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Ardey Hills
The ARDEY HILLS (German : Ardeygebirge or Ardey) are a range of wooded hills, up to 273.8 m above sea level (NN) , in the territory of the city of Dortmund
Dortmund
and the districts of Ennepe-Ruhr-Kreis and Unna in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
. The hills form part of the eastern Rhenish Massif
Rhenish Massif
and, to a lesser extent, to the Berg-Mark Hills (Bergisch-Märkisches Hügelland)
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Witten
WITTEN is a university city in the Ennepe-Ruhr-Kreis (district) in North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
, Germany
Germany
. It is the home of the Witten/Herdecke University , the first private university in Germany. CONTENTS* 1 Geography * 1.1 Bordering municipalities * 1.2 Division of the town * 2 Population 1739–2005 * 3 History * 3.1 Roburit Explosion * 4 Politics * 4.1 The Council of Witten
Witten
* 4.2 Members of Parliament * 4.2.1 Landtag * 4.2.2 German Bundestag * 5 Transport * 6 Coat of arms * 7 Culture * 8 Twin towns – sister cities * 9 Religions * 9.1 Roman Catholic * 9.2 Protestant * 9.3 Muslims * 9.4 Jews * 10 References GEOGRAPHY Witten
Witten
is situated in the Ruhr
Ruhr
valley, in the southern Ruhr
Ruhr
area
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Witten-Hohenstein
The Hohenstein is the central forest of Witten , (North Rhine-Westphalia , Germany
Germany
). As a forest its name is just "Hohenstein". But "Hohenstein" is also the name if a city-district of Wittens borough "Mitte". It has the district-number 19. As a district it has nearly no population. As a forest the Hohenstein is well known in the region, the "Mittlere Ruhrtal" (Middle Ruhr valley ) because of its BERGER-DENKMAL, from which visitors have a view over the whole Ruhr valley between the cities of Witten and Wetter . The monument was built in remembrance of the German industrialist Louis Constans Berger (1829-1891), whose factory – formerly Gussstahlwerk - is still producing steel for the world market
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Sandstone
SANDSTONE is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments . Most sandstone is composed of quartz or feldspar because they are the most resistant minerals to weathering processes at the Earth's surface, as seen in Bowen\'s reaction series . Like uncemented sand , sandstone may be any color due to impurities within the minerals, but the most common colors are tan, brown, yellow, red, grey, pink, white, and black. Since sandstone beds often form highly visible cliffs and other topographic features, certain colors of sandstone have been strongly identified with certain regions. Rock formations that are primarily composed of sandstone usually allow the percolation of water and other fluids and are porous enough to store large quantities, making them valuable aquifers and petroleum reservoirs
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Clay
CLAY is a fine-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with traces of metal oxides and organic matter . Geologic clay deposits are mostly composed of phyllosilicate minerals containing variable amounts of water trapped in the mineral structure. Clays are plastic due to that water content and become hard, brittle and non–plastic upon drying or firing . Depending on the soil\'s content in which it is found, clay can appear in various colours from white to dull grey or brown to deep orange-red. Electron microscope photograph of smectite clay – magnification 23,500 Although many naturally occurring deposits include both silts and clay, clays are distinguished from other fine-grained soils by differences in size and mineralogy. Silts , which are fine-grained soils that do not include clay minerals, tend to have larger particle sizes than clays. There is, however, some overlap in particle size and other physical properties
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Holzwickede
HOLZWICKEDE (German pronunciation: ) is a municipality in the district of Unna in North Rhine-Westphalia , Germany
Germany
. It is twinned with Weymouth, England and Louviers
Louviers
. MAYORS * 1969–1975: Josef Wortmann * 1975–1989: Heinrich Schürhoff * 1989–1999: Margret Mader * 1999–2015: Jenz Rother * since 2015: Fabian SeitlerREFERENCES * ^ "Amtliche Bevölkerungszahlen". Landesbetrieb Information und Technik NRW (in German). 18 July 2016
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Unna
UNNA is a city of around 59,000 people in North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
, Germany
Germany
, the seat of the Unna
Unna
district . CONTENTS* 1 Geography * 1.1 Districts * 2 History * 3 Culture * 4 Economy * 5 Twin towns * 6 Gallery * 6.1 Known persons from Unna
Unna
* 7 References * 8 External links GEOGRAPHY Unna
Unna
is situated on an ancient salt-trading route, the Westphalian Hellweg
Hellweg
. Trade on this route and during the period of the Hanseatic League came from as far as London. The city is located at the eastern extremity of the Ruhr
Ruhr
district , about 15 kilometres (9 miles) east of the centre of Dortmund
Dortmund

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River Ruhr
The RUHR is a river in western Germany
Germany
( North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
), a right tributary (east-side) of the Rhine
Rhine
. DESCRIPTION AND HISTORY The Ruhr
Ruhr
valley near Bochum
Bochum
during a flood The source of the Ruhr
Ruhr
is near the town of Winterberg
Winterberg
in the mountainous Sauerland
Sauerland
region, at an elevation of approximately 2,200 feet (670 m). It flows into the lower Rhine
Rhine
at an elevation of only 56 feet (17 m) in the municipal area of Duisburg
Duisburg
. Its total length is 218 km (135 mi), its average discharge is 79 m³/s (cubic metres per second) at Mülheim
Mülheim
near its mouth
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Pumped-storage Power Station
PUMPED-STORAGE HYDROELECTRICITY (PSH), or PUMPED HYDROELECTRIC ENERGY STORAGE (PHES), is a type of hydroelectric energy storage used by electric power systems for load balancing . The method stores energy in the form of gravitational potential energy of water, pumped from a lower elevation reservoir to a higher elevation. Low-cost surplus off-peak electric power is typically used to run the pumps. During periods of high electrical demand, the stored water is released through turbines to produce electric power. Although the losses of the pumping process makes the plant a net consumer of energy overall, the system increases revenue by selling more electricity during periods of peak demand , when electricity prices are highest
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Hydropower
HYDROPOWER or WATER POWER (from Greek : ύδωρ, "water") is power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes. Since ancient times, hydropower from many kinds of watermills has been used as a renewable energy source for irrigation and the operation of various mechanical devices, such as gristmills , sawmills , textile mills, trip hammers , dock cranes , domestic lifts , and ore mills. A trompe , which produces compressed air from falling water, is sometimes used to power other machinery at a distance. In the late 19th century, hydropower became a source for generating electricity . Cragside in Northumberland was the first house powered by hydroelectricity in 1878 and the first commercial hydroelectric power plant was built at Niagara Falls
Niagara Falls
in 1879. In 1881, street lamps in the city of Niagara Falls
Niagara Falls
were powered by hydropower
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Fröndenberg
FRöNDENBERG (German pronunciation: ) is a town in the district of Unna
Unna
, in North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
, Germany
Germany
. CONTENTS* 1 Geography * 1.1 Neighbouring places * 2 International relations * 3 History * 4 Personalities * 5 References * 6 External links GEOGRAPHY Fröndenberg
Fröndenberg
is situated in the Ruhr valley, approx. 10 km south-east of the district capital Unna
Unna
, near the Hönne
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Grauwacke
GREYWACKE or GRAYWACKE (German grauwacke, signifying a grey, earthy rock) is a variety of sandstone generally characterized by its hardness, dark color, and poorly sorted angular grains of quartz , feldspar , and small rock fragments or lithic fragments set in a compact, clay -fine matrix. It is a texturally immature sedimentary rock generally found in Paleozoic
Paleozoic
strata . The larger grains can be sand- to gravel-sized, and matrix materials generally constitute more than 15% of the rock by volume. The term "greywacke" can be confusing, since it can refer to either the immature (rock fragment) aspect of the rock or its fine-grained (clay) component. The origin of greywacke was problematic until turbidity currents and turbidites were understood, since, according to the normal laws of sedimentation , gravel , sand and mud should not be laid down together. Geologists now attribute its formation to submarine avalanches or strong turbidity currents
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Ice Sheet
An ICE SHEET is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than 50,000 km2 (19,000 sq mi), this is also known as CONTINENTAL GLACIER. The only current ice sheets are in Antarctica and Greenland
Greenland
; during the last glacial period at Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) the Laurentide ice sheet
Laurentide ice sheet
covered much of North America
North America
, the Weichselian ice sheet covered northern Europe and the Patagonian Ice Sheet covered southern South America
South America
. Ice
Ice
sheets are bigger than ice shelves or alpine glaciers . Masses of ice covering less than 50,000 km2 are termed an ice cap . An ice cap will typically feed a series of glaciers around its periphery
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Charcoal Burning
A CHARCOAL BURNER is someone whose occupation is to manufacture charcoal . Traditionally this is achieved by carbonising wood in a charcoal pile or kiln. As an occupation it has almost died out in the first world countries. Charcoal
Charcoal
burning is one of the oldest human crafts. The knowledge gained from this industry still contributes to the solution of energy problems today. Due to its historical and cultural importance, charcoal burning and tar distilling were incorporated in December 2014 into the register of the Intangible Cultural Heritage in Germany by the Kultusministerkonferenz . CONTENTS * 1 History and technique * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 Literature * 5 External links HISTORY AND TECHNIQUESince the Iron Age
Iron Age
, high temperatures have had to be produced for iron smelting , for glassmaking and for the working of precious metals
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Sauerland Mountain Club
The " Sauerland
Sauerland
Mountain Association", (SAUERLäNDISCHER GEBIRGSVEREIN, briefly "SGV") is an association for hiking and Nordic Walking in the Sauerland
Sauerland
area in Germany. It was founded in 1891 by forest administrator Ernst Ehmsen and local historian Karl Féaux de Lacroix from Arnsberg (Sauerland) and has about 50,000 members. The Association organises events and is involved in the area of the nature conservation . The association takes care of numerous footpathes and trails, for instance the Rothaarsteig , the Sauerland-Höhenflug (in German) and the Ruhrhöhenweg (in German), and marks them with signs on behalf of the nature preservation authorities of the state Northrhine-Westphalia . The length of the trails is altogether about 34,000 km, 4,300 km of these are classified as long distance trails
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Wayback Machine
The WAYBACK MACHINE is a digital archive of the World Wide Web and other information on the Internet
Internet
created by the Internet Archive
Internet Archive
, a nonprofit organization , based in San Francisco
San Francisco
, California
California
, United States . The Internet Archive