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Arctic Apples
Arctic® apples are a group of trademarked apples that contain a nonbrowning trait (when the apples are subjected to mechanical damage, such as slicing or bruising, the apple flesh remains as its original color)[1][2] introduced through biotechnology
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Trademarked
A trademark, trade mark, or trade-mark[1] is a recognizable sign, design, or expression which identifies products or services of a particular source from those of others,[2][3] although trademarks used to identify services are usually called service marks.[4][5] The trademark owner can be an individual, business organization, or any legal entity. A trademark may be located on a package, a label, a voucher, or on the product itself. For the sake of corporate identity, trademarks are often displayed on company buildings. The first legislative act concerning trademarks was passed by the Parliament of England
Parliament of England
in 1266 under the reign of Henry III, requiring all bakers to use a distinctive mark for the bread they sold. The first modern trademark laws emerged in the late 19th century. In France the first comprehensive trademark system in the world was passed into law in 1857
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Canadian Food Inspection Agency
The Canadian Food Inspection
Inspection
Agency (or CFIA) is a regulatory agency that is dedicated to the safeguarding of food, animals, and plants, which enhance the health and well-being of Canada's people, environment and economy. The agency was created in April 1997 by the Canadian Food Inspection
Inspection
Agency Act for the purpose of combining and integrating the related inspection services of three separate federal government departments: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, and Health Canada.[3] The establishment of the CFIA consolidated the delivery of all federal food safety, animal health, and plant health regulatory programs.Contents1 Role and responsibilities1.1 August 2008 listeria outbreak2 See also 3 References 4 External linksRole and responsibilities[edit] The agency is part of the larger federal public service
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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Smartphone
A smartphone is a handheld personal computer with a mobile operating system and an integrated mobile broadband cellular network connection for voice, SMS, and Internet
Internet
data communication; most if not all smartphones also support Wi-Fi. Smartphones are typically pocket-sized, as opposed to tablet computers, which are much larger. They are able to run a variety of software components, known as “apps”. Most basic apps (e.g. event calendar, camera, web browser) come pre-installed with the system, while others are available for download from official sources like the Google Play Store
Google Play Store
or Apple App Store. Apps can receive bug fixes and gain additional functionality through software updates; similarly, operating systems are able to update
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QR Code
QR code
QR code
(abbreviated from Quick Response Code) is the trademark for a type of matrix barcode (or two-dimensional barcode) first designed for the automotive industry in Japan. A barcode is a machine-readable optical label that contains information about the item to which it is attached. A QR code
QR code
uses four standardized encoding modes (numeric, alphanumeric, byte/binary, and kanji to efficiently store data; extensions may also be used.[1] The Quick Response (QR code) system became popular outside the automotive industry due to its fast readability and greater storage capacity compared to standard UPC barcodes
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Snowflake
A snowflake is a single ice crystal that has achieved a sufficient size, and may have amalgamated with others, then falls through the Earth's atmosphere
Earth's atmosphere
as snow.[1][2][3] Each flake nucleates around a dust particle in supersaturated air masses by attracting supercooled cloud water droplets, which freeze and accrete in crystal form. Complex shapes emerge as the flake moves through differing temperature and humidity zones in the atmosphere, such that individual snowflakes differ in detail from one another, but may be categorized in eight broad classifications and at least 80 individual variants. The main constituent shapes for ice crystals, from which combinations may occur, are needle, column, plate, and rime. Snow
Snow
appears white in color despite being made of clear ice
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United States Department Of Agriculture
The United States Department of Agriculture
United States Department of Agriculture
(USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, agriculture, forestry, and food. It aims to meet the needs of farmers and ranchers, promote agricultural trade and production, work to assure food safety, protect natural resources, foster rural communities and end hunger in the United States and internationally. Approximately 80% of the USDA's $141 billion budget goes to the Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) program
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Animal And Plant Health Inspection Service
The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is an agency of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) responsible for protecting animal health, animal welfare, and plant health. APHIS is the lead agency for collaboration with other agencies to protect U.S. agriculture from invasive pests and diseases. APHIS is the National Plant Protection Authority for the U.S. government, and the agency's head of veterinary services is Chief Veterinary Officer of the United States[citation needed].Contents1 History 2 Duties and responsibilities2.1 Statutory authorities3 Organization 4 Budget 5 Criticism 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksHistory[edit] APHIS was created in 1972 by Secretary’s Memorandum No. 1769. The origins of the agency predate creation of USDA, to 1854 when the Office of Entomologist, Agricultural Section, U.S. Patent Office was created
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Health Canada
Health Canada
Canada
(French: Santé Canada) is the department of the government of Canada
Canada
with responsibility for national public health. The current Minister of Health is Ginette Petitpas Taylor, a Liberal Member of Parliament appointed to the positio
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Neomycin
Neomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic found in many topical medications such as creams, ointments, and eyedrops. The discovery of neomycin dates back to 1949. It was discovered in the lab of Selman Waksman. Neomycin belongs to aminoglycoside class of antibiotics that contain two or more aminosugars connected by glycosidic bonds.Contents1 Uses 2 Molecular biology 3 Biosynthetic pathway 4 Spectrum 5 Composition 6 Safety 7 History 8 DNA binding 9 ReferencesUses[edit] Neomycin is typically used as a topical preparation, such as Neosporin. It can also be given orally, where it is usually combined with other antibiotics. Neomycin is not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and has been used as a preventive measure for hepatic encephalopathy and hypercholesterolemia. By killing bacteria in the intestinal tract, it keeps ammonia levels low and prevents hepatic encephalopathy, especially prior to GI surgery
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Biotechnology
Biotechnology
Biotechnology
is the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).[1] Depending on the tools and applications, it often overlaps with the (related) fields of bioengineering, biomedical engineering, biomanufacturing, molecular engineering, etc. For thousands of years, humankind has used biotechnology in agriculture, food production, and medicine.[2] The term is largely believed to have been coined in 1919 by Hungarian engineer Károly Ereky
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Kanamycin
Kanamycin
Kanamycin
A, often referred to as simple kanamycin, is an antibiotic used to treat severe bacterial infections and tuberculosis.[1] It is not a first line treatment.[1] It is used by mouth, injection into a vein, or injection into a muscle.[1] Kanamycin
Kanamycin
is recommended for short-term
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Antibiotic
Antibiotics
Antibiotics
(from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called antibacterials, are a type of antimicrobial[1] drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.[2][3] They may either kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria
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Marker Gene
In biology, a marker gene may have several meanings. In nuclear biology and molecular biology, a marker gene is a gene used to determine if a nucleic acid sequence has been successfully inserted into an organism's DNA. In particular, there are two sub-types of these marker genes: a selectable marker and a marker for screening. In metagenomics and phylogenetics, a marker gene is an orthologous gene group which can be used to delineate between taxonomic lineages.[1]Contents1 Selectable marker 2 Screenable marker 3 References 4 See alsoSelectable marker[edit] Main article: Selectable marker A selectable marker protects the organism from a selective agent that would normally kill it or prevent its growth. In a transformation reaction, depending on the transformation efficiency, only one in a several million to billion cells may take up DNA
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Gene Sequence
A gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA which codes for a molecule that has a function. During gene expression, the DNA is first copied into RNA. The RNA can be directly functional or be the intermediate template for a protein that performs a function. The transmission of genes to an organism's offspring is the basis of the inheritance of phenotypic traits. These genes make up different DNA sequences called genotypes. Genotypes along with environmental and developmental factors determine what the phenotypes will be. Most biological traits are under the influence of polygenes (many different genes) as well as gene–environment interactions. Some genetic traits are instantly visible, such as eye color or number of limbs, and some are not, such as blood type, risk for specific diseases, or the thousands of basic biochemical processes that constitute life. Genes can acquire mutations in their sequence, leading to different variants, known as alleles, in the population
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