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Ashkenazi Jews
Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews
Jews
or simply Ashkenazim (Hebrew: אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים‬, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation: [ˌaʃkəˈnazim], singular: [ˌaʃkəˈnazi], Modern Hebrew: [aʃkenaˈzim, aʃkenaˈzi]; also יְהוּדֵי אַשְׁכְּנַז‬ Y'hudey Ashkenaz),[18] are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced as a distinct community in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.[19] The traditional diaspora language of Ashkenazi Jews
Jews
is Yiddish
Yiddish
(a Germanic language which incorporates several dialects), with Hebrew used only as a sacred language until relatively recently
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Central Europe
Central Europe
Europe
is the region comprising the central part of Europe. It is said to occupy continuous territory that are otherwise conventionally Eastern Europe
Europe
and Western Europe.[1][2][3] The concept of Central Europe
Europe
is based on a common historical, social and cultural identity.[4][5][6][7][8][7][9][10][11][12][13] Central Europe
Europe
is going through a phase of "strategic awakening",[14] with initiatives such as the CEI, Centrope
Centrope
and the Visegrád
Visegrád
Four
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Russian Language
Russian (Russian: ру́сский язы́к, tr. rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language
East Slavic language
and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and many minor or unrecognised territories throughout Eurasia
Eurasia
(particularly in Eastern Europe, the Baltics, the Caucasus, and Central Asia). It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Latvia, Moldova, Ukraine
Ukraine
and to a lesser extent, the other post-Soviet states.[31][32] Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
and is one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages
Slavic languages
(which in turn is part of the larger Balto-Slavic branch)
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Romania
Coordinates: 46°N 25°E / 46°N 25°E / 46; 25Romania România  (Romanian)FlagCoat of armsAnthem: Deșteaptă-te, române! '"Awaken thee, Romanian!"Location of  Romania  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Bucharest 44°25′N 26°06′E / 44.417°N 26.100°E / 44.417; 26.100Official languages Romanian[1]Recognised minority languages[2]Albanian Armenian Bulgarian Czech Croatian German Greek Italian Macedonian Hungarian Polish Romani Russian Rusyn Serbian Slovak Tatar Turkish Ukrainian YiddishEthnic groups (2011[3])88.9% Romanians 6.1% Hungarians 3.0% Roma 0.2% Ukrainians 0.2% GermansDemonym RomanianGovernment Unitary semi-presidential republic• PresidentKlaus Iohannis• Pr
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New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand
(/njuːˈziːlənd/ ( listen); Māori: Aotearoa [aɔˈtɛaɾɔa]) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island
North Island
(Te Ika-a-Māui), and the South Island
South Island
(Te Waipounamu)—and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand
New Zealand
is situated some 1,500 kilometres (900 mi) east of Australia
Australia
across the Tasman Sea
Tasman Sea
and roughly 1,000 kilometres (600 mi) south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga. Because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand
New Zealand
developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, fungal and plant life
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Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
(/ˌæzərbaɪˈdʒɑːn/ AZ-ər-by-JAHN; Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan [ɑzæɾbɑjˈd͡ʒɑn]), officially the Republic
Republic
of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
(Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan Respublikası [ɑzæɾbɑjˈd͡ʒɑn ɾespublikɑˈsɯ]), is a country in the South Caucasus
Caucasus
region of Eurasia
Eurasia
at the crossroads of Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
and Western Asia.[7] It is bound by the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
to the east, Russia
Russia
to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia
Armenia
to the west and Iran
Iran
to the south
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Czech Republic
The Czech Republic
Czech Republic
(/ˈtʃɛk rɪˈpʌblɪk/ ( listen)[10] Czech: Česká republika, Czech pronunciation: [ˈtʃɛskaː ˈrɛpuˌblɪka] ( listen)),[11] also known as Czechia[12] (/ˈtʃɛkiə/ ( listen); Czech: Česko, pronounced [ˈtʃɛsko] ( listen)), is a landlocked country in Central Europe
Europe
bordered by Germany
Germany
to the west, Austria
Austria
to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland
Poland
to the northeast.[13] The Czech Republic
Czech Republic
covers an area of 78,866 square kilometres (30,450 sq mi) with a mostly temperate continental climate and oceanic climate. It is a unitary parliamentary republic, has 10.6 million inhabitants and the capital and largest city is Prague, with 1.3 million residents
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Slovakia
Coordinates: 48°40′N 19°30′E / 48.667°N 19.500°E / 48.667; 19.500Slovak Republic Slovenská republika  (Slovak)FlagCoat of armsAnthem: "Nad Tatrou sa blýska" "Lightning Over the Tatras"Location of  Slovakia  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]Location of Slovakia
Slovakia
in the WorldCapital and largest city Bratislava 48°09′N 17°07′E / 48.150°N 17.117°E / 48.150; 17.117Official languages SlovakEthni
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Estonia
Estonia
Estonia
(/ɛˈstoʊniə/ ( listen);[11][12] Estonian: Eesti [ˈeːsti]), officially the Republic
Republic
of Estonia
Estonia
(Estonian: Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.[13] It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland
Gulf of Finland
with Finland
Finland
on the other side, to the west by the Baltic Sea, to the south by Latvia
Latvia
(343 km), and to the east by Lake Peipus
Lake Peipus
and Russia
Russia
(338.6 km).[14] Across the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
lies Sweden
Sweden
in the west and Finland
Finland
in the north
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English Language
English is a West Germanic language
West Germanic language
that was first spoken in early medieval England
England
and is now a global lingua franca.[4][5] Named after the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to England, it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea. It is closely related to the Frisian languages, but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, particularly Norse (a North Germanic
North Germanic
language), as well as by Latin
Latin
and Romance languages, especially French.[6] English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are called Old English
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Hebrew Language
Hebrew (/ˈhiːbruː/; עִבְרִית, Ivrit [ʔivˈʁit] ( listen) or [ʕivˈɾit] ( listen)) is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel, spoken by over 9 million people worldwide.[8][9] Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites
Israelites
and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the Tanakh.[note 1] The earliest examples of written Paleo-Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE.[10] Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family
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Secular
Secularity
Secularity
(adjective form secular,[1] from Latin
Latin
saeculum meaning "worldly", "of a generation", "temporal", or a span of about 100 years[2]) is the state of being separate from religion, or of not being exclusively allied with or against any particular religion. Historically,
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Sweden
Coordinates: 63°N 16°E / 63°N 16°E / 63; 16Kingdom of Sweden Konungariket Sverige[a]FlagGreater coat of armsMotto: (royal) "För Sverige – i tiden"[a] "For Sweden
Sweden
– With the Times"[1]Anthem: Du gamla, Du fria[b] Thou ancient, thou freeRoyal anthem: Kungssången Song of the KingLocation of  Sweden  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Stockholm 59°21′N 18°4′E / 59.350°N 18.067°E / 59.35
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Irreligious
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.[1] Irreligion may include some forms of theism, depending on the religious context it is defined against; for example, in 18th-century Europe, the epitome of irreligion was deism,[2] while in contemporary East Asia
East Asia
the shared term meaning "irreligion" or "no religion" (無宗教, Chinese pron. wú zōngjiào, Japanese pron
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Kurds
The Kurds
Kurds
(Kurdish: کورد‎) or the Kurdish people (Kurdish: گەلی کورد‎), are an ethnic group[24] in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey
Turkey
(Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran
Iran
(Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq
Iraq
(Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan).[25] The Kurds
Kurds
are culturally, historically and linguistically classified as belonging to the Iranian peoples.[26][27][28] Globally, the Kurds
Kurds
are estimated to number anywhere from a low of 30 million, to possibly as high as 45 million,[29][2] with the majority living in the region they regard as Greater Kurdistan. However, there are significant Kurdish diaspora
Kurdish diaspora
communities in the cities of western Turkey, in particular Istanbul
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Levant
 Cyprus  Israel  Iraq  Jordan  Lebanon  Palestine  Syria   Turkey
Turkey
(Hatay Province)Broader definition Egypt  Greece   Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
(Libya)   Turkey
Turkey
(whole territory)Population 44,550,926[a]Demonym LevantineLanguages Levantine Arabic, Hebrew, Aramaic, Armenian, Circassian, Greek, Kurdish, Ladino, Turkish, DomariTime Zones UTC+02:00 (EET) ( Turkey
Turkey
and Cyprus)Largest citiesDamascus Amman Aleppo Baghdad Beirut Gaza Jerusalem Tel AvivThe Levant
Levant
(/ləˈvænt/) is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean. In its narrowest sense it is equivalent to the historical region of Syria
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