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Astrolabe
An ASTROLABE (Greek : ἀστρολάβος _astrolabos_; Arabic
Arabic
: ٱلأَسْطُرلاب‎‎‎‎ _al-Asturlāb_) is an elaborate inclinometer , historically used by astronomers and navigators , to measure the inclined position in the sky of a celestial body , day or night. It can thus be used to identify stars or planets, to determine local latitude given local time and vice versa, to survey, or to triangulate . It was used in classical antiquity , the Islamic Golden Age , the European Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and the Renaissance
Renaissance
for all these purposes. While the astrolabe is effective for determining latitude on land or calm seas, it is less reliable on the heaving deck of a ship in rough seas. The mariner\'s astrolabe was developed to solve that problem
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Cosmolabe
The COSMOLABE was an ancient astronomical instrument resembling the astrolabe , formerly used for measuring the angles between heavenly bodies . It is also called PANTACOSM. Jacques Besson
Jacques Besson
also uses this name, or UNIVERSAL INSTRUMENT, for his invention described in Le cosmolabe (1567), which could be used for astrometry , cartography , navigation , and surveying . NOTES This article includes a list of references , related reading or external links , BUT ITS SOURCES REMAIN UNCLEAR BECAUSE IT LACKS INLINE CITATIONS . Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (June 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message ) REFERENCES * This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Porter, Noah , ed. (1913). "Webster\'s entry needed ". Webster\'s Dictionary . Springfield, Massachusetts: C. & G. Merriam Co
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Tabriz
TABRIZ (pronounced (_ listen )) (Persian : تبریز‎‎, Azerbaijani : تبریز_) is the most populated city in Iranian Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
, one of the historical capitals of Iran
Iran
and the present capital of East Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
province . Located in the Quru River valley, between long ridges of volcanic cones in the Sahand and Eynali mountains, Tabriz's elevation ranges between 1,350 and 1,600 metres (4,430 and 5,250 ft) above sea level. The valley opens up into a plain that gently slopes down to the eastern shores of Lake Urmia , 60 kilometres (37 miles) to the west. With cold winters and temperate summers, Tabriz
Tabriz
is considered a summer resort. It was named World Carpet
Carpet
Weaving City by the World Crafts Council in October 2015 and Exemplary Tourist City of 2018 by the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
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Canterbury Astrolabe Quadrant
The CANTERBURY ASTROLABE QUADRANT is a medieval astrolabe believed to date from 1388, and which was found in an archeological dig at the House of Agnes, a bed and breakfast hotel in Canterbury
Canterbury
, Kent, England in 2005. The Canterbury
Canterbury
Astrolabe
Astrolabe
Quadrant is the only one of its kind known to definitely have been made in England. Astrolabes are calculation instruments that enable their users to tell the time and determine their geographical latitude using the position of the sun and stars. An extremely rare instrument, the Canterbury
Canterbury
Astrolabe
Astrolabe
Quadrant probably belonged to a travelling scholar who may have lost it in Canterbury
Canterbury
while on pilgrimage to that city. It is also the first astrolabe to have been found during an archaeological dig
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Ruler
A RULER, sometimes called a RULE or LINE GAUGE, is an instrument used in geometry , technical drawing , printing , engineering and building to measure distances or to rule straight lines. The ruler is a straightedge which may also contain calibrated lines to measure distances. CONTENTS * 1 Types * 2 Ruler
Ruler
applications in geometry * 3 History * 4 Curved and flexible rulers * 5 Philosophy * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Bibliography * 9 External links TYPES Gilded bronze ruler. 1 chi = 23.1 cm. Western Han (206 BCE – CE 8). Hanzhong City , China Bronze ruler. Han dynasty, 206 BCE – CE 220. Excavated in Zichang County , China A flexible ruler unstretched A flexible ruler stretched Rulers have long been made from different materials and in a wide range of sizes. Some are wooden
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek
Modern Greek
: ελληνικά , _elliniká_, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα (_ listen ), ellinikí glóssa_, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B
Linear B
and the Cypriot syllabary
Cypriot syllabary
, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems
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Arabic Language
THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS ARABIC TEXT . Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols .ARABIC ( Arabic
Arabic
: العَرَبِيَّة‎‎, _al-ʻarabiyyah_ (_ listen ) or Arabic
Arabic
: عَرَبِيّ‎‎ ʻarabī_ (_ listen ) or ) is a Central Semitic language complex that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca _ of the Arab world . It is named after the Arabs
Arabs
, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. The modern written language ( Modern Standard Arabic ) is derived from Classical Arabic . It is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media
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Inclinometer
A CLINOMETER or INCLINOMETER is an instrument for measuring angles of slope (or tilt), elevation or depression of an object with respect to gravity. It is also known as a tilt meter , tilt indicator, slope alert, slope gauge, gradient meter, gradiometer, level gauge, level meter, declinometer, and pitch "> Drawing of an inclinometer, Museo Galileo, Florence. Inclinometers include examples such as Well's in-clinometer, the essential parts of which are a flat side, or base, on which it stands, and a hollow disk just half filled with some heavy liquid. The glass face of the disk is surrounded by a graduated scale that marks the angle at which the surface of the liquid stands, with reference to the flat base. The zero line is parallel to the base, and when the liquid stands on that line, the flat side is horizontal; the 90 degree is perpendicular to the base, and when the liquid stands on that line, the flat side is perpendicular or plumb
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Astronomy
ASTRONOMY (from Greek : αστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena. It applies mathematics , physics , and chemistry , in an effort to explain the origin of those objects and phenomena and their evolution . Objects of interest include planets , moons , stars , galaxies , and comets ; while the phenomena include supernova explosions , gamma ray bursts , and cosmic microwave background radiation . More generally, all astronomical phenomena that originate outside Earth\'s atmosphere are within the purview of astronomy. A related but distinct subject, physical cosmology , is concerned with the study of the Universe as a whole. Astronomy is the oldest of the natural sciences. The early civilizations in recorded history , such as the Babylonians , Greeks , Indians , Egyptians , Nubians , Iranians , Chinese , and Maya performed methodical observations of the night sky
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Navigators
A NAVIGATOR is the person on board a ship or aircraft responsible for its navigation . The navigator's primary responsibility is to be aware of ship or aircraft position at all times. Responsibilities include planning the journey, advising the ship\'s captain or aircraft commander of estimated timing to destinations while en route, and ensuring hazards are avoided. The navigator is in charge of maintaining the aircraft or ship's nautical charts , nautical publications , and navigational equipment, and generally has responsibility for meteorological equipment and communications. With the advent of GPS
GPS
, the effort required to accurately determine one's position has decreased by orders of magnitude, so the entire field has experienced a revolutionary transition since the 1990s with traditional navigation tasks being used less frequently
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Orbital Inclination
ORBITAL INCLINATION measures the tilt of an object's orbit around a celestial body. It is expressed as the angle between a reference plane and the orbital plane or axis of direction of the orbiting object. For a satellite orbiting the Earth directly above the equator, the plane of the satellite's orbit is the same as the Earth's equatorial plane, and the satellite's orbital inclination is 0°. The general case is that the satellite's orbit is tilted; it spends half an orbit over the northern hemisphere and half over the southern. If the orbit swung between 20° north latitude and 20° south latitude, then its orbital inclination would be 20°. CONTENTS* 1 Orbits * 1.1 Natural and artificial satellites * 1.2 Exoplanets and multiple star systems * 2 Other meaning * 3 Calculation * 4 See also * 5 References ORBITSThe inclination is one of the six orbital elements describing the shape and orientation of a celestial orbit
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Astronomical Object
An ASTRONOMICAL OBJECT or CELESTIAL OBJECT is a naturally occurring physical entity , association, or structure that current astronomy has demonstrated to exist in the observable universe . In astronomy, the terms "object" and "body" are often used interchangeably. However, an ASTRONOMICAL BODY or CELESTIAL BODY is a single, tightly bound contiguous entity, while an astronomical or celestial object is a complex, less cohesively bound structure, that may consist of multiple bodies or even other objects with substructures. Examples for astronomical objects include planetary systems , star clusters , nebulae and galaxies , while asteroids , moons , planets , and stars are astronomical bodies. A comet may be identified as both body and object: It is a body when referring to the frozen nucleus of ice and dust, and an object when describing the entire comet with its diffuse coma and tail
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Triangulation
In trigonometry and geometry , TRIANGULATION is the process of determining the location of a point by forming triangles to it from known points. Specifically in surveying , triangulation per se involves only angle measurements, rather than measuring distances to the point directly as in trilateration ; the use of both angles and distance measurements is referred to as triangulateration. CONTENTS * 1 Applications * 2 History * 3 See also * 4 References APPLICATIONSOptical 3D measuring systems use this principle as well in order to determine the spatial dimensions and the geometry of an item. Basically, the configuration consists of two sensors observing the item. One of the sensors is typically a digital camera device, and the other one can also be a camera or a light projector. The projection centers of the sensors and the considered point on the object’s surface define a (spatial) triangle
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Classical Antiquity
CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY (also the CLASSICAL ERA, CLASSICAL PERIOD or CLASSICAL AGE) is a term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea , comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome , collectively known as the Greco-Roman world . It is the period in which Greek and Roman society flourished and wielded great influence throughout Europe , North Africa and Southwestern Asia . Conventionally, it is taken to begin with the earliest-recorded Epic Greek poetry of Homer (8th–7th century BC), and continues through the emergence of Christianity and the decline of the Roman Empire (5th century AD). It ends with the dissolution of classical culture at the close of Late Antiquity (300–600), blending into the Early Middle Ages (600–1000)
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Islamic Golden Age
The ISLAMIC GOLDEN AGE is the era in the history of Islam , traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 13th century, during which much of the historically Islamic world was ruled by various caliphates , and science , economic development and cultural works flourished. This period is traditionally understood to have begun during the reign of the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid (786 to 809) with the inauguration of the House of Wisdom in Baghdad , where scholars from various parts of the world with different cultural backgrounds were mandated to gather and translate all of the world's classical knowledge into the Arabic language
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Middle Ages
In the history of Europe , the MIDDLE AGES or MEDIEVAL PERIOD lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and merged into the Renaissance
Renaissance
and the Age of Discovery . The Middle Ages
Middle Ages
is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity , the medieval period, and the modern period . The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early , High , and Late Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
. Population decline
Population decline
, counterurbanisation , invasion, and movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity
Late Antiquity
, continued in the Early Middle Ages
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