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Astrolabe
An astrolabe (Greek: ἀστρολάβος astrolabos; Arabic: ٱلأَسْطُرلاب‎ al-Asturlāb) is an elaborate inclinometer, historically used by astronomers and navigators to measure the inclined position in the sky of a celestial body, day or night. The word astrolabe means "the one that catches the heavenly bodies."[1] It can thus be used to identify stars or planets, to determine local latitude given local time (and vice versa), to survey, or to triangulate. It was used in classical antiquity, the Islamic Golden Age,[2] the European Middle Ages, and the Renaissance
Renaissance
for all these purposes. The astrolabe's importance not only comes from the early development of astronomy,[1] but is also effective for determining latitude on land or calm seas
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Tetrabiblos
Tetrabiblos
Tetrabiblos
(Τετράβιβλος) 'four books', also known in Greek as Apotelesmatiká (Ἀποτελεσματικά) "Effects", and in Latin
Latin
as Quadripartitum "Four Parts", is a text on the philosophy and practice of astrology, written in the 2nd century AD by the Alexandrian scholar Claudius Ptolemy
Claudius Ptolemy
(c. AD 90–c. AD 168). Ptolemy's Almagest
Almagest
was an authoritative text on astronomy for more than a thousand years, and the Tetrabiblos, its companion volume, was equally influential in astrology, the study of the effects of astronomical cycles on earthly matters
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Astronomical Object
An astronomical object or celestial object is a naturally occurring physical entity, association, or structure that exists in the observable universe.[1] In astronomy, the terms "object" and "body" are often used interchangeably. However, an astronomical body or celestial body is a single, tightly bound contiguous entity, while an astronomical or celestial object is a complex, less cohesively bound structure, that may consist of multiple bodies or even other objects with substructures. Examples for astronomical objects include planetary systems, star clusters, nebulae and galaxies, while asteroids, moons, planets, and stars are astronomical bodies
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Arabic
Arabic
Arabic
(Arabic: العَرَبِيَّة‎) al-ʻarabiyyah [ʔalʕaraˈbijːah] ( listen) or (Arabic: عَرَبِيّ‎) ʻarabī [ˈʕarabiː] ( listen) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world.[4] It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic
Arabic
is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form (Modern Standard Arabic) [5]. The modern written language (Modern Standard Arabic) is derived from Classical Arabic
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OED
The Oxford
Oxford
English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University
Oxford University
Press. It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive resource to scholars and academic researchers, as well as describing usage in its many variations throughout the world.[2][3] The second edition came to 21,728 pages in 20 volumes, published in 1989. Work began on the dictionary in 1857, but it was not until 1884 that it began to be published in unbound fascicles as work continued on the project, under the name of A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles; Founded Mainly on the Materials Collected by The Philological Society
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Mecca
Mecca
Mecca
(/ˈmɛkə/) or Makkah (Arabic: مكة‎[1] Makkah (Hejazi pronunciation: [ˈmakːa,ˈmäkːä]) is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah
Tihamah
in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region.[8] The city is located 70 km (43 mi) inland from Jeddah
Jeddah
in a narrow valley at a height of 277 m (909 ft) above sea level, and 340 kilometres (210 mi) south of Medina
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Renaissance
The Renaissance
Renaissance
(UK: /rɪˈneɪsəns/, US: /rɛnəˈsɑːns/)[1] is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries. It is an extension of the Middle Ages, and is bridged by the Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
to modern history. It grew in fragments, with the very first traces found seemingly in Italy, coming to cover much of Europe, for some scholars marking the beginning of the modern age. The intellectual basis of the Renaissance
Renaissance
was its own invented version of humanism, derived from the concept of Roman Humanitas and the rediscovery of classical Greek philosophy, such as that of Protagoras, who said that "Man is the measure of all things." This new thinking became manifest in art, architecture, politics, science and literature
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Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, was the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.[2] During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe
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Ali Ibn Ibrahim Qomi
Abu al-Hasan Ali Ibn Ibrāhim al-Qummi was a 10th century Shi'a commentator and jurist of Persian[1] origin. He lived during the time of the eleventh Shi'a Imam Hasan al-Askari. Many traditions in the famous book Al-Kafi
Al-Kafi
were transmitted by him. Ibrāhim’s patronymic was “Abu al-Hasan” but he was also known as “al-Shaykh al-Aqdam”. He was the first to promulgate the “Kufan” traditions (Hadiths) in Qom
Qom
and collected Hadith from many scholars. He wrote more than 15 books, famously his commentary Tafsir al-Qummi. He is said to have been one of the most important Imami Quran
Quran
commentators. His other works include Akhbār Al-Quran, Nawadir al-Qur'an, al-Nasikh wa al-Mansukh(Abrogator and Abrogated books), al-Sharā'i' (Laws or revealed religions), and al-Tawhid wa al-shirk (Oneness of God and Polytheism). He died in 919 A.D. References[edit]^ Frye, ed. by R.N. (1975)
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Classical Antiquity
Classical antiquity
Classical antiquity
(also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world. It is the period in which Greek and Roman society flourished and wielded great influence throughout Europe, North Africa
North Africa
and Western Asia. Conventionally, it is taken to begin with the earliest-recorded Epic Greek poetry of Homer
Homer
(8th–7th century BC), and continues through the emergence of Christianity
Christianity
and the decline of the Roman Empire (5th century AD)
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Horizon
The horizon or skyline is the apparent line that separates earth from sky, the line that divides all visible directions into two categories: those that intersect the Earth's surface, and those that do not. At many locations, the true horizon is obscured by trees, buildings, mountains, etc., and the resulting intersection of earth and sky is called the visible horizon
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Orbital Inclination
Orbital inclination
Orbital inclination
measures the tilt of an object's orbit around a celestial body. It is expressed as the angle between a reference plane and the orbital plane or axis of direction of the orbiting object. For a satellite orbiting the Earth
Earth
directly above the equator, the plane of the satellite's orbit is the same as the Earth's equatorial plane, and the satellite's orbital inclination is 0°. The general case for a circular orbit is that it is tilted, spending half an orbit over the northern hemisphere and half over the southern
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Folk Etymology
Folk etymology or reanalysis – sometimes called pseudo-etymology, popular etymology, or analogical reformation – is a change in a word or phrase resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more familiar one.[1][2][3] The form or the meaning of an archaic, foreign, or otherwise unfamiliar word is reanalyzed as resembling more familiar words or morphemes. Rebracketing is a form of folk etymology in which a word is broken down or "bracketed" into a new set of supposed elements
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Navigators
A navigator is the person on board a ship or aircraft responsible for its navigation.[1] The navigator's primary responsibility is to be aware of ship or aircraft position at all times. Responsibilities include planning the journey, advising the ship's captain or aircraft commander of estimated timing to destinations while en route, and ensuring hazards are avoided
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Persia
Iran
Iran
(Persian: ایران‎ Irān [ʔiːˈɾɒːn] ( listen)), also known as Persia[10] (/ˈpɜːrʒə/),[11] officially the Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Iran (Persian: جمهوری اسلامی ایران‎ Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān ( listen)),[12] is a sovereign state in Western Asia.[13][14] With over 81 million inhabitants,[6] Iran
Iran
is the world's 18th-most-populous country.[15] Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), it is the second-largest country in the Middle East
Middle East
and the 17th-largest in the world
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Paris
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Paris
Paris
(French pronunciation: ​[paʁi] ( listen)) is the capital and most populous city in France, with an administrative-limits area of 105 square kilometres (41 square miles) and an official population of 2,206,488 (2015).[5] The city is a commune and department, and the heart of the 12,012-square-kilometre (4
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