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Artificial Turf
Artificial turf is a surface of synthetic fibers made to look like natural grass. It is most often used in arenas for sports that were originally or are normally played on grass. However, it is now being used on residential lawns and commercial applications as well. The main reason is maintenance—artificial turf stands up to heavy use, such as in sports, and requires no irrigation or trimming. Domed, covered, and partially covered stadiums may require artificial turf because of the difficulty of getting grass enough sunlight to stay healthy. Artificial turf does have its downside, however: limited life, periodic cleaning requirements, petroleum use, toxic chemicals from infill, and heightened health and safety concerns. Artificial turf first gained substantial attention in the 1960s, when it was used in the newly constructed Astrodome
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Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome
The Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome (commonly called the Metrodome) was a domed sports stadium located in downtown Minneapolis, Minnesota. It opened in 1982 as a replacement for Metropolitan Stadium, the former home of the National Football League's (NFL) Minnesota Vikings and Major League Baseball's (MLB) Minnesota Twins, and Memorial Stadium, the former home of the Minnesota Golden Gophers football team. The Metrodome was the home of the Vikings from 1982 to 2013, the Twins from 1982 to 2009, the National Basketball Association's (NBA) Minnesota Timberwolves in their 1989–90 inaugural season, the Golden Gophers football team until 2008 and the Golden Gophers baseball team from 2004 to 2012. It was also the home of the Minnesota Strikers of the North American Soccer League in 1984. On January 18, 2014, the Metrodome roof was deflated, signaling the beginning of demolition work
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Chicago White Sox
The Chicago White Sox are an American professional baseball team based in Chicago. The White Sox compete in Major League Baseball (MLB) as a member club of the American League (AL) American League Central">Central division. Home games are held at Guaranteed Rate Field, located on the city's South Side, and the team is owned by Jerry Reinsdorf. They are one of two major league clubs in Chicago; the other is the Chicago Cubs"> Chicago Cubs, who are a member of the National League (NL) National League Central">Central division. One of the American League's eight charter franchises, the franchise was established as a major league baseball club in 1901. The club was originally called the Chicago White Stockings, but this was soon shortened to Chicago White Sox
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Comiskey Park
Comiskey Park was a baseball park in Chicago, Illinois, located in the Bridgeport community on the near-southwest side of the city. The stadium served as the home of the Chicago White Sox"> Chicago White Sox of the American League from Chicago White Sox season">1910 through Chicago White Sox season">1990. Built by White Sox owner Charles Comiskey and designed by Zachary Taylor Davis, Comiskey Park hosted four World Series and more than six thousand Major League Baseball games. Also, in one of the most famous boxing matches in history, the field was the site of the 1937 heavyweight title match in which Joe Louis defeated then champion James J
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Historic empires Pavillon royal de France.svg
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Philadelphia
Philadelphia (/ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə/) is the largest city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the United States cities by population">sixth-most populous city in the United States, with an estimated population of 1,567,872 and more than 6 million in the seventh-largest metropolitan statistical area, as of 2016. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the Delaware Valley"> Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware River">Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis
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Cincinnati
Cincinnati (/ˌsɪnsɪˈnæti/ SIN-sih-NAT-ee) is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and seat of Hamilton County. Settled in 1788, the city was located at the north side of the confluence of the Licking River to the Ohio River">Ohio. The city drives the Cincinnati–Middletown–Wilmington combined statistical area, which had a population of 2,172,191 in the 2010 census. With a population of 298,800, Cincinnati is the third-largest city proper in Ohio and the 65th-biggest in the United States. It is the fastest growing economic power in the Midwestern United States and the 28th-biggest metropolitan statistical area in the United States
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Kansas City Royals
The Kansas City Royals are an American professional baseball team based in Kansas City, Missouri. The Royals compete in Major League Baseball (MLB) as a member team of the American League (AL) American League Central">Central division
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Kauffman Stadium
Kauffman Stadium (/ˈkɔːfmən/), often called "The K", is a baseball park located in Kansas City, Missouri, that is home to the Kansas City Royals of Major League Baseball (MLB). It is part of the Truman Sports Complex together with the adjacent Arrowhead Stadium, home of the Kansas City Chiefs of the National Football League. The ballpark is named for Ewing Kauffman, the founder and first owner of the Royals. It opened in 1973 as Royals Stadium and was named for Kauffman on July 2, 1993. The ballpark's listed seating capacity since 2009 is 37,903. Kauffman Stadium was built specifically for baseball during an era when building multisport "cookie-cutter" stadiums was commonplace. It is often held up along with Dodger Stadium in Los Angeles as one of the best examples of modernist stadium design
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National League
The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs, known simply as the National League (NL), is the older of two leagues constituting Major League Baseball (MLB) in the United States and Canada, and the world's oldest current professional team sports league. Founded on February 2, 1876, to replace the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players, it is sometimes called the Senior Circuit, in contrast to MLB's other league, the American League, which was founded 25 years later. Both leagues currently have 15 teams. The two league champions of 1903 arranged to compete against each other in the inaugural World Series. After the 1904 champions failed to reach a similar agreement, the two leagues formalized the World Series as an arrangement between the leagues
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Target Field
Target Field is a baseball park in the historic warehouse (or North Loop) district of downtown Minneapolis. It is the home ballpark of the Minnesota Twins, the state's Major League Baseball (MLB) franchise. It also has served as the occasional home of Minnesota Golden Gophers baseball, and other local and regional baseball events. The ballpark officially opened with a capacity of 39,504 on April 12, 2010, and has since hosted the 2014 Major League Baseball All-Star Game. It is an open-air ballpark, and not considered "roof-ready" in any way. Though designed as a baseball venue, it can accommodate football, soccer, and outdoor concerts
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1965 Houston Astros Season
The 1965 Houston Astros season was the franchise's first season in the Houston Astrodome, as well as its first season as the Astros after three seasons known as the Colt .45s. It involved the Houston Astros finishing in ninth place in the National League with a record of 65–97, 32 games behind the eventual World Series champion Los Angeles Dodgers
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Rogers Centre
Rogers Centre, originally named SkyDome, is a multi-purpose stadium in Downtown Toronto, Ontario, Canada, situated just southwest of the CN Tower near the northern shore of Lake Ontario. Opened in 1989 on the former Railway Lands, it is home to the Toronto Blue Jays"> Toronto Blue Jays of Major League Baseball (MLB). Previously, the stadium was home to the Toronto Argonauts"> Toronto Argonauts of the Canadian Football League (CFL) and the Toronto Raptors"> Toronto Raptors of the National Basketball Association (NBA). The Buffalo Bills of the National Football League (NFL) played an annual game at the stadium as part of the Toronto Series">Bills Toronto Series from 2008 to 2013
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American Football League
The American Football League (AFL) was a major professional American football league that operated for ten seasons from 1960 until 1969, when it merged with the older National Football League (NFL). The upstart AFL operated in direct competition with the more established NFL throughout its existence. It was more successful than earlier rivals to the NFL with the same name, the American Football League (1926)"> American Football League (1926), American Football League (1936)"> American Football League (1936), American Football League (1940)"> American Football League (1940), and the later All-America Football Conference ((1944-1950), played 1946-1949). This fourth version of the AFL was the most successful, created by a number of owners who had been refused NFL expansion franchises or had minor shares of NFL franchises
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