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Astronomy
ASTRONOMY (from Greek : αστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena. It applies mathematics , physics , and chemistry , in an effort to explain the origin of those objects and phenomena and their evolution . Objects of interest include planets , moons , stars , galaxies , and comets ; while the phenomena include supernova explosions , gamma ray bursts , and cosmic microwave background radiation . More generally, all astronomical phenomena that originate outside Earth\'s atmosphere are within the purview of astronomy. A related but distinct subject, physical cosmology , is concerned with the study of the Universe as a whole. Astronomy is the oldest of the natural sciences. The early civilizations in recorded history , such as the Babylonians , Greeks , Indians , Egyptians , Nubians , Iranians , Chinese , and Maya performed methodical observations of the night sky
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Astronomy (other)
ASTRONOMY is the scientific study of celestial objects. ASTRONOMY may also refer to: * Astronomy
Astronomy
(magazine) , an amateur American astronomy periodical * Astronomy
Astronomy
(Dragonland album) , an album by Swedish power metal band Dragonland * Astronomy
Astronomy
(Bleach album) * "Astronomy" (song) , by American rock band Blue Öyster Cult * " Astronomy
Astronomy
Domine ", a song by British psychedelic rock band Pink Floyd This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title ASTRONOMY. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Astronomy_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Star
A STAR is a luminous sphere of plasma held together by its own gravity . The nearest star to Earth is the Sun
Sun
. Many other stars are visible to the naked eye from Earth during the night, appearing as a multitude of fixed luminous points in the sky due to their immense distance from Earth. Historically, the most prominent stars were grouped into constellations and asterisms , the brightest of which gained proper names. Astronomers have assembled star catalogues that identify the known stars and provide standardized stellar designations . However, most of the stars in the Universe , including all stars outside our galaxy , the Milky Way , are invisible to the naked eye from Earth. Indeed, most are invisible from Earth even through the most powerful telescopes
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Large Magellanic Cloud
The LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD (LMC) is a satellite galaxy of the Milky Way . At a distance of 50 kiloparsecs (≈163,000 light-years ), the LMC is the third-closest galaxy to the Milky Way, after the Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal (~ 16 kpc) and the putative Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy
Galaxy
(~ 12.9 kpc, though its status as a galaxy is under dispute ) lying closer to the Galactic Center
Galactic Center
. The LMC has a diameter of about 14,000 light-years (4.3 kpc) and a mass of approximately 10 billion Sun masses (1010 solar masses ), making it roughly 1/100 as massive as the Milky Way. The LMC is the fourth-largest galaxy in the Local Group , after the Andromeda Galaxy
Galaxy
(M31), the Milky Way, and the Triangulum Galaxy
Galaxy
(M33). The LMC is classified as a Magellanic spiral
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Irregular Galaxy
An IRREGULAR GALAXY is a galaxy that does not have a distinct regular shape, unlike a spiral or an elliptical galaxy . Irregular galaxies do not fall into any of the regular classes of the Hubble sequence
Hubble sequence
, and they are often chaotic in appearance, with neither a nuclear bulge nor any trace of spiral arm structure. Collectively they are thought to make up about a quarter of all galaxies. Some irregular galaxies were once spiral or elliptical galaxies but were deformed by an uneven external gravitational force. Irregular galaxies may contain abundant amounts of gas and dust. This is not necessarily true for dwarf irregulars. Irregular galaxies are commonly small, about one tenth the mass of the Milky Way galaxy. Due to their small sizes, they are prone to environmental effects like crashing with large galaxies and intergalactic clouds
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Hubble Space Telescope
The HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE (HST) is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth
Earth
orbit in 1990 and remains in operation. Although not the first space telescope , Hubble is one of the largest and most versatile, and is well known as both a vital research tool and a public relations boon for astronomy . The HST is named after the astronomer Edwin Hubble
Edwin Hubble
, and is one of NASA's Great Observatories , along with the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory , the Chandra X-ray Observatory , and the Spitzer Space Telescope . With a 2.4-meter (7.9 ft) mirror, Hubble's four main instruments observe in the near ultraviolet , visible , and near infrared spectra . Hubble's orbit outside the distortion of Earth\'s atmosphere allows it to take extremely high-resolution images, with substantially lower background light than ground-based telescopes
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Crab Nebula
The CRAB NEBULA (catalogue designations M 1, NGC 1952, Taurus A) is a supernova remnant in the constellation of Taurus . The now-current name is due to William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse
William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse
, who observed the object in 1840 using a 36-inch telescope and produced a drawing that looked somewhat like a crab. Corresponding to a bright supernova recorded by Chinese astronomers in 1054, the nebula was observed later by English astronomer John Bevis in 1731. The nebula was the first astronomical object identified with a historical supernova explosion. At an apparent magnitude of 8.4, comparable to that of Saturn\'s moon Titan , it is not visible to the naked eye but can be made out using binoculars under favourable conditions. The nebula lies in the Perseus Arm of the Milky Way
Milky Way
galaxy, at a distance of about 2.0 kiloparsecs (6,500 ly ) from Earth
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Supernova Remnant
A SUPERNOVA REMNANT (SNR) is the structure resulting from the explosion of a star in a supernova . The supernova remnant is bounded by an expanding shock wave , and consists of ejected material expanding from the explosion, and the interstellar material it sweeps up and shocks along the way. There are two common routes to a supernova: either a massive star may run out of fuel, ceasing to generate fusion energy in its core, and collapsing inward under the force of its own gravity to form a neutron star or a black hole ; or a white dwarf star may accrete material from a companion star until it reaches a critical mass and undergoes a thermonuclear explosion. In either case, the resulting supernova explosion expels much or all of the stellar material with velocities as much as 10% the speed of light, that is, about 30,000 km/s
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek
Modern Greek
: ελληνικά , _elliniká_, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα (_ listen ), ellinikí glóssa_, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B
Linear B
and the Cypriot syllabary
Cypriot syllabary
, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems
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Natural Science
NATURAL SCIENCE is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena , based on observational and empirical evidence . Mechanisms such as peer review and repeatability of findings are used to try to ensure the validity of scientific advances. Natural science
Natural science
can be divided into two main branches: life science (or biological science) and physical science . Physical science
Physical science
is subdivided into branches, including physics , space science , chemistry , and Earth science
Earth science
. These branches of natural science may be further divided into more specialized branches (also known as fields)
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Astronomical Object
An ASTRONOMICAL OBJECT or CELESTIAL OBJECT is a naturally occurring physical entity , association, or structure that current astronomy has demonstrated to exist in the observable universe . In astronomy, the terms "object" and "body" are often used interchangeably. However, an ASTRONOMICAL BODY or CELESTIAL BODY is a single, tightly bound contiguous entity, while an astronomical or celestial object is a complex, less cohesively bound structure, that may consist of multiple bodies or even other objects with substructures. Examples for astronomical objects include planetary systems , star clusters , nebulae and galaxies , while asteroids , moons , planets , and stars are astronomical bodies. A comet may be identified as both body and object: It is a body when referring to the frozen nucleus of ice and dust, and an object when describing the entire comet with its diffuse coma and tail
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Mathematics
MATHEMATICS (from Greek μάθημα _máthēma_, “knowledge, study, learning”) is the study of topics such as quantity (numbers ), structure , space , and change . There is a range of views among mathematicians and philosophers as to the exact scope and definition of mathematics . Mathematicians seek out patterns and use them to formulate new conjectures . Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof . When mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena, then mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic , mathematics developed from counting , calculation , measurement , and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects. Practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back as written records exist. The research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or even centuries of sustained inquiry
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Physics
PHYSICS (from Ancient Greek : φυσική (ἐπιστήμη) _phusikḗ (epistḗmē)_ "knowledge of nature", from φύσις _phúsis_ "nature" ) is the natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion and behavior through space and time , along with related concepts such as energy and force . One of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, the main goal of physics is to understand how the universe behaves. Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines , perhaps the oldest through its inclusion of astronomy . Over the last two millennia, physics was a part of natural philosophy along with chemistry , biology , and certain branches of mathematics , but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, the natural sciences emerged as unique research programs in their own right
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Chemistry
CHEMISTRY is a branch of physical science that studies the composition, structure, properties and change of matter . Chemistry includes topics such as the properties of individual atoms , how atoms form chemical bonds to create chemical compounds , the interactions of substances through intermolecular forces that give matter its general properties, and the interactions between substances through chemical reactions to form different substances. Chemistry is sometimes called the central science because it bridges other natural sciences , including physics , geology and biology . For the differences between chemistry and physics see comparison of chemistry and physics . The history of chemistry can be traced to alchemy , which had been practiced for several millennia in various parts of the world
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Chronology Of The Universe
The CHRONOLOGY OF THE UNIVERSE describes the history and future of the universe according to Big Bang cosmology. The metric expansion of space is estimated to have begun 13.8 billion years ago
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Planets
Shown in order from the Sun
Sun
and in true color. Sizes are not to scale. A PLANET is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that * is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity , * is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion , and * has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals . The term planet is ancient, with ties to history, astrology , science, mythology , and religion. Several planets in the Solar System can be seen with the naked eye. These were regarded by many early cultures as divine, or as emissaries of deities . As scientific knowledge advanced, human perception of the planets changed, incorporating a number of disparate objects. In 2006, the International Astronomical Union
International Astronomical Union
(IAU) officially adopted a resolution defining planets within the Solar System
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