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Archduke
ARCHDUKE (feminine: ARCHDUCHESS; German: Erzherzog, feminine form: Erzherzogin) was the title borne from 1358 by the Habsburg
Habsburg
rulers of the Archduchy of Austria
Archduchy of Austria
, and later by all senior members of that dynasty. It denotes a rank within the former Holy Roman Empire (962–1806), which was below that of Emperor
Emperor
and King
King
and above that of (debatably) a Grand Duke
Grand Duke
, Duke
Duke
and Prince
Prince
. The territory ruled by an Archduke
Archduke
or Archduchess was called an Archduchy. All remaining Archduchies ceased to exist in 1918
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Dux
DUX (/dʌks, dʊks/ ; plural: duces) is Latin
Latin
for "leader" (from the noun dux, ducis, "leader, general") and later for duke and its variant forms (doge , duce , etc.). During the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, dux could refer to anyone who commanded troops, including foreign leaders, but was not a formal military rank. In writing his commentaries on the Gallic Wars , Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
uses the term only for Celtic generals, with one exception for a Roman commander who held no official rank. CONTENTS* 1 Roman Empire
Roman Empire
* 1.1 Original usage * 1.2 Change in usage * 1.3 The office under the Dominate * 2 Later developments * 3 Post-Roman uses * 3.1 Education * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 Sources * 8 External links ROMAN EMPIRE This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION
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German Language
No official regulation ( German orthography regulated by the Council for German Orthography )
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Dutch Language
Aruba
Aruba
Belgium
Belgium
Curaçao Netherlands
Netherlands
Sint Maarten
Sint Maarten
Suriname
Suriname
------------------------- BENELUX EUROPEAN UNION SOUTH AMERICAN UNION CARICOM REGULATED BY Nederlandse Taalunie ( Dutch Language Union ) LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 nl ISO 639-2 dut (B) nld (T) ISO 639-3 nld Dutch/ Flemish
Flemish
GLOTTOLOG mode1257 LINGUASPHERE 52-ACB-a Dutch-speaking world (included are areas of daughter-language Afrikaans
Afrikaans
) Distribution of the Dutch language
Dutch language
and its dialects in Western Europe THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS
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French Language
FRENCH (le français ( listen ) or la langue française ) is a Romance language
Romance language
of the Indo-European family . It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance , the spoken Latin
Latin
in Gaul
Gaul
, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d\'oïl —languages historically spoken in northern France
France
and in southern Belgium
Belgium
, which French ( Francien ) has largely supplanted
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Medieval Greek
MEDIEVAL GREEK, also known as BYZANTINE GREEK, is the stage of the Greek language
Greek language
between the end of Classical antiquity
Classical antiquity
in the 5th-6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople
Constantinople
in 1453. From the 7th century onwards, Greek was the only language of administration and government in the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
. This stage of language is thus described as Byzantine Greek. The study of the Medieval Greek language
Greek language
and literature is a branch of Byzantine Studies, or Byzantinology , the study of the history and culture of the Byzantine Empire
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Medieval Latin
MEDIEVAL LATIN was the form of Latin
Latin
used in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, primarily: as a medium of scholarly exchange; as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
; and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration. Despite the clerical origin of many of its authors, medieval Latin should not be confused with Ecclesiastical Latin
Latin
. There is no real consensus on the exact boundary where Late Latin
Late Latin
ends and medieval Latin
Latin
begins
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Holy Roman Empire
The HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE ( Latin
Latin
: Sacrum Imperium Romanum; German : Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Central Europe
Central Europe
that developed during the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and continued until its dissolution in 1806. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany , though it also came to include the Kingdom of Bohemia
Kingdom of Bohemia
, the Kingdom of Burgundy , the Kingdom of Italy , and numerous other territories. On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne
Charlemagne
as Emperor , reviving the title in Western Europe
Western Europe
, more than three centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire

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Middle French
MIDDLE FRENCH (French : moyen français) is a historical division of the French language
French language
that covers the period from the 14th to the early 17th centuries
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Old French
OLD FRENCH (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France
France
from the 8th century to the 14th century. In the 14th century, these dialects came to be collectively known as the langue d\'oïl , contrasting with the langue d\'oc or Occitan language
Occitan language
in the south of France. The mid-14th century is taken as the transitional period to Middle French , the language of the French Renaissance
French Renaissance
, specifically based on the dialect of the Île-de-France
Île-de-France
region
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Luxembourg
Coordinates : 49°45′N 6°10′E / 49.750°N 6.167°E / 49.750; 6.167 Grand Duchy of Luxembourg * Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg (Luxembourgish ) * Großherzogtum Luxemburg (German ) * Grand-Duché de Luxembourg
Luxembourg
(French ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: " Mir wëlle blei
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Luxembourgish Language
LUXEMBOURGISH, LUXEMBURGISH (/ˈlʌksəmˌbɜːrɡɪʃ/ ) or LETZEBURGESCH (/ˌlɛtsbɜːrˈɡɛʃ, -sə-/ or /ˈlɛtsˌbɜːrɡɪʃ, -sə-/ ) (Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuergesch) is a West Germanic language that is spoken mainly in Luxembourg
Luxembourg
. Worldwide, about 390,000 people speak Luxembourgish. While it could be considered a standardized variety (i.e., a dialect with a written form) of German , its official use in the state of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
and the existence of a separate regulatory body has removed Luxembourgish, at least in part, from the domain of the Dachsprache Standard German . Despite the lack of a sharp boundary between Luxembourgish and the neighboring German dialects, this has led several linguists (from Luxembourg
Luxembourg
as well as Germany) to regard it as a separate, yet closely related language
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Lotharingia
LOTHARINGIA (Latin: Lotharii regnum) was a medieval successor kingdom of the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
, comprising the present-day Netherlands
Netherlands
, Belgium
Belgium
, Luxembourg
Luxembourg
, North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
(Germany), Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany), Saarland (Germany), and Lorraine (France). It was named after King Lothair II who received this territory after the kingdom of Middle Francia of his father Lothair I was divided among his sons in 855. Lotharingia
Lotharingia
was born out of the tripartite division in 855 of the kingdom of Middle Francia , which itself was formed after the threefold division of the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
by the Treaty of Verdun of 843
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Duchy Of Lorraine
The DUCHY OF LORRAINE (French : Lorraine, IPA: ; German : Lothringen), originally UPPER LORRAINE, was a duchy now included in the larger present-day region of Lorraine
Lorraine
in northeastern France. Its capital was Nancy . It was founded in 959 following the division of Lotharingia
Lotharingia
into two separate duchies: Upper and Lower Lorraine
Lorraine
, the westernmost parts of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
. The Lower duchy was quickly dismantled, while Upper Lorraine
Lorraine
came to be known as simply the Duchy
Duchy
of Lorraine. The Duchy
Duchy
of Lorraine
Lorraine
was coveted and briefly occupied by the Dukes of Burgundy
Burgundy
and the Kings of France
France

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West Francia
In medieval historiography, WEST FRANCIA ( Latin
Latin
: Francia occidentalis) or the KINGDOM OF THE WEST FRANKS (regnum Francorum occidentalium) was the western part of Charlemagne\'s Empire , inhabited and ruled by the Germanic Franks
Franks
that forms the earliest stage of the Kingdom of France , lasting from about 840 until 987. West Francia was formed out of the division of the Carolingian Empire in 843 under the Treaty of Verdun after the death of Emperor Louis the Pious and the east–west division which "gradually hardened into the establishment of separate kingdoms (...) of what we can begin to call Germany and France." West Francia extended further south than modern France, but it did not extend as far east
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Carolingian
Non-agnatic lines: * Robertian dynasty * House of Capet * Bosonid dynasty CAROLINGIAN DYNASTY PIPPINIDS * Pippin the Elder (c. 580–640) * Grimoald (616–656) * Childebert the Adopted (d. 662) ARNULFINGS * Arnulf of Metz (582–640) * Ansegisel
Ansegisel
(d. 662 or 679) * Chlodulf of Metz (d. 696 or 697) * Pepin of Herstal (635-714) * Grimoald II (d. 714) * Drogo of Champagne (670–708) * Theudoald (d. 741) CAROLINGIANS * Charles Martel
Charles Martel
(686–741) * Carloman (d
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