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Aronia
_ARONIA_ is a genus of deciduous shrubs , the CHOKEBERRIES, in the family Rosaceae native to eastern North America
North America
and most commonly found in wet woods and swamps. The genus is usually considered to contain two or three species, one of which is naturalized in Europe. A fourth form that has long been cultivated under the name _Aronia_ is now considered to be an intergeneric hybrid, _Sorbaronia mitschurinii _. Chokeberries are cultivated as ornamental plants and as food products. The sour berries can be eaten raw off the bush, but are more frequently processed. They can be found in wine, jam, syrup, juice, soft spreads, tea, salsa, chili starters, extracts, beer, ice cream, gummies and tinctures . The name "chokeberry" comes from the astringency of the fruits, which create a sensation making one's mouth pucker. Chokeberries are often mistakenly called chokecherries , which is the common name for _ Prunus virginiana _. Further adding to the ambiguity, a variety of _Prunus virginiana_ is named _melanocarpa_, readily confused with _black chokeberry_, commonly referred to as "black chokeberry" or "aronia". Aronia
Aronia
berries and chokecherries are both high in polyphenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins , yet the two plants are distantly related within the _Rosaceae_ family
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Malus Floribunda
MALUS FLORIBUNDA, common name JAPANESE FLOWERING CRABAPPLE, JAPANESE CRAB, PURPLE CHOKEBERRY, or SHOWY CRABAPPLE, originates from Japan and East Asia. It may be a wild species, or a hybrid of M. sieboldii x M. baccata. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Resistance * 3 Awards * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links DESCRIPTION Red floribunda fruits Yellow floribunda fruits Malus floribunda forms a round-headed, small deciduous tree with narrow leaves on arching branches. The flowers are white or pale pink, opening from crimson buds. The fruit is red and yellow, of about 1 cm in diameter . RESISTANCETree has good disease resistance to apple scab and powdery mildew. The initiators of the PRI disease resistant apple breeding program have discovered that Malus floribunda has resistance to the apple scab and founded the program to introduce this VF gene into cultivated apples. Their work had been progressing with great success. AWARDSThis crabapple species is considered as one of the best crabapples for form and flower and has gained the Royal Horticultural Society 's Award of Garden Merit . SEE ALSO * Applecrab REFERENCES * ^ "GardenWeb\'s HortiPlex Plant Database, search results for: Malus". Retrieved September 11, 2009. * ^ A B C "USDA GRIN Taxonomy". * ^ "BSBI List 2007". Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-01-25. Retrieved 2014-10-17
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις _(taxis )_, meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία _(-nomia)_, meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms. With the advent of such fields of study as phylogenetics , cladistics , and systematics , the Linnaean system has progressed to a system of modern biological classification based on the evolutionary relationships between organisms, both living and extinct
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Plant
PLANTS are mainly multicellular , predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom PLANTAE. The term is today generally limited to the GREEN PLANTS, which form an unranked clade VIRIDIPLANTAE (Latin for "green plants"). This includes the flowering plants , conifers and other gymnosperms , ferns , clubmosses , hornworts , liverworts , mosses and the green algae , and excludes the red and brown algae . Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals , and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of "plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria ). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts , derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria . Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations , although asexual reproduction is also common. There are about 300–315 thousand species of plants, of which the great majority, some 260–290 thousand, are seed plants (see the table below ). Green plants provide most of the world's molecular oxygen and are the basis of most of Earth's ecologies, especially on land
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Angiosperms
sweet bay SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION Kingdom: Plantae Subkingdom: Embryophyta (unranked): Spermatophyta (unranked): ANGIOSPERMS GROUPS (APG IV) Basal angiosperms * Amborellales * Nymphaeales
Nymphaeales
* Austrobaileyales Core angiosperms * magnoliids * Chloranthales * monocots * Ceratophyllales * eudicots SYNONYMS * Anthophyta Cronquist * Angiospermae Lindl. * Magnoliophyta Cronquist , Takht. they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers , endosperm within the seeds, and the production of fruits that contain the seeds. Etymologically, angiosperm means a plant that produces seeds within an enclosure, in other words, a fruiting plant. The term "angiosperm" comes from the Greek composite word (_angeion_, "case" or "casing", and _sperma_, "seed") meaning "enclosed seeds", after the enclosed condition of the seeds. The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms in the Triassic Period , during the range 245 to 202 million years ago (mya), and the first flowering plants are known from 160 mya. They diversified extensively during the Lower Cretaceous
Cretaceous
, became widespread by 120 mya, and replaced conifers as the dominant trees from 100 to 60 mya
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Eudicots
The EUDICOTS, EUDICOTIDAE or EUDICOTYLEDONS are a monophyletic clade of flowering plants that had been called TRICOLPATES or NON-MAGNOLIID DICOTS by previous authors. The botanical terms were introduced in 1991 by evolutionary botanist James A. Doyle and paleobotanist Carol L. Hotton to emphasize the later evolutionary divergence of tricolpate dicots from earlier, less specialized, dicots. The close relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains was initially seen in morphological studies of shared derived characters . These plants have a distinct trait in their pollen grains of exhibiting three colpi or grooves paralleling the polar axis. Later molecular evidence confirmed the genetic basis for the evolutionary relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains and dicotyledonous traits. The term means "true dicotyledons", as it contains the majority of plants that have been considered dicots and have characteristics of the dicots. The term "eudicots" has subsequently been widely adopted in botany to refer to one of the two largest clades of angiosperms (constituting over 70% of the angiosperm species), monocots being the other. The remaining angiosperms are sometimes referred to as basal angiosperms or paleodicots, but these terms have not been widely or consistently adopted, as they do not refer to a monophyletic group. The other name for the eudicots is TRICOLPATES, a name which refers to the grooved structure of the pollen
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Rosids
The ROSIDS are members of a large clade (monophyletic group) of flowering plants , containing about 70,000 species , more than a quarter of all angiosperms. The clade is divided into 16 to 20 orders , depending upon circumscription and classification . These orders, in turn, together comprise about 140 families . Fossil rosids are known from the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
period. Molecular clock estimates indicate that the rosids originated in the Aptian or Albian stages of the Cretaceous, between 125 and 99.6 million years ago. CONTENTS * 1 Name * 2 Relationships * 3 Classification * 3.1 Orders * 4 Phylogeny
Phylogeny
* 5 References * 6 External links NAMEThe name is based upon the name " Rosidae ", which had usually been understood to be a subclass. In 1967, Armen Takhtajan
Armen Takhtajan
showed that the correct basis for the name "Rosidae" is a description of a group of plants published in 1830 by Friedrich Gottlieb Bartling
Friedrich Gottlieb Bartling
. The clade was later renamed "Rosidae" and has been variously delimited by different authors. The name "rosids" is informal and not assumed to have any particular taxonomic rank like the names authorized by the ICBN . The rosids are monophyletic based upon evidence found by molecular phylogenetic analysis. Three different definitions of the rosids were used
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Rosales
Barbeyaceae Cannabaceae (hemp family) Dirachmaceae Elaeagnaceae (oleaster / Russian olive family) Moraceae (mulberry family) Rhamnaceae (buckthorn family) Rosaceae (rose family) Ulmaceae (elm family) Urticaceae (nettle family) SYNONYMS Rhamnales Rosanae Urticales ROSALES is an order of flowering plants . It is sister to a clade consisting of Fagales and Cucurbitales . It contains about 7700 species , distributed into about 260 genera . Rosales comprise nine families , the type family being the rose family, Rosaceae . The largest of these families are Rosaceae (90/2500) and Urticaceae (54/2600). The order Rosales is divided into three clades that have never been assigned a taxonomic rank . The basal clade consists of the family Rosaceae; another clade consists of four families, including Rhamnaceae; and the third clade consists of the four urticalean families. The order Rosales is strongly supported as monophyletic in phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences , such as those carried out by members of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group . In their APG III system of plant classification , they defined Rosales as consisting of the nine families listed in the box on the right
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Rosaceae
ROSACEAE, the rose family, is a medium-sized family of flowering plants , including 4,828 known species in 91 genera. The name is derived from the type genus _Rosa _. Among the most species-rich genera are _ Alchemilla _ (270), _ Sorbus _ (260), _ Crataegus _ (260), _ Cotoneaster _ (260), _ Rubus _ (250), and _Prunus _ (plums, cherries, peaches, apricots, and almonds) with about 200 species. However, all of these numbers should be seen as estimates – much taxonomic work remains. The Rosaceae family includes herbs, shrubs, and trees. Most species are deciduous, but some are evergreen. They have a worldwide range, but are most diverse in the Northern Hemisphere. Several economically important products come from the Rosaceae, including many edible fruits (such as apples , pears , quinces , apricots , plums , cherries , peaches , raspberries , loquats , and strawberries ), almonds , and ornamental trees and shrubs (such as roses , meadowsweets , photinias , firethorns , rowans , and hawthorns )
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Amygdaloideae
AMYGDALOIDEAE is a subfamily within the flowering plant family Rosaceae . It was formerly considered by some authors to be separate from Rosaceae, and the family names PRUNACEAE and AMYGDALACEAE have been used. Reanalysis from 2007 has shown that the previous definition of subfamily Spiraeoideae was paraphyletic . To solve this problem, a larger subfamily was defined that includes the former Amygdaloideae, Spiraeoideae , and Maloideae . This subfamily, however, is to be called Amygdaloideae
Amygdaloideae
rather than Spiraeoideae under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants as updated in 2011. As traditionally defined, the Amygdaloideae
Amygdaloideae
includes such commercially important crops as plum , cherry , apricot , peach , and almond . The fruit of these plants are known as STONE FRUIT (drupes ), as each fruit contains a hard shell (the endocarp ) called a _stone_ or _pit_, which contains the single seed. The expanded definition of the Amygdaloideae
Amygdaloideae
adds to these commercially important crops such as apples and pears that have pome fruit, and also important ornamental plants such as _ Spiraea _ and _ Aruncus _ that have hard dry fruits
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Maleae
See text SYNONYMS * Crataegeae Koehne 1890 * Kageneckieae Takhtajan 1997 * Lindleyieae Takhtajan 1997 * Pomeae A. Gray 1842 * Pyreae Baill. * Sorbeae Koehne The MALEAE (incorrectly PYREAE) are the APPLE TRIBE in the rose family, Rosaceae . The group includes a number of plants bearing commercially important fruits , such as apples and pears , while others are cultivated as ornamentals. Older taxonomies separated some of this group as tribe CRATAEGEAE, as the CYDONIA GROUP (a tentative placement), or some genera were placed in family Quillajaceae . The tribe consists exclusively of shrubs and small trees . Most have pomes , a type of accessory fruit that does not occur in other Rosaceae. All except _ Vauquelinia _ (with 15 chromosomes) have a basal haploid chromosome count of 17, instead of 7, 8, or 9 as in the other Rosaceae. There are approximately 28 genera that contain about 1100 species worldwide, with most species occurring in the temperate Northern Hemisphere
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Malinae
See text SYNONYMS * Pyrinae Baill. MALINAE (incorrectly PYRINAE) is the name for the APPLE SUBTRIBE in the rose family, Rosaceae . This name is required by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants , which came into force in 2011 (article 19) for any group at the subtribe rank that includes the genus Malus but not either of the genera Rosa or Amygdalus. The group includes a number of plants bearing commercially important fruits , such as apples and pears , while others are cultivated as ornamentals. The tribe consists exclusively of shrubs and small trees characterised by a pome , a type of accessory fruit that does not occur in other Rosaceae, and by a basal haploid chromosome count of 17 (instead of 7, 8, 9, or 15 as in the other Rosaceae). There are approximately 28 genera with approximately 1100 species worldwide, with most species occurring in the temperate Northern Hemisphere
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Friedrich Kasimir Medikus
FRIEDRICH KASIMIR MEDIKUS (or FRIEDRICH CASIMIR MEDICUS; 6 January 1738 – 8 July 1808) was a German physician and botanist . He was born at Grumbach and became director of the University of Mannheim
Mannheim
(Theodoro Palatinae Mannheim) and curator of the botanical garden at Mannheim
Mannheim
. He encouraged the cultivation of locust trees ( Robinia ) in Europe. The genus Medicusia was named after him by Conrad Moench (now considered synonymous with Picris ). The standard author abbreviation MEDIK. is used to indicate this individual as the author when citing a botanical name . REFERENCES * ^ IPNI . Medik. AUTHORITY CONTROL * WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 56723973 * LCCN : n86815875 * ISNI : 0000 0000 8135 7634 * GND : 115752749 * SUDOC : 067721109 * BNF : cb125480827 (data) * NLA : 36190796 * Botanist
Botanist
: Medik. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Friedrich_Kasimir_Medikus additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Aronia Arbutifolia
ARONIA ARBUTIFOLIA, called the RED CHOKEBERRY, is a North American species of shrubs in the rose family . It is native to eastern Canada and to the eastern and central United States, from eastern Texas to Nova Scotia inland to Ontario , Ohio , Kentucky , and Oklahoma . Aronia arbutifolia is a branching shrub forming clumps by means of stems forming from the roots. Flowers are white or pink, producing black or bright red fruits. Many people consider the fruits to be foul-tasting. REFERENCES * ^ The Plant List, Aronia arbutifolia (L.) Pers. * ^ "Aronia arbutifolia". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA . Retrieved 3 August 2016. * ^ "BSBI List 2007". Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-01-25. Retrieved 17 October 2014
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Carl Linnaeus
CARL LINNAEUS (/lɪˈniːəs, lɪˈneɪəs/ ; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as CARL VON LINNé (Swedish pronunciation: ( listen )), was a Swedish botanist , physician , and zoologist , who formalised the modern system of naming organisms called binomial nomenclature . He is known by the epithet "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin , and his name is rendered in Latin as CAROLUS LINNæUS (after 1761 CAROLUS A LINNé). Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland , in southern Sweden . He received most of his higher education at Uppsala University , and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and also published a first edition of his _ Systema Naturae _ in the Netherlands. He then returned to Sweden, where he became professor of medicine and botany at Uppsala . In the 1740s, he was sent on several journeys through Sweden to find and classify plants and animals. In the 1750s and 1760s, he continued to collect and classify animals, plants, and minerals, and published several volumes. At the time of his death, he was one of the most acclaimed scientists in Europe
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Christian Hendrik Persoon
CHRISTIAAN HENDRIK PERSOON (1 February 1761 – 16 November 1836) was a mycologist who made additions to Linnaeus ' mushroom taxonomy . CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Education * 3 Later years * 4 Academic career * 5 References * 6 External links EARLY LIFEPersoon was born in South Africa at the Cape of Good Hope , the third child of an immigrant Pomeranian father and Dutch mother. His mother died soon after he was born; at the age of thirteen his father (who died a year later) sent him to Europe for his education. EDUCATIONInitially studying theology at Halle , at age 22 (in 1784) Persoon switched to medicine at Leiden and Göttingen . He received a doctorate from the "Kaiserlich-Leopoldinisch-Carolinische Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher" in 1799. LATER YEARSHe moved to Paris in 1802, where he spent the rest of his life, renting an upper floor of a house in a poor part of town. He was apparently unemployed, unmarried, poverty-stricken and a recluse, although he corresponded with botanists throughout Europe. Because of his financial difficulties, Persoon agreed to donate his herbarium to the House of Orange , in return for an adequate pension for life. ACADEMIC CAREERThe origin of Persoon's botanical interest is unknown. The earliest of his works was _Abbildungen der Schwämme_ (Illustrations of the fungi), published in three parts, in 1790, 1791, and 1793
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