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Article (grammar)
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation ART) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope. The articles in English grammar are the and a/an, and in certain contexts some. "An" and "a" are modern forms of the Old English "an", which in Anglian dialects
Anglian dialects
was the number "one" (compare "on" in Saxon dialects) and survived into Modern Scots
Modern Scots
as the number "owan"
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Elision
In linguistics, an elision or deletion is the omission of one or more sounds (such as a vowel, a consonant, or a whole syllable) in a word or phrase. Sometimes sounds are elided to make a word easier to pronounce. The word elision is frequently used in linguistic description of living languages, and deletion is often used in historical linguistics for a historical sound change. In English as spoken by native speakers, elisions come naturally, and are often described as "slurred" or "muted" sounds. Often, elisions are deliberate
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Maori Language
Māori (/ˈmaʊri/; Māori pronunciation: [ˈmaːɔɾi]  listen), also known as Te Reo ("the language"), is an Eastern Polynesian language spoken by the Māori people, the indigenous population of New Zealand. Since 1987, it has been one of New Zealand's official languages. It is closely related to Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Māori, Tuamotuan, and Tahitian
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Irish Language
The Irish language
Irish language
(Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language,[5] is a Goidelic
Goidelic
language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland
Ireland
and historically spoken by the Irish people. Irish is spoken as a first language by a small minority of Irish people, and as a second language by a larger group of non-native speakers. Irish has been the predominant language of the Irish people
Irish people
for most of their recorded history, and they have brought it with them to other regions, notably Scotland
Scotland
and the Isle of Man, where Middle Irish gave rise to Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
and Manx respectively
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Te Rauparaha
Te Rauparaha
Te Rauparaha
(1760s – 27 November 1849)[1] was a Māori rangatira (chief) and war leader of the Ngāti Toa
Ngāti Toa
tribe who took a leading part in the Musket Wars. He was influential in the original sale of land to the New Zealand Company
New Zealand Company
and was a participant in the Wairau Affray
Wairau Affray
in Marlborough.Contents1 Early days 2 Migration 3 Trade and further conquest 4 European settlement 5 Capture and eventual death 6 Haka 7 References 8 External linksEarly days[edit] From 1807, muskets became the weapon of choice and partly changed the character of tribal warfare
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English Language
English is a West Germanic language
West Germanic language
that was first spoken in early medieval England
England
and is now a global lingua franca.[4][5] Named after the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to England, it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea. It is closely related to the Frisian languages, but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, particularly Norse (a North Germanic
North Germanic
language), as well as by Latin
Latin
and Romance languages, especially French.[6] English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are called Old English
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Epenthesis
In phonology, epenthesis (/ɪˈpɛnθɪsɪs/; Greek ἐπένθεσις) means the addition of one or more sounds to a word, especially to the interior of a word (at the beginning prothesis and at the end paragoge are commonly used). The word epenthesis comes from epi "in addition to" and en "in" and thesis "putting"
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Collapse Of The Soviet Union
The dissolution of the Soviet Union[a] occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union. It was a result of the declaration number 142-Н of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union.[1] The declaration acknowledged the independence of the former Soviet republics and created the Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
(CIS), although five of the signatories ratified it much later or did not do so at all. On the previous day, 25 December 1991, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev, the eighth and final leader of the Soviet Union, resigned, declared his office extinct, and handed over its powers – including control of the Soviet nuclear missile launching codes – to Russian President Boris Yeltsin
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Grammatical Case
Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause, or sentence. In some languages, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, determiners, participles, prepositions, numerals, articles and their modifiers take different inflected forms depending on what case they are in. As a language evolves, cases can merge (for instance, in Ancient Greek, the locative case merged with the dative), a phenomenon formally called syncretism.[2] English has largely lost its case system, although personal pronouns still have three cases that are simplified forms of the nominative, accusative and genitive cases that are used with personal pronouns: subjective case (I, you, he, she, it, we, they, who, whoever), objective case (me, you, him, her, it, us, them, whom, whomever) and possessive case (my, mine; your, yours; his; her, hers; its; our, ours; their, theirs; whose; whosever[3])
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Sudan
The Sudan
Sudan
or Sudan
Sudan
(/suːˈdæn, -ˈdɑːn/ ( listen);[8][9] Arabic: السودان‎ as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan
Sudan
since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic
Republic
of the Sudan[10] (Arabic: جمهورية السودان‎ Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northern Africa. It is bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea, Eritrea
Eritrea
and Ethiopia
Ethiopia
to the east, South Sudan
Sudan
to the south, the Central African Republic
Central African Republic
to the southwest, Chad
Chad
to the west and Libya
Libya
to the northwest. It is the third largest country in Africa
Africa
covering 1,886,068 square kilometres (728,215 sq mi)
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Congo (Brazzaville)
Coordinates: 1°26′24″S 15°33′22″E / 1.44°S 15.556°E / -1.44; 15.556Republic of the Congo République du Congo  (French)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Unité, Travail, Progrès" (French) (English: "Unity, Work, Progress")Anthem: La Congolaise  (French) (English: "The Congolese")Location of  Republic of the Congo  (dark blue) – in Africa  (light blue & dark grey) – in the African Union  (light blue)Capital and largest city Brazzaville 4°16′S 15°17′E / 4.267°S 15.283°E / -4.267; 15.283Official languages FrenchRecognised regional languagesKituba LingalaEthnic groups48% Kongo 20% Sangha 17% Teke 12% M'Bochi 3% Europeans / othersDemonym CongoleseGovernment Unitary semi-presidential republic• PresidentDenis Sassou Nguesso• Pr
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Grammatical Modifier
In grammar, a modifier is an optional element in phrase structure or clause structure.[1] A modifier is so called because it is said to modify (change the meaning of) another element in the structure, on which it is dependent. Typically the modifier can be removed without affecting the grammar of the sentence. For example, in the English sentence This is a red ball, the adjective red is a modifier, modifying the noun ball. Removal of the modifier would leave This is a ball, which is grammatically correct and equivalent in structure to the original sentence. Other terms used with a similar meaning are qualifier (the word qualify may be used in the same way as modify in this context), attribute, and adjunct. These concepts are often distinguished from complements and arguments, which may also be considered dependent on another element, but are considered an indispensable part of the structure
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Democratic Republic Of The Congo
Coordinates: 2°52′48″S 23°39′22″E / 2.88°S 23.656°E / -2.88; 23.656Democratic Republic of the Congo République démocratique du Congo  (French) Repubilika ya Kôngo ya Dimokalasi  (Kongo) Republíki ya Kongó Demokratíki  (Lingala) Jamhuri ya Kidemokrasia ya Kongo  (Swahili) Ditunga dia Kongu wa Mungalaata  (Luba-Katanga)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Justice – Paix – Travail" (French) "Justice – Peace – Work"Anthem: Debout Congolais  (French) "Arise, Congolese"Location of  Democratic Republic of the Congo  (dark green)Capital and largest city Kinshasa 4°19′S 15°19′E / 4.317°S 15.317°E / -4.317; 15.317Official languages FrenchRecognised national languagesLingala Kikongo Swahili TshilubaEthnic groups See
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The Gambia
The Gambia
The Gambia
(/ˈɡæmbiə/ ( listen)), officially the Republic
Republic
of The Gambia,[5][6] is a country in West Africa
West Africa
that is entirely surrounded by Senegal
Senegal
except for its coastline on the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
at its western end. It is the smallest country on mainland Africa.[7] The Gambia
The Gambia
is situated on either side of the Gambia River, the nation's namesake, which flows through the centre of The Gambia
The Gambia
and empties into the Atlantic Ocean. Its area is 10,689 square kilometres (4,127 sq mi) with a population of 1,857,181 as of the April 2013 census
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Moscow Kremlin
The Moscow
Moscow
Kremlin (Russian: Моско́вский Кремль, tr. Moskovskiy Kreml, IPA: [mɐˈskofskʲɪj krʲemlʲ]), usually referred to as the Kremlin, is a fortified complex at the heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River
Moskva River
to the south, Saint Basil's Cathedral
Cathedral
and Red Square
Red Square
to the east, and the Alexander Garden
Alexander Garden
to the west. It is the best known of the kremlins (Russian citadels) and includes five palaces, four cathedrals, and the enclosing Kremlin Wall with Kremlin towers. Also within this complex is the Grand Kremlin Palace that was formerly the tsar's Moscow
Moscow
residence
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Boris Yeltsin
ElectionsElectoral history 1991 1996PresidencyFirst inauguration Second inauguration Cabinet 1993 Constitutional crisis International tripsPost-PresidencyPresidential Center Presidential Library Illness Death and state funeralMedia galleryv t eBoris Nikolayevich Yeltsin
Yeltsin
(Russian: Бори́с Никола́евич Е́льцин, IPA: [bɐˈrʲis nʲɪkɐˈlaɪvʲɪtɕ ˈjelʲtsɨn] ( listen); 1 February 1931 – 23 April 2007) was a Soviet and Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999. Originally a supporter of Mikhail Gorbachev, Yeltsin
Yeltsin
emerged under the perestroika reforms as one of Gorbachev's most powerful political opponents. During the late 1980s, Yeltsin
Yeltsin
had been a candidate member of the Politburo, and in late 1987 tendered a letter of resignation in protest
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