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Ascorbic Acid
Vitamin
Vitamin
C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.[1] The disease scurvy is prevented and treated with vitamin C-containing foods or dietary supplements.[1] Evidence does not support use in the general population for the prevention of the common cold.[2][3] There is, however, some evidence that regular use may shorten the length of colds.[4] It is unclear if supplementation affects the risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, or dementia.[5][6] It may be taken by mouth or by injection.[1]
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Vitamin C (other)
Vitamin C is an essential nutrient. Vitamin C may also refer to:Vitamin C (singer), an American pop music singer, dancer and actressVitamin C (album), her debut album"Vitamin C" (song), a song by CanSee also[edit]Vitamin C and the common cold Vitamin C deficiency or scurvy Vitamin C megadosage, high doses used in an attempt to obtain specific therapeutic effectsThis disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Vitamin C. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the
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Common Cold
The common cold, also known simply as a cold, is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract that primarily affects the nose.[7] The throat, sinuses, and larynx may also be affected.[5] Signs and symptoms may appear less than two days after exposure to the virus.[5] These may include coughing, sore throat, runny nose, sneezing, headache, and fever.[2][3] People usually recover in seven to ten days,[2] but some symptoms may last up to three weeks.[6] Occasionally those with other health problems may develop pneumonia.[2] Well over 200 virus strains are implicated in causing the common cold, with rhinoviruses being the most common.[11] They spread through the air during close contact with infected people or indirectly through contact with objects in the environment, followed by transfer to the mouth or nose.[2] Risk factors include going to daycare, not sleeping well, and psychological stress.[5] The symptoms are mostly due to the body's immune response to the infection rat
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ECHA InfoCard
The European Chemicals Agency
European Chemicals Agency
(ECHA; /ˈɛkə/ EK-ə)[citation needed] is an agency of the European Union
European Union
which manages the technical, scientific and administrative aspects of the implementation of the European Union regulation
European Union regulation
called Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH). ECHA is the driving force among regulatory authorities in implementing the EU's chemicals legislation. ECHA helps companies to comply with the legislation, advances the safe use of chemicals, provides information on chemicals and addresses chemicals of concern
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Chemical Formula
A chemical formula is a way of information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs. These are limited to a single typographic line of symbols, which may include subscripts and superscripts. A chemical formula is not a chemical name, and it contains no words. Although a chemical formula may imply certain simple chemical structures, it is not the same as a full chemical structural formula. Chemical formulas can fully specify the structure of only the simplest of molecules and chemical substances, and are generally more limited in power than are chemical names and structural formulas. The simplest types of chemical formulas are called empirical formulas, which use letters and numbers indicating the numerical proportions of atoms of each type
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Molar Mass
In chemistry, the molar mass M is a physical property defined as the mass of a given substance (chemical element or chemical compound) divided by the amount of substance.[1] The base SI unit
SI unit
for molar mass is kg/mol
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JSmol
Jmol
Jmol
is computer software for molecular modelling chemical structures in 3-dimensions.[2] Jmol
Jmol
returns a 3D representation of a molecule that may be used as a teaching tool,[3] or for research e.g., in chemistry and biochemistry. It is written in the programming language Java, so it can run on the operating systems Windows, macOS, Linux, and Unix, if Java is installed. It is free and open-source software released under a GNU Lesser General Public License
GNU Lesser General Public License
(LGPL) version 2.0. A standalone application and a software development kit (SDK) exist that can be integrated into other Java applications, such as Bioclipse and Taverna. A popular feature is an applet that can be integrated into web pages to display molecules in a variety of ways
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Density
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume. The symbol most often used for density is ρ (the lower case Greek letter rho), although the Latin letter D can also be used. Mathematically, density is defined as mass divided by volume:[1] ρ = m V displaystyle rho = frac m V where ρ is the density, m is the mass, and V is the volume. In some cases (for instance, in the United States oil and gas industry), density is loosely defined as its weight per unit volume,[2] although this is scientifically inaccurate – this quantity is more specifically called specific weight. For a pure substance the density has the same numerical value as its mass concentration. Different materials usually have different densities, and density may be relevant to buoyancy, purity and packaging
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Melting Point
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure. At the melting point the solid and liquid phase exist in equilibrium. The melting point of a substance depends on pressure and is usually specified at standard pressure. When considered as the temperature of the reverse change from liquid to solid, it is referred to as the freezing point or crystallization point. Because of the ability of some substances to supercool, the freezing point is not considered as a characteristic property of a substance
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Boiling Point
The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid[1][2] and the liquid changes into a vapor. The boiling point of a liquid varies depending upon the surrounding environmental pressure. A liquid in a partial vacuum has a lower boiling point than when that liquid is at atmospheric pressure. A liquid at high pressure has a higher boiling point than when that liquid is at atmospheric pressure. For a given pressure, different liquids boil at different temperatures
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Simplified Molecular-input Line-entry System
The simplified molecular-input line-entry system (SMILES) is a specification in form of a line notation for describing the structure of chemical species using short ASCII
ASCII
strings. SMILES strings can be imported by most molecule editors for conversion back into two-dimensional drawings or three-dimensional models of the molecules. The original SMILES specification was initiated in the 1980s. It has since been modified and extended. In 2007, an open standard called OpenSMILES was developed in the open-source chemistry community
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Cancer
Cancer
Cancer
is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.[2][8] These contrast with benign tumors, which do not spread to other parts of the body.[8] Possible signs and symptoms include a lump, abnormal bleeding, prolonged cough, unexplained weight loss, and a change in bowel movements.[1] While these symptoms may indicate cancer, they may have other causes.[1] Over 100 types of cancers affect humans.[8] Tobacco
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NIAID ChemDB
The ChemDB HIV, Opportunistic Infection and Tuberculosis Therapeutics Database is a publicly available tool developed by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases to compile preclinical data on small molecules with potential therapeutic action against HIV/AIDS
HIV/AIDS
and related opportunistic infections.[1]Contents1 Characteristics and content 2 Opportunistic pathogens 3 References 4 External linksCharacteristics and content[edit] Since 1989, the ChemDB has been updated with information extracted from peer-reviewed published literature, conference proceedings and patents.[2] Data are compiled on compound structure, chemical properties, biological activity (e.g. targeted protein, IC50, EC50, Cytotoxicity, TI, Ki, and or MIC), and reference details (e.g
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Cardiovascular Disease
Cardiovascular disease
Cardiovascular disease
(CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.[2] Cardiovascular disease
Cardiovascular disease
includes coronary artery diseases
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Dementia
Dementia
Dementia
is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.[2] Other common symptoms include emotional problems, problems with language, and a decrease in motivation.[2][3] A person's consciousness is usually not affected.[2] A dementia diagnosis requires a change from a person's usual mental functioning and a greater decline than one would expect due to aging.[2][11] These diseases also have a significant effect on a person's caregivers.[2] The most common t
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Pregnancy
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.[4] A multiple pregnancy involves more than one offspring, such as with twins.[12] Pregnancy can occur by sexual intercourse or assisted reproductive technology.[6] Childbirth
Childbirth
typically occurs around 40 weeks from the last menstrual period (LMP).[4][5] This is just over nine months, where each month averages 29½ days.[4][5] When measured from conception it is about 38 weeks.[5] An embryo is the developing offspring during the first eight weeks following conception, after which, the term fetus is used until birt
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