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Ascosphaeraceae
Arrhenosphaera Ascosphaera Bettsia The ASCOSPHAERACEAE are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota
Ascomycota
, class Eurotiomycetes
Eurotiomycetes
. REFERENCES * ^ Lumbsch TH, Huhndorf SM. (December 2007). "Outline of Ascomycota
Ascomycota
– 2007". Myconet. Chicago, USA: The Field Museum, Department of Botany. 13: 1–58
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain , kingdom , phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class , order , family , genus and species . The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Family (biology)
In biological classification , FAMILY (Latin : familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks ; it is classified between order and genus . A family may be divided into subfamilies , which are intermediate ranks above the rank of genus . In vernacular usage , a family may be named after one of its common members; for example, walnuts and hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae , commonly known as the walnut family. What does or does not belong to a family—or whether a described family should be recognized at all—are proposed and determined by practicing taxonomists. There are no hard rules for describing or recognizing a family, or any taxa. Taxonomists often take different positions about descriptions of taxa, and there may be no broad consensus across the scientific community for some time
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Index Fungorum
INDEX FUNGORUM is an international project to index all formal names (scientific names ) in the Fungus
Fungus
Kingdom . As of 2015 the project is based at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew , one of three partners along with Landcare Research and the Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences . It is somewhat comparable to the International Plant Names Index (IPNI), in which the Royal Botanic Gardens is also involved. A difference is that where IPNI does not indicate correct names , the Index Fungorum does indicate the status of a name. In the returns from the search page a currently correct name is indicated in green, while others are in blue (a few, aberrant usages of names are indicated in red). All names are linked to pages giving the correct name, with lists of synonyms
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Type Genus
In biological classification , especially zoology , the TYPE GENUS is the genus which defines a biological family and the root of the family name. CONTENTS * 1 Zoological nomenclature * 2 Botanical nomenclature * 3 See also * 4 References ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATUREAccording to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature , "The name-bearing type of a nominal family-group taxon is a nominal genus called the 'type genus'; the family-group name is based upon that of the type genus." Any family-group name must have a type genus (and any genus-group name must have a type species , but any species-group name may, but need not, have one or more type specimens). The type genus for a family-group name is also the genus that provided the stem to which was added the ending -idae (for families)
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Genus
A GENUS (/ˈdʒiːnəs/ , pl. GENERA /ˈdʒɛnərə/ ) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology . In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family . In binomial nomenclature , the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus. E.g. Felis catus
Felis catus
and Felis
Felis
silvestris are two species within the genus Felis
Felis
. Felis
Felis
is a genus within the family Felidae . The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist . The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera
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Ascomycota
ASCOMYCOTA is a division or phylum of the kingdom Fungi
Fungi
that, together with the Basidiomycota , form the subkingdom Dikarya . Its members are commonly known as the SAC FUNGI or ASCOMYCETES. They are the largest phylum of Fungi, with over 64,000 species . The defining feature of this fungal group is the "ascus " (from Greek : ἀσκός (askos), meaning "sac" or "wineskin"), a microscopic sexual structure in which nonmotile spores , called ascospores , are formed
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Fungi
Dikarya (inc. Deuteromycota ) Ascomycota
Ascomycota
Pezizomycotina Saccharomycotina Taphrinomycotina Basidiomycota Agaricomycotina Pucciniomycotina Ustilaginomycotina Subphyla incertae sedis Entomophthoromycotina Kickxellomycotina Mucoromycotina Zoopagomycotina A FUNGUS (/ˈfʌŋɡəs/ ; plural : FUNGI or FUNGUSES ) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds , as well as the more familiar mushrooms . These organisms are classified as a kingdom , FUNGI, which is separate from the other eukaryotic life kingdoms of plants and animals
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Eurotiomycetes
The EUROTIOMYCETES are a class of ascomycetes within the subphylum Pezizomycotina
Pezizomycotina
. Some members of the Eurotiomycetes
Eurotiomycetes
were previously grouped in the class Plectomycetes . CONTENTS * 1 Nomenclature * 2 Morphology * 3 References * 4 External links NOMENCLATUREThe scientific classification for this particular class is particularly tricky, with one particular species having both the anamorph , and teleomorph names used in reference to them. * e.g. anamorph form = Penicillium
Penicillium
; teleomorph form = Talaromyces or Eupenicillium . MORPHOLOGYMany members (Eurotiales, Onygenales) produce an enclosed structure cleistothecium within which they produce their spores. REFERENCES * ^ N. Gunde-Cimerman; A. Oren; A. Plemenitaš, eds. (2006). Adaptation to Life at High Salt Concentrations in Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya
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Onygenales
Ajellomycetaceae Arachnomycetaceae Arthrodermataceae Ascosphaeraceae Gymnoascaceae Onygenaceae The ONYGENALES are an order of Ascomycetes
Ascomycetes
, within the eurotiomycetes Ascomycetes
Ascomycetes
. Onygenales
Onygenales
can consume and break down keratin , the main component of the outer layer of skin. They are primarily found on animals, droppings, and areas frequented by animals. One species, Trichophyton rubrum , is the primary cause of athlete\'s foot . The Onygenales
Onygenales
are important as emerging human pathogens because of the rising rates of immunosuppression due to live-organ transplant, HIV/AIDS, and autoimmune disorders such as lupus erythematosus . REFERENCES * ^ "Onygenales". New Brunswick Museum . Retrieved 2012-07-28. * ^ Alexopolous, C.J. W. Mims, Charles
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Bettsia
BETTSIA is a genus of fungi within the Ascosphaeraceae family. This is a monotypic genus, containing the single species BETTSIA ALVEI. REFERENCES * ^ Lumbsch TH, Huhndorf SM. (December 2007). "Outline of Ascomycota – 2007". Myconet. Chicago, USA: The Field Museum, Department of Botany. 13: 1–58
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Ascosphaera
Pericystis Betts (1912) ASCOSPHAERA is a genus of fungi in the family Ascosphaeraceae . It was described in 1955 by mycologists Charles F. Splitoir and Lindsay S. Olive . Members of the genus are insect pathogens. The type species , A. apis , causes chalkbrood disease in honey bees . The reproductive ascospores of the fungus are produced within a unique structure, the spore cyst, or sporocyst. SPECIES * A. acerosa * A. aggregata * A. apis * A. asterophora * A. atra * A. callicarpa * A. celerrima * A. cinnamomea * A. duoformis * A. fimicola * A. flava * A. fusiformis * A. larvis * A. major * A. naganensis * A. osmophila * A. parasitica * A. pollenicola * A. proliperda * A. scaccaria * A. solina * A. subcuticularis * A. tenax * A. torchioi * A. variegata * A. verrucosa * A. xerophila REFERENCES * ^ Betts AD. (1912). "A bee-hive fungus, Pericystis alvei, gen. et sp. nov". Annals of Botany. 26 (3): 795–800
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Arrhenosphaera
ARRHENOSPHAERA is a fungal genus in the family Ascosphaeraceae . This is a monotypic genus, containing the single species ARRHENOSPHAERA CRANEAE. REFERENCES * ^ Lumbsch TH, Huhndorf SM. (December 2007). "Outline of Ascomycota – 2007". Myconet. Chicago, USA: The Field Museum, Department of Botany. 13: 1–58
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Ascosphaeraceae
Arrhenosphaera Ascosphaera Bettsia The ASCOSPHAERACEAE are a family of fungi in the Ascomycota
Ascomycota
, class Eurotiomycetes
Eurotiomycetes
. REFERENCES * ^ Lumbsch TH, Huhndorf SM. (December 2007). "Outline of Ascomycota
Ascomycota
– 2007". Myconet. Chicago, USA: The Field Museum, Department of Botany. 13: 1–58
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