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Ashkenazi Jews
ASHKENAZI JEWS, also known as ASHKENAZIC JEWS or simply ASHKENAZIM ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים‎, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation: , singular: , Modern Hebrew: ; also יְהוּדֵי אַשְׁכְּנַז‎ Y'hudey Ashkenaz), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced as a distinct community in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium . The traditional diaspora language of Ashkenazi Jews
Jews
is Yiddish
Yiddish
(a Germanic language which incorporates several dialects), with Hebrew used only as a sacred language until relatively recently. Throughout their time in Europe, Ashkenazim have made many important contributions to philosophy, scholarship, literature, art, music, and science. Ashkenazim originate from the Jews
Jews
who settled along the Rhine River, in Western Germany
Germany
and Northern France
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Czech Republic
The CZECH REPUBLIC (/ˈtʃɛk rᵻˈpʌblɪk/ ( listen ) CHEK-rə-PUB-lik ; Czech : Česká republika, Czech pronunciation: ( listen )), also known as CZECHIA (/ˈtʃɛkiə/ ( listen ), CHEK-ee-ə ; Czech : Česko, pronounced ( listen )), is a nation state in Central Europe
Europe
bordered by Germany
Germany
to the west, Austria
Austria
to the south, Slovakia
Slovakia
to the east and Poland
Poland
to the northeast. The Czech Republic
Czech Republic
covers an area of 78,866 square kilometres (30,450 sq mi) with a mostly temperate continental climate and oceanic climate . It is a unitary parliamentary republic , has 10.5 million inhabitants and the capital and largest city is Prague
Prague
, with over 1.2 million residents
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Slovakia
Coordinates : 48°40′N 19°30′E / 48.667°N 19.500°E / 48.667; 19.500 Slovak Republic Slovenská republika (Slovak ) Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: " Nad Tatrou sa blýska " "Lightning Over the Tatras" Location of Slovakia
Slovakia
(dark green) – in Europe
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Estonia
ESTONIA (/ɛˈstoʊniə/ ( listen ); Estonian : Eesti ), officially the REPUBLIC OF ESTONIA (Estonian: Eesti Vabariik), is a country in the Baltic region
Baltic region
of Northern Europe
Europe
. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland , to the west by the Baltic Sea , to the south by Latvia (343 km), and to the east by Lake Peipus and Russia
Russia
(338.6 km). Across the Baltic Sea lies Sweden
Sweden
in the west and Finland
Finland
in the north. The territory of Estonia
Estonia
consists of a mainland and 2,222 islands and islets in the Baltic Sea, covering 45,339 km2 (17,505 sq mi) of land and water, and is influenced by a humid continental climate
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English Language
ENGLISH /ˈɪŋɡlɪʃ/ ( listen ) is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England
England
and is now a global lingua franca . Named after the Angles , one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to England
England
, it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea . It is closely related to the Frisian languages , but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages
Germanic languages
particularly Norse , as well as by Latin
Latin
and Romance languages
Romance languages
, particularly French . English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain
Great Britain
by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are called Old English
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Azerbaijan
AZERBAIJAN (/ˌæzərbaɪˈʒɑːn/ ( listen ) AZ-ər-by-ZHAHN ; Azerbaijani : Azərbaycan, officially the REPUBLIC OF AZERBAIJAN (Azerbaijani : Azərbaycan Respublikası)), is a country in the South Caucasus
Caucasus
region, situated at the crossroads of Southwest Asia
Southwest Asia
and Southeastern Europe. It is bound by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia
Russia
to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia
Armenia
to the west and Iran
Iran
to the south. The exclave of Nakhchivan is bound by Armenia
Armenia
to the north and east, Iran
Iran
to the south and west, while having an 11 km border with Turkey
Turkey
in the north west
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New Zealand
NEW ZEALAND /njuːˈziːlənd/ ( listen ) (Māori : AOTEAROA ) is an island nation in the southwestern Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island
North Island
(or Te Ika-a-Māui), and the South Island
South Island
(or Te Waipounamu)—and around 600 smaller islands . New Zealand
New Zealand
is situated some 1,500 kilometres (900 mi) east of Australia
Australia
across the Tasman Sea and roughly 1,000 kilometres (600 mi) south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia , Fiji , and Tonga . Because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand
New Zealand
developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, fungal and plant life
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Sweden
Coordinates : 63°N 16°E / 63°N 16°E / 63; 16 Kingdom of Sweden Konungariket Sverige Flag Greater coat of arms MOTTO: (royal) "För Sverige – i tiden" "For Sweden
Sweden
– With the Times" ANTHEM: Du gamla, Du fria
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Latvia
LATVIA (/ˈlætviə/ ( listen ); Latvian : Latvija ), officially the REPUBLIC OF LATVIA (Latvian : Latvijas Republika), is a country in the Baltic region
Baltic region
of Northern Europe
Europe
, one of the three Baltic states . It is bordered by Estonia
Estonia
to the north, Lithuania
Lithuania
to the south, Russia
Russia
to the east, and Belarus
Belarus
to the southeast, as well as a maritime border to the west alongside Sweden
Sweden
. Latvia
Latvia
has 1,957,200 inhabitants and a territory of 64,589 km2 (24,938 sq mi). The country has a temperate seasonal climate
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Romania
Coordinates : 46°N 25°E / 46°N 25°E / 46; 25 Romania România (Romanian ) Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: Deșteaptă-te, române! '"Awaken thee, Romanian!" Location of Romania
Romania
(dark green) – in Europe
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Hebrew Language
HEBREW (/ˈhiːbruː/ ; עִבְרִית‎, Ivrit ( listen ) or ( listen )) is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel
Israel
, spoken by over 9 million people worldwide. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew
Hebrew
in the Tanakh . The earliest examples of written Paleo- Hebrew
Hebrew
date from the 10th century BCE. Hebrew
Hebrew
belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Hebrew
Hebrew
is the only living Canaanite language left, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language . Hebrew
Hebrew
had ceased to be an everyday spoken language somewhere between 200 and 400 CE, declining since the aftermath of the Bar Kokhba revolt
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Russian Language
RUSSIAN (Russian: ру́сский язы́к, tr. russkiy yazik) is an East Slavic language and an official language in Russia
Russia
, Belarus
Belarus
, Kazakhstan , Kyrgyzstan and many minor or unrecognised territories. It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Ukraine
Ukraine
, and to a lesser extent, the other countries that were once constituent republics of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and former participants of the Eastern Bloc. Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages and is one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages . Written examples of Old East Slavonic are attested from the 10th century and beyond. It is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia and the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages
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Assyrian People
ASSYRIAN PEOPLE (Syriac : ܐܫܘܪܝܐ‎), or SYRIACS (see names of Syriac Christians
Christians
), are an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East . Some of them self-identify as CHALDEANS , or as ARAMEANS . They speak various dialects of modern Aramaic as well as another language, dependent on the country of residence. The Assyrians are typically Syriac Christians
Christians
who claim descent from Assyria
Assyria
, one of the oldest civilizations in the world, dating back to 2500 BC in ancient Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
. The areas that form the Assyrian homeland
Assyrian homeland
are parts of present-day northern Iraq
Iraq
, southeastern Turkey
Turkey
, northwestern Iran
Iran
and northeastern Syria
Syria

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Mediterranean
The MEDITERRANEAN SEA is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin
Mediterranean Basin
and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe
Southern Europe
and Anatolia , on the south by North Africa , and on the east by the Levant
Levant
. Although the sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, it is usually identified as a separate body of water. Geological evidence indicates that around 5.9 million years ago, the Mediterranean was cut off from the Atlantic and was partly or completely desiccated over a period of some 600,000 years before being refilled by the Zanclean flood about 5.3 million years ago. The name Mediterranean is derived from the Latin
Latin
mediterraneus, meaning "inland" or "in the middle of land" (from medius, "middle" and terra, "land")
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Central Europe
CENTRAL EUROPE lies between Eastern Europe and Western Europe . The concept of Central Europe
Europe
is based on a common historical, social and cultural identity . Central Europe
Europe
is going through a phase of "strategic awakening", with initiatives such as the CEI , Centrope
Centrope
and the Visegrád Four . While the region's economy shows high disparities with regard to income, all Central European countries are listed by the Human Development Index
Human Development Index
as very highly developed . Central Europe
Europe
according to The World Factbook (2009), Encyclopædia Britannica , and Brockhaus Enzyklopädie
Brockhaus Enzyklopädie
(1998) Central Europe
Europe
according to P. Jones (Leibniz Institute for Regional Geography)
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Coalescent Theory
COALESCENT THEORY is a model of how gene variants sampled from a population may have originated from a common ancestor. In the simplest case, coalescent theory assumes no recombination , no natural selection , and no gene flow or population structure, meaning that each variant is equally likely to have been passed from one generation to the next. The model looks backward in time, merging alleles into a single ancestral copy according to a random process in coalescence events. Under this model, the expected time between successive coalescence events increases almost exponentially back in time (with wide variance ). Variance
Variance
in the model comes from both the random passing of alleles from one generation to the next, and the random occurrence of mutations in these alleles
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