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Architectural Glass
Architectural glass is glass that is used as a building material. It is most typically used as transparent glazing material in the building envelope, including windows in the external walls. Glass is also used for internal partitions and as an architectural feature
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Building Material
Building material is any material which is used for construction purposes. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay, rocks, sand, and wood, even twigs and leaves, have been used to construct buildings. Apart from naturally occurring materials, many man-made products are in use, some more and some less synthetic. The manufacturing of building materials is an established industry in many countries and the use of these materials is typically segmented into specific specialty trades, such as carpentry, insulation, plumbing, and roofing work
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Laminated Glass
Laminated glass is a type of safety glass that holds together when shattered. In the event of breaking, it is held in place by an interlayer, typically of polyvinyl butyral (PVB) or ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), between its two or more layers of glass. The interlayer keeps the layers of glass bonded even when broken, and its high strength prevents the glass from breaking up into large sharp pieces. This produces a characteristic "spider web" cracking pattern when the impact is not enough to completely pierce the glass. In the case of the EVA, the thermoset EVA, offers a complete bounding (cross-linking) with the material whether it is glass, polycarbonate, PET, or other types products. Laminated glass is normally used when there is a possibility of human impact or where the glass could fall if shattered and also for architectural applications. Skylight glazing and automobile windshields typically use laminated glass
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Architecture
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements. The term architecture is also used metaphorically to refer to the design of organizations and other abstract concepts
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Building Code
A building code (also building control or building regulations) is a set of rules that specify the standards for constructed objects such as buildings and nonbuilding structures. Buildings must conform to the code to obtain planning permission, usually from a local council. The main purpose of building codes is to protect public health, safety and general welfare as they relate to the construction and occupancy of buildings and structures. The building code becomes law of a particular jurisdiction when formally enacted by the appropriate governmental or private authority. Building codes are generally intended to be applied by architects, engineers, interior designers, constructors and regulators but are also used for various purposes by safety inspectors, environmental scientists, real estate developers, subcontractors, manufacturers of building products and materials, insurance companies, facility managers, tenants, and others
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Risk
Risk is the potential of gaining or losing something of value. Values (such as physical health, social status, emotional well-being, or financial wealth) can be gained or lost when taking risk resulting from a given action or inaction, foreseen or unforeseen (planned or not planned). Risk can also be defined as the intentional interaction with uncertainty. Uncertainty is a potential, unpredictable, and uncontrollable outcome; risk is a consequence of action taken in spite of uncertainty. Risk perception is the subjective judgment people make about the severity and probability of a risk, and may vary person to person
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Injury
Injury is damage to the body caused by external force. This may be caused by accidents, falls, hits, weapons, and other causes. Major trauma is injury that has the potential to cause prolonged disability or death. In 2013, 4.8 million people died from injuries, up from 4.3 million in 1990. More than 30% of these deaths were transport-related injuries
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Bathroom
A bathroom is a room in the home for personal hygiene activities, generally containing a sink (basin) and either a bathtub, a shower, or both. In some countries, the toilet is included in this room, for ease of plumbing, whereas other cultures consider this insanitary, and give that fixture a room of its own. Historically, bathing was often a collective activity, which took place in public baths
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Door
A door is a moving mechanism used to block off and allow access to, an entrance to or within an enclosed space, such as a building, room or vehicle. Doors normally consist of one or two solid panels, with or without windows, that swing using hinges horizontally. These hinges are attached to the door's edge but there are also doors that slide, fold or spin. The main purpose of a door is to control physical access. Doors are significant in preventing the spread of fire and as a barrier to noise. Many doors are equipped with locking mechanisms to allow entrance to certain people and keep out others. When opened, doors can allow people, animals, ventilation or light to pass through. The door is used to control the physical atmosphere within a space by enclosing the air drafts, so that interiors may be more effectively heated or cooled. When closed, a door normally impedes the transfer of air from one side to the other
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Fire Exit
An emergency exit in a structure is a special exit for emergencies such as a fire: the combined use of regular and special exits allows for faster evacuation, while it also provides an alternative if the route to the regular exit is blocked by fire, etc. The qualifications for an emergency exit are as follows: it must be in a location that is easily accessible, the exit must have an area or location that it can bring you to in the event of any emergency situation, it must be controlled by the inside of the building, it must be well managed and regularly up kept, and it must be in a permanent location. It is usually in a strategically located (e.g. in a stairwell, hallway, or other likely places) outward opening door with a crash bar on it and with exit signs leading to it. The name is a reference to when they were frequently used, however, a fire exit can also be a main doorway must be able to be unlocked from the inside of the room
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School
A school is an institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students (or "pupils") under the direction of teachers. Most countries have systems of formal education, which is commonly compulsory. In these systems, students progress through a series of schools. The names for these schools vary by country (discussed in the Regional section below) but generally include primary school for young children and secondary school for teenagers who have completed primary education. An institution where higher education is taught, is commonly called a university college or university. In addition to these core schools, students in a given country may also attend schools before and after primary and secondary education. Kindergarten or pre-school provide some schooling to very young children (typically ages 3–5)
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Polyvinyl Butyral
Polyvinyl butyral (or PVB) is a resin mostly used for applications that require strong binding, optical clarity, adhesion to many surfaces, toughness and flexibility. It is prepared from polyvinyl alcohol by reaction with butyraldehyde
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London
London (/ˈlʌndən/ (About this sound listen)) is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. It was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. London's ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1.12-square-mile (2.9 km2--->) medieval boundaries
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Sound Insulation
Soundproofing is any means of reducing the sound pressure with respect to a specified sound source and receptor. There are several basic approaches to reducing sound: increasing the distance between source and receiver, using noise barriers to reflect or absorb the energy of the sound waves, using damping structures such as sound baffles, or using active antinoise sound generators. Two distinct soundproofing problems may need to be considered when designing acoustic treatments - to improve the sound within a room (See anechoic chamber), and reduce sound leakage to/from adjacent rooms or outdoors. Acoustic quieting and noise control can be used to limit unwanted noise. Soundproofing can suppress unwanted indirect sound waves such as reflections that cause echoes and resonances that cause reverberation
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Windshield
The windshield (North American English) or windscreen (Commonwealth English) of an aircraft, car, bus, motorbike or tram is the front window, which provides visibility whilst protecting occupants from the elements
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