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Aro People
The Aro people
Aro people
or Aros are an Igbo subgroup[1] mixed with Akpa and Ibibio ancestry that originated from the Arochukwu
Arochukwu
kingdom in present-day Abia state, Nigeria. The Aros can also be found in about 250 other settlements mostly in the Southeastern Nigeria
Nigeria
and adjacent areas. The Aros today are classified as Eastern or Cross River Igbos because of their location, mixed origins, culture, and dialect. Their god, Ibini Ukpabi, was a key factor in establishing the Aro Confederacy as a regional power in the Niger Delta and Southeastern Nigeria
Nigeria
during the 18th and 19th centuries.Contents1 Origins and history 2 Tradition 3 Largest settlements in Eastern Nigeria 4 See also 5 ReferencesOrigins and history[edit] Main article: Aro history The history of the Aros predates Igbo migration and founding of the kingdom of Arochukwu
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Nigeria
The Federal Republic
Republic
of Nigeria, commonly referred to as Nigeria (/naɪˈdʒɪəriə/ ( listen)), is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin
Benin
in the west, Chad
Chad
and Cameroon
Cameroon
in the east, and Niger
Niger
in the north. Its coast in the south lies on the Gulf of Guinea
Guinea
in the Atlantic Ocean. It comprises 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory, where the capital, Abuja
Abuja
is located. Nigeria
Nigeria
is officially a democratic secular country.[6] Nigeria
Nigeria
has been home to a number of kingdoms and tribal states over the millennia
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Ekpe
Ekpe, also known as Egbo (Ibibio: Leopard), is a secret society flourishing chiefly among the Efiks of the Cross River State, the Oron, of Akwa Ibom
Akwa Ibom
State, Nigeria, Arochukwu
Arochukwu
and some parts of Abia State, as well as in the diaspora, such as in Cuba
Cuba
and Brazil. The society is still active at the beginning of the 21st century, however, now it plays only a ceremonial role. There are two distinct but related societies, the primary one in the Cross River, Arochukwu, Akwa Ibom areas, and the secondary one among the Southern and Eastern Igbo groups
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Cross River (Nigeria)
Cross River
River
(native name: Oyono)[1] is the main river in southeastern Nigeria
Nigeria
and gives its name to Cross River
River
State. It originates in Cameroon, where it takes the name of the Manyu River.[2] Although not long by African standards its catchment has high rainfall and it becomes very wide. Over its last 80 kilometres (50 mi) to the sea its flows through swampy rainforest with numerous creeks and forms an inland delta near its confluence with the Calabar
Calabar
River,[3] about 20 kilometres (12 mi) wide and 50 kilometres (31 mi) long between the cities of Oron on the west bank and Calabar, on the east bank, more than 30 kilometres (19 mi) from the open sea. The delta empties into a broad estuary[4] which it shares with a few smaller rivers. At its mouth in the Atlantic Ocean, the estuary is 24 kilometres (15 mi) wide
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Cameroon
Coordinates: 6°N 12°E / 6°N 12°E / 6; 12Republic of Cameroon République du Cameroun  (French)FlagCoat of armsMotto:  "Paix – Travail – Patrie" (French) "Peace – Work – Fatherland"Anthem:  Ô Cameroun, Berceau de nos Ancêtres  (French) (English: "O Cameroon, Cradle of our Forefathers")Capital Yaoundé[1] 3°52′N 11°31′E / 3.867°N 11.517°E / 3.867; 11.517Largest city Douala[1]Official languages French EnglishEthnic groups31% Cameroon
Cameroon
Highlanders 19% Equatorial Bantu 11% Kirdi 1
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Nation
A nation is a stable community of people, formed on the basis of a common language, territory, economic life, ethnicity or psychological make-up manifested in a common culture
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Abiriba
Abiriba
Abiriba
is a town in Abia State, in southeastern Nigeria, traditionally an Igbo speaking region. Abiriba
Abiriba
is pronounced [/E`biriba`/] and it is in Ohafia
Ohafia
Local Government Area.Contents1 History 2 Geography 3 Government 4 Succession to the throne of the Enachioken 5 Social control 6 The Big Achi Tree 7 Cuisine 8 Naming traditions 9 Celebrities Of Abiriba
Abiriba
Origin 10 ReferencesHistory[edit] The people who occupy the territory known as Abiriba
Abiriba
descended from the Igbo and Efik people
Efik people
of Calabar. They migrated from the upper Cross River area centuries ago led by a Nnachi Oke, from whom the title "Enachioken" ("The Monarch") originates
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Afikpo
Afikpo, also known as "Ehugbo", is a town and the second largest urban area in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. It is the headquarters of the Afikpo North Local Government Area. It is situated in the southern part of Ebonyi State
Ebonyi State
and is bordered to the north by the town of Akpoha, to the south by Unwana, to the south west by Edda in Afikpo South
Afikpo South
LGA, to the east by the Cross River and to the west by Amasiri. Afikpo
Afikpo
spans an area approximately 164 square kilometers in size. It is located on 6 degrees north latitude and 8 degrees east longitude. It occupies an area of about 64 square miles (164 km2). Afikpo
Afikpo
is a hilly area despite occupying a region low in altitude, which rises 350 feet above sea level
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European Ethnic Groups
The Indigenous peoples
Indigenous peoples
of Europe
Europe
are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe. According to German monograph Minderheitenrechte in Europa co-edited by Pan and Pfeil (2002) there are 87 distinct peoples of Europe, of which 33 form the majority population in at least one sovereign state, while the remaining 54 constitute ethnic minorities. The total number of national or linguistic minority populations in Europe
Europe
is estimated at 105 million people, or 14% of 770 million Europeans.[1] There is no precise or universally accepted definition of the terms "ethnic group" or "nationality"
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Colonists
A settler is a person who has migrated to an area and established a permanent residence there, often to colonize the area. Settlers are generally from a sedentary culture, as opposed to nomads who share and rotate their settlements with little or no concept of individual land ownership. Settlements are often built on land already claimed or owned by another group. Many times settlers are backed by governments or large countries. They also sometimes leave in search of religious freedom.Contents1 Historical usage1.1 Anthropological usage 1.2 Modern usage 1.3 Implications of Settlement 1.4 Livelihood 1.5 Other usages2 Causes of emigration 3 See also 4 ReferencesHistorical usage[edit]Chilean settlers in Baker River, 1935.One can witness how settlers very often occupied land previously residents to long-established peoples, designated as indigenous (also called "natives", "Aborigines" or, in the Americas, "Indians")
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Anglo-Aro War
War
War
is a state of armed conflict between states or societies. It is generally characterized by extreme aggression, destruction, and mortality, using regular or irregular military forces. An absence of war is usually called "peace". Warfare refers to the common activities and characteristics of types of war, or of wars in general.[1] Total war is warfare that is not restricted to purely legitimate military targets, and can result in massive civilian or other non-combatant suffering and casualties. While some scholars see war as a universal and ancestral aspect of human nature,[2] others argue it is a result of specific socio-cultural or ecological circumstances.[3] The deadliest war in history, in terms of the cumulative number of deaths since its start, is World War
War
II, from 1939 to 1945, with 60–85 million deaths, followed by the Mongol conquests[4] at up to 60 million
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Nsibidi
Nsibidi
Nsibidi
(also known as nsibiri,[2] nchibiddi or nchibiddy[3]) is a system of symbols indigenous to what is now southeastern Nigeria
Nigeria
that is apparently an ideographic script, though there have been suggestions that it includes logographic elements.[4] The symbols are at least several centuries old—early forms appeared on excavated pottery as well as what are most likely ceramic stools and headrests from the Calabar
Calabar
region, with a range of dates from 400 to 1400 CE.[5][6] There are thousands of nsibidi symbols, of which over 500 have been recorded
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Obong Okon Ita
The Obong Okon Ita kingdom was an Ibibio nation with its seat of government in Obot Okon Ita. This kingdom was located between present day Abia and Akwa Ibom states in Southeastern Nigeria. Around 1630, an Igbo group from Abiriba known as the Eze Agwu arrived to Obong Okon Ita. This caused a long term conflict and stalemate known as the Aro-Ibibio Wars. The arrival of Nnachi Ipia and the support of a coup by the prince Kakpokpo Okon against his brother Akpan Okon the Obong (king) led to a protracted and unprecedented conflict in the region. However the arrival of Akpa forces led by the princes Osim and Akuma Nnubi, helped Kakpokpo Okon and Igbo forces defeat the Obong Okon Ita kingdom. Akpan Okon was killed and his surviving supporters were exiled. Kakpokpo Okon also died in combat and his family was incorporated to his maternal home the Eze Agwu community. The remaining Eze Agwu, Nnachi, and Akpa dynasties formed the Arochukwu Kingdom
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Uli (design)
Uri (Uli) is the name given to the traditional designs drawn by the Igbo people of Nigeria. Uri drawings are strongly linear and do not have deep perspective; they do, however, balance positive and negative space. Designs are frequently asymmetrical, and are often painted spontaneously. Uri generally is not sacred, apart from those images painted on the walls of shrines and created in conjunction with some community rituals. The drawing of uri was once practiced throughout most of Igboland, although by 1970 it had lost much of its popularity, and was being kept alive by a handful of contemporary artists. It was usually practiced by women, who would decorate each other's bodies with dark dyes to prepare for village events, such as marriage, title taking, and funerals; designs would sometimes be produced for the most important market days as well. Designs would last about a week. Most uri designs were named, and many differed among various Igbo regions
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Oguta
Oguta
Oguta
is a town on the east bank of Oguta Lake
Oguta Lake
in Imo State
Imo State
of southeastern Nigeria. It is made up of 27 villages. The Oguta
Oguta
people refer to themselves as Umu-Ameshi. It is the administrative seat for Oguta
Oguta
LGA. Oguta
Oguta
was one of the first territories used by the British to advance into the Igbo hinterland. As of 2012 Oguta's population was estimated at 20,096.[1] The city of Oguta
Oguta
is divided into two townships, Oguta
Oguta
1 and Oguta
Oguta
2, separated by its popular lake with the Local Government HQ located at OGUTA 1
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Imo State
Imo is one of the 36 states of Nigeria
Nigeria
and lies in the South East of Nigeria. Owerri
Owerri
is its capital and largest city. Its other major cities are Orlu and Okigwe
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