the diurnal temperature variation). By volume, dry air contains 78.09% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen,[2] 0.93% argon, 0.04% carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases. Air also contains a variable amount of water vapor, on average around 1% at sea level, and 0.4% over the entire atmosphere
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Australia
Coordinates: 25°S 133°E / 25°S 133°E / -25; 133Commonwealth of AustraliaFlagCoat of armsAnthem: "Advance Australia
Australia
Fair"[N 1]Capital Canberra 35°18′29″S 149°07′28″E / 35.30806°S 149.12444°E / -35.30806; 149.12444Largest city SydneyNational language English[N 2]DemonymAustralian Aussie
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Iranian Peoples
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle Dnieper Bronze
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Nubians
Nubians
Nubians
are an ethnolinguistic group indigenous to present-day Sudan and southern Egypt
Egypt
who originate from the early inhabitants of the central Nile
Nile
valley, believed to be one of the earliest cradles of civilization.[2] Nubian people have an ancient history predating dynastic Egypt
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Chemistry
Chemistry
Chemistry
is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.[1][2] Chemistry
Chemistry
addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. There are four types of chemical bonds: covalent bonds, in which compounds share one or more electron(s); ionic bonds, in which a compound donates one or more electrons to another compound to produce ions: cations and anions; hydrogen bonds; and Van der Waals force
Van der Waals force
bonds
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Quito
Quito
Quito
(Spanish pronunciation: [ˈkito]) (Quechua: Kitu; Aymara: Kitu), formally San Francisco de Quito, is the capital city of Ecuador, and at an elevation of 2,850 metres (9,350 ft) above sea level, it is the second-highest official capital city in the world, after La Paz, and the one which is closest to the equator.[2] It is located in the Guayllabamba river basin, on the eastern slopes of Pichincha,[3][verification needed] an active stratovolcano in the Andes
Andes
mountains. With a population of 2,671,191 according to the last census (2014), Quito
Quito
is the second most populous city in Ecuador, after Guayaquil. It is also the capital of the Pichincha province and the seat of the Metropolitan District of Quito. The canton recorded a population of 2,239,191 residents in the 2010 national census
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Recorded History
Recorded history
Recorded history
or written history is a historical narrative based on a written record or other documented communication. It contrasts with other narratives of the past, such as mythological, oral or archeological traditions. For broader world history, recorded history begins with the accounts of the ancient world around the 4th millennium BC, and coincides with the invention of writing. For some geographic regions or cultures, written history is limited to a relatively recent period in human history because of the limited use of written records. Moreover, human cultures do not always record all of the information relevant to later historians, such as the full impact of natural disasters or the names of individuals; thus, recorded history for particular types of information is limited based on the types of records kept
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Phenomena
A phenomenon (Greek: φαινόμενον, phainómenon, from the verb phainein, to show, shine, appear, to be manifest or manifest itself, plural phenomena)[1] is any thing which manifests itself. Phenomena are often, but not always, understood as "things that appear" or "experiences" for a sentient being, or in principle may be so. The term came into its modern philosophical usage through Immanuel Kant, who contrasted it with the noumenon. In contrast to a phenomenon, a noumenon cannot be directly observed. Kant was heavily influenced by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
in this part of his philosophy, in which phenomenon and noumenon serve as interrelated technical terms. Far predating this, the ancient Greek Pyrrhonist philosopher Sextus Empiricus
Sextus Empiricus
also used phenomenon and noumenon as interrelated technical terms. Cloud chamber
Cloud chamber
phenomena
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Indigenous Peoples Of The Americas
The indigenous peoples of the Americas
Americas
are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas
Americas
and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas
Americas
were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas.[24] Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering
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Ancient Greek
The Ancient Greek language
Greek language
includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(Koine Greek, 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek
Attic Greek
and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
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Ecuador
Coordinates: 2°00′S 77°30′W / 2.000°S 77.500°W / -2.000; -77.500Republic of Ecuador República del Ecuador  (Spanish)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Dios, patria y libertad" (Spanish) "Pro Deo, Patria et Libertate" (Latin) "God, homeland and freedom"Anthem: Salve, Oh Patria  (Spanish) Hail, Oh HomelandLocation of  Ecuador  (dark green) in South America  (grey)Capital Quito 00°9′S 78°21′W / 0.150°S 78.350°W / -0.150; -78.350Largest city GuayaquilOfficial languages Spanish[1]Recognized regional languages Kichwa
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Celestial Navigation
Celestial navigation, also known as astronavigation, is the ancient and modern practice of position fixing that enables a navigator to transition through a space without having to rely on estimated calculations, or dead reckoning, to know their position. Celestial navigation uses "sights", or angular measurements taken between a celestial body (e.g. the Sun, the Moon, a planet, or a star) and the visible horizon. The Sun
Sun
is most commonly used, but navigators can also use the Moon, a planet, Polaris, or one of 57 other navigational stars whose coordinates are tabulated in the nautical almanac and air almanacs. Celestial navigation
Celestial navigation
is the use of angular measurements (sights) between celestial bodies and the visible horizon to locate one's position in the world, on land as well as at sea. At a given time, any celestial body is located directly over one point on the Earth's surface
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Night Sky
The term night sky refers to the sky as seen at night. The term is usually associated with astronomy, with reference to views of celestial bodies such as stars, the Moon, and planets that become visible on a clear night after the Sun
Sun
has set. Natural light sources in a night sky include moonlight, starlight, and airglow, depending on location and timing. The aurora borealis and aurora australis light up the skies of the Arctic and Antarctic circles respectively. Occasionally, a large coronal mass ejection from the Sun
Sun
or simply high levels of solar wind extend the phenomenon toward the equator.[1] The night sky and studies of it have a historical place in both ancient and modern cultures. In the past, for instance, farmers have used the state of the night sky as a calendar to determine when to plant crops
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Quito Astronomical Observatory
The Quito Astronomical Observatory (Spanish: Observatorio Astronómico de Quito – OAQ) is a research institute of EPN, the National Polytechnic School in Quito, Ecuador. Its major research fields are astronomy and atmospheric physics.[1][1] The Quito Astronomical Observatory is one of the oldest observatories in South America and was founded in 1873. In 1963, The Government of Ecuador transferred title of the Observatory to the National Polytechnic School. The Quito Astronomical Observatory is the National Observatory of Ecuador and is located 12 minutes south of the Equator in the Historic Center of Quito.[2]Contents1 History 2 Astronomical Museum 3 Activities and services 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit]Artist Concepception, Quito Astronomical Observatory, artist Ludwig Dressel (1873).The Quito Astronomical Observatory was founded in 1873
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Equator
An equator is the intersection of the surface of a rotating sphere (such as a planet) with the plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation and midway between its poles. On Earth, the Equator
Equator
is an imaginary line on the surface, equidistant from the North and South Poles, dividing the Earth
Earth
into Northern and Southern Hemispheres
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