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Archaeopteryx
Archaeopteryx
Archaeopteryx
(/ˌɑːrkiːˈɒptərɪks/), meaning "old wing" (sometimes referred to by its German name Urvogel ("original bird" or "first bird")), is a genus of bird-like dinosaurs that is transitional between non-avian feathered dinosaurs and modern birds
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Skeleton
The skeleton is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism. There are several different skeletal types: the exoskeleton, which is the stable outer shell of an organism, the endoskeleton, which forms the support structure inside the body, the hydroskeleton, and the cytoskeleton. The term comes from Greek σκελετός(skeletós), meaning 'dried up'.[1])Contents1 Types of skeletons1.1 Exoskeleton 1.2 Endoskeleton 1.3 Pliant skeletons 1.4 Rigid skeletons 1.5 Cytoskeleton 1.6 Fluid skeletons1.6.1 Hydrostatic skeleton (hydroskeleton)2 Organisms with skeletons2.1 Invertebrates2.1.1 Sponges 2.1.2 Echinoderms2.2 Vertebrates2.2.1 Fish 2.2.2 Birds 2.2.3 Marine mammals 2.2.4 Humans3 Bones and cartilage3.1 Bone 3.2 Cartilage4 In popular culture 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksTypes of skeletons[edit] There are two major types of skeletons: solid and fluid
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Chordate
And see textA chordate (/kɔːrdeɪt/) is an animal constituting the phylum Chordata. During some period of their life cycle, chordates possess a notochord, a dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail: these five anatomical features define this phylum. Chordates are also bilaterally symmetric; and have a coelom, metameric segmentation, and a circulatory system. The Chordata
Chordata
and Ambulacraria
Ambulacraria
together form the superphylum Deuterostomia. Chordates are divided into three subphyla: Vertebrata (fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals); Tunicata
Tunicata
(salps and sea squirts); and Cephalochordata
Cephalochordata
(which includes lancelets). There are also extinct taxa such as the Vetulicolia
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Homeothermy
Homeothermy
Homeothermy
or homothermy is thermoregulation that maintains a stable internal body temperature regardless of external influence. This internal body temperature is often, though not necessarily, higher than the immediate environment[1] (from Greek ὅμοιος homoios "similar" and θέρμη thermē "heat"). Homeothermy
Homeothermy
is one of the three types of thermo regulation in warm-blooded animal species. Homeothermy's opposite is poikilothermy. Homeotherms are not necessarily endothermic. Some homeotherms may maintain constant body temperatures through behavioral mechanisms alone, i.e., behavioral thermoregulation. Many reptiles use this strategy
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Claw
A claw is a curved, pointed appendage, found at the end of a toe or finger in most amniotes (mammals, reptiles, birds). Some invertebrates such as beetles and spiders have somewhat similar fine hooked structures at the end of the leg or tarsus for gripping a surface as the creature walks. Crabs', lobsters' and scorpions' pincers, or more formally, their chelae, are sometimes called claws. A true claw is made of hard protein called keratin. Claws are used to catch and hold prey in carnivorous mammals such as cats and dogs, but may also be used for such purposes as digging, climbing trees, self-defense, and grooming, in those and other species. Similar appendages that are flat and do not come to a sharp point are called nails instead
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Tooth
A tooth (plural teeth) is a hard, calcified structure found in the jaws (or mouths) of many vertebrates and used to break down food. Some animals, particularly carnivores, also use teeth for hunting or for defensive purposes. The roots of teeth are covered by gums. Teeth are not made of bone, but rather of multiple tissues of varying density and hardness. The cellular tissues that ultimately become teeth originate from the embryonic germ layer, the ectoderm. The general structure of teeth is similar across the vertebrates, although there is considerable variation in their form and position. The teeth of mammals have deep roots, and this pattern is also found in some fish, and in crocodilians. In most teleost fish, however, the teeth are attached to the outer surface of the bone, while in lizards they are attached to the inner surface of the jaw by one side
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Raven
A raven is one of several larger-bodied species of the genus Corvus. These species do not form a single taxonomic group within the genus. There is no consistent distinction between "crows" and "ravens", and these appellations have been assigned to different species chiefly on the basis of their size, crows generally being smaller than ravens. The largest raven species are the common raven and the thick-billed raven.Contents1 Etymology 2 Species 3 Extinct species 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksEtymology[edit] The term "raven" originally referred to the common raven, the type species of the genus Corvus, which has a larger distribution than any other species of Corvus, ranging over much of the Northern Hemisphere. The modern English word raven has cognates in all other Germanic languages, including
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Eurasian Magpie
See textSubspecies      leucoptera      melanotos      pica      fennorum      asirensis      bactriana      hemileucoptera      serica      bottanensis      camtschatica      mauritanica Maghreb magpie
Maghreb magpie
(P. p. mauritanica) showing the characteristic blue patch behind the eyeThe Eurasian magpie
Eurasian magpie
or common magpie (Pica pica) is a resident breeding bird throughout northern part of Eurasian continent. It is one of several birds in the crow family designated magpies, and belongs to the Holarctic
Holarctic
radiation of "monochrome" magpies
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Equator
An equator is the intersection of the surface of a rotating sphere (such as a planet) with the plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation and midway between its poles. On Earth, the Equator
Equator
is an imaginary line on the surface, equidistant from the North and South Poles, dividing the Earth
Earth
into Northern and Southern Hemispheres
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Paleontology
Paleontology, sometimes spelled palaeontology (/ˌpeɪliɒnˈtɒlədʒi, ˌpæli-, -ən-/) is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene
Holocene
Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present). It includes the study of fossils to determine organisms' evolution and interactions with each other and their environments (their paleoecology). Paleontological observations have been documented as far back as the 5th century BC. The science became established in the 18th century as a result of Georges Cuvier's work on comparative anatomy, and developed rapidly in the 19th century. The term itself originates from Greek παλαιός, palaios, "old, ancient", ὄν, on (gen
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Ancient Greek
The ancient Greek language
Greek language
includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BCE), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BCE), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(Koine Greek, 3rd century BCE to the 4th century CE). It is antedated in the second millennium BCE by Mycenaean Greek
Mycenaean Greek
and succeeded by Medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage on its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek
Attic Greek
and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
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Genus
A genus (/ˈdʒiːnəs/, pl. genera /ˈdʒɛnərə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses,[1] in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.E.g. Panthera leo
Panthera leo
(lion) and Panthera onca
Panthera onca
(jaguar) are two species within the genus Panthera. Panthera
Panthera
is a genus within the family Felidae. The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist. The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera
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Rejected Name
A conserved name or nomen conservandum (plural nomina conservanda, abbreviated as nom. cons.) is a scientific name that has specific nomenclatural protection. Nomen conservandum is a Latin
Latin
term, meaning "a name to be conserved". The terms are often used interchangeably, such as by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN),[1] while the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature favours "conserved name". The process for conserving botanical names is different from that for zoological names. Under the botanical code, names may also be "suppressed", nomen rejiciendum (plural nomina rejicienda or nomina utique rejicienda, abbreviated as nom. rej.), or rejected in favour of a particular conserved name, and combinations based on a suppressed name are also listed as nom
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name,[1] although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature.[2] For example, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name, Picea abies. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription, position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature)
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Species
In biology, a species (/ˈspiːʃiːz/ // (listen)) is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individuals of the appropriate sexes or mating types can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. Other ways of defining species include their karyotype, DNA
DNA
sequence, morphology, behaviour or ecological niche. In addition, paleontologists use the concept of the chronospecies since fossil reproduction cannot be examined. While these definitions may seem adequate, when looked at more closely they represent problematic species concepts. For example, the boundaries between closely related species become unclear with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, and in a ring species
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Type Species
In zoological nomenclature, a type species (species typica) is the species name with which the name of a genus or subgenus is considered to be permanently taxonomically associated, i.e., the species that contains the biological type specimen(s).[1] A similar concept is used for suprageneric groups called a type genus. In botanical nomenclature, these terms have no formal standing under the code of nomenclature, but are sometimes borrowed from zoological nomenclature. In botany, the type of a genus name is a specimen (or, rarely, an illustration) which is also the type of a species name. The species name that has that type can also be referred to as the type of the genus name
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