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Aristoxenus
Aristoxenus
Aristoxenus
of Tarentum (Greek: Ἀριστόξενος ὁ Ταραντίνος; b. c. 375, fl. 335 BCE) was a Greek Peripatetic philosopher, and a pupil of Aristotle. Most of his writings, which dealt with philosophy, ethics and music, have been lost, but one musical treatise, Elements of Harmony (Greek: Ἁρμονικῶν στοιχείων; Latin: Elementa harmonica), survives incomplete, as well as some fragments concerning rhythm and meter
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Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Eleventh Edition (1910–11) is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication. Some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain; and many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in.[1] However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic
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Dithyramb
The dithyramb (Ancient Greek: διθύραμβος, dithyrambos) was an ancient Greek hymn sung and danced in honor of Dionysus, the god of wine and fertility; the term was also used as an epithet of the god:[1] Plato, in The Laws, while discussing various kinds of music mentions "the birth of Dionysos, called, I think, the dithyramb."[2] Plato
Plato
also remarks in the Republic that dithyrambs are the clearest example of poetry in which the poet is the only speaker.[3] However, in The Apology Socrates went to the dithyrambs with some of their own most elaborate passages, asking their meaning but got a response of, "Will you believ
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Interval (music)
In music theory, an interval is the difference between two pitches.[1] An interval may be described as horizontal, linear, or melodic if it refers to successively sounding tones, such as two adjacent pitches in a melody, and vertical or harmonic if it pertains to simultaneously sounding tones, such as in a chord.[2][3] In Western music, intervals are most commonly differences between notes of a diatonic scale. The smallest of these intervals is a semitone. Intervals smaller than a semitone are called microtones. They can be formed using the notes of various kinds of non-diatonic scales. Some of the very smallest ones are called commas, and describe small discrepancies, observed in some tuning systems, between enharmonically equivalent notes such as C♯ and D♭. Intervals can be arbitrarily small, and even imperceptible to the human ear. In physical terms, an interval is the ratio between two sonic frequencies. For example, any two notes an octave apart have a frequency ratio of 2:1
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Bernard Pyne Grenfell
Bernard Pyne Grenfell
Bernard Pyne Grenfell
(16 December 1869 – 18 May 1926) was an English scientist and EgyptologistContents1 Life 2 Publications 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksLife[edit] Grenfell was the son of John Granville Grenfell FGS and Alice Grenfell. He was born in Birmingham
Birmingham
and brought up and educated at Clifton College
Clifton College
in Bristol, where his father taught. He obtained a scholarship in 1888 and enrolled at The Queen's College, Oxford.[1] With his friend and colleague, Arthur Surridge Hunt, he took part in the archaeological dig of Oxyrhynchus
Oxyrhynchus
and discovered many ancient manuscripts known as the Oxyrhynchus
Oxyrhynchus
Papyri, including some of the oldest known copies of the New Testament
New Testament
and the Septuagint
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Arthur Surridge Hunt
Arthur Surridge Hunt, FBA (1 March 1871 – 18 June 1934) was an English papyrologist. Hunt was born in Romford, Essex, England. Over the course of many years, Hunt, along with Bernard Grenfell, recovered many papyri from excavation sites in Egypt, including the Oxyrhynchus
Oxyrhynchus
Papyri.Contents1 Publications 2 See also 3 Sources 4 External links 5 BibliographyPublications[edit]B. P. Grenfell and A. S. Hunt, Sayings of Our Lord from an early Greek Papyrus
Papyrus
(Egypt Exploration Fund; 1897). B. P. Grenfell, A. S. Hunt, and D. G. Hogarth, Fayûm Towns and Their Papyri (London 1900).See also[edit]OxyrhynchusSources[edit]Author and Book Info.com Catalogus Philologorum Classicorum Catalogus Philologorum Classicorum Arthur Surridge HuntExternal links[edit]Works by or about Arthur Surridge Hunt
Arthur Surridge Hunt
at Internet Archive "List of collections"
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Oxyrhynchus Papyri
The Oxyrhynchus
Oxyrhynchus
Papyri are a group of manuscripts discovered during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by papyrologists Bernard Pyne Grenfell
Bernard Pyne Grenfell
and Arthur Surridge Hunt
Arthur Surridge Hunt
at an ancient rubbish dump near Oxyrhynchus
Oxyrhynchus
in Egypt
Egypt
(28°32′N 30°40′E / 28.533°N 30.667°E / 28.533; 30.667, modern el-Bahnasa). The manuscripts date from the time of the Ptolemaic (3rd century BC) and Roman periods of Egyptian history (from 32 BC to the Arab conquest of Egypt
Egypt
in 640 AD). Only an estimated 10% are literary in nature
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Archytas
Archytas
Archytas
(/ˈɑːrkɪtəs/; Greek: Ἀρχύτας; 428–347 BC) was an Ancient Greek philosopher, mathematician, astronomer, statesman, and strategist. He was a scientist of the Pythagorean school and famous for being the reputed founder of mathematical mechanics, as well as a good friend of Plato.Contents1 Life and work1.1 Archytas
Archytas
curve2 Notes 3 References 4 Further reading 5 External linksLife and work[edit] Archytas
Archytas
was born in Tarentum, Magna Graecia
Magna Graecia
and was the son of Mnesagoras or Histiaeus. For a while, he was taught by Philolaus, and was a teacher of mathematics to Eudoxus of Cnidus. Archytas
Archytas
and Eudoxus' student was Menaechmus
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Porphyry (philosopher)
Porphyry of Tyre (/ˈpɔːrfəri/; Greek: Πορφύριος, Porphýrios; Arabic: فرفوريوس‎, Furfūriyūs; c. 234 – c. 305 AD) was a Neoplatonic philosopher who was born in Tyre, in the Roman Empire.[1] He edited and published the Enneads, the only collection of the work of his teacher Plotinus
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Aulos
An aulos (Ancient Greek: αὐλός, plural αὐλοί, auloi[1]) or tibia (Latin) was an ancient Greek wind instrument, depicted often in art and also attested by archaeology. An aulete (αὐλητής, aulētēs) was the musician who performed on an aulos. The ancient Roman equivalent was the tibicen (plural tibicines), from the Latin
Latin
tibia, "pipe, aulos." The neologism aulode is sometimes used by analogy with rhapsode and citharode (citharede) to refer to an aulos player, who may also be called an aulist; however, aulode more commonly refers to a singer who sang the accompaniment to a piece played on the aulos.Contents1 Types 2 Mythic origin 3 Depiction in art3.1 Chigi vase 3.2 Herakles
Herakles
in his tenth labor4 Modern use and popular culture 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksTypes[edit]Drawing of the mouthpiece of an aulos.[2]There were several kinds of aulos, single or double
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Symposium
In ancient Greece, the symposium (Greek: συμπόσιον symposion or symposio, from συμπίνειν sympinein, "to drink together") was a part of a banquet that took place after the meal, when drinking for pleasure was accompanied by music, dancing, recitals, or conversation.[1] Literary works that describe or take place at a symposium include two Socratic dialogues, Plato's Symposium
Plato's Symposium
and Xenophon's Symposium, as well as a number of Greek poems such as the elegies of Theognis of Megara. Symposia are depicted in Greek and Etruscan art
Etruscan art
that shows similar scenes.[1] In modern usage it has come to mean an academic conference or meeting such as a scientific conference
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά [eliniˈka], elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα [eliniˈci ˈɣlosa] ( listen), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean
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Andrew Barker (classicist)
Andrew Dennison Barker, FBA (born 24 April 1943) is a British classicist and academic, specialising in ancient Greek music and the intersection between musical theory and philosophy. He was Professor of Classics
Classics
at the University of Birmingham
University of Birmingham
from 1998 to 2008, and had previously taught at the University of Warwick, University of Cambridge, and Selwyn College, Cambridge.[1][2][3]Contents1 Early life and education 2 Academic career 3 Personal life 4 Honours 5 Selected works 6 ReferencesEarly life and education[edit] Barker was born on 24 April 1943
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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Chambers's Encyclopædia
Chambers's Encyclopaedia
Chambers's Encyclopaedia
was founded in 1859[1] by W. & R. Chambers of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
and became one of the most important English language encyclopaedias of the 19th and 20th centuries, developing a reputation for accuracy and scholarliness that was reflected in other works produced by the Chambers publishing company
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