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Arbitration
ARBITRATION, a form of alternative dispute resolution (ADR), is a technique for the resolution of disputes outside the courts . The parties to a dispute refer it to arbitration by one or more persons (the "arbitrators", "arbiters" or "arbitral tribunal "), and agree to be bound by the arbitration decision (the "award "). A third party reviews the evidence in the case and imposes a decision that is legally binding on both sides and enforceable in the courts. Arbitration
Arbitration
is often used for the resolution of commercial disputes, particularly in the context of international commercial transactions . In certain countries such as the United States, arbitration is also frequently employed in consumer and employment matters, where arbitration may be mandated by the terms of employment or commercial contracts
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Arbitrage
In economics and finance , ARBITRAGE (US : /ˈɑːrbᵻtrɑːʒ/ , UK : /ˈɑːbᵻtrɪdʒ/ , UK : /ˌɑːbᵻˈtrɑːʒ/ ) is the practice of taking advantage of a price difference between two or more markets : striking a combination of matching deals that capitalize upon the imbalance, the profit being the difference between the market prices . When used by academics, an arbitrage is a (imagined, hypothetical, thought experiment) transaction that involves no negative cash flow at any probabilistic or temporal state and a positive cash flow in at least one state; in simple terms, it is the possibility of a risk-free profit after transaction costs. For instance, an arbitrage is present when there is the opportunity to instantaneously buy low and sell high
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The Arbitration
THE ARBITRATION is a 2016 Nigeria
Nigeria
romantic drama film, written by Chinaza Onuzo, directed by Niyi Akimoloyan, and produced by Chinaza Onuzo, Omotayo Adeola, and Zulu Oyibo. The film stars OC Ukeje , Adesua Etomi , Iretiola Doyle and Somkele Iyamah-Idhalama . CONTENTS * 1 Plot * 2 Cast * 3 Production * 4 Release * 5 References PLOTGbenga OC Ukeje ,is a charming entrepreneur, running a very profitable tech company, and is the defendant in a law suite filed by Dara Adesua Etomi , a computer engineer , whose talent helped Gbenga's company acquire the height it's reached. Both colleagues were lovers whose relationship ended when Gbenga discovered his wife Beverly Naya was pregnant with their supposed-to-be first child. Her lawsuit seeks compensation for those accounts, but the too ambitious Dara is strongly trying to get Gbenga to admit he'd raped her
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London Court Of International Arbitration
The LONDON COURT OF INTERNATIONAL ARBITRATION (which now goes by the name of its initialism LCIA) is an institution based in London
London
, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
providing the service of international arbitration . The administrative headquarters of the LCIA are merely based in London. LCIA is an international institution, and is generally regarded as the leading global forum for dispute resolution proceedings for all parties, irrespective of their location or system of law. Although arbitration and the provisional of formal arbitration tribunals are the institution's main focus, the LCIA is also active in mediation , a form of alternative dispute resolution (ADR)
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Alternative Dispute Resolution
ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION (ADR; known in some countries, such as India, as EXTERNAL DISPUTE RESOLUTION) includes dispute resolution processes and techniques that act as a means for disagreeing parties to come to an agreement short of litigation . It is a collective term for the ways that parties can settle disputes, with (or without) the help of a third party. Despite historic resistance to ADR by many popular parties and their advocates, ADR has gained widespread acceptance among both the general public and the legal profession in recent years
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Conciliation
CONCILIATION is an alternative dispute resolution (ADR) process whereby the parties to a dispute use a conciliator, who meets with the parties both separately and together in an attempt to resolve their differences. They do this by lowering tensions, improving communications, interpreting issues, encouraging parties to explore potential solutions and assisting parties in finding a mutually acceptable outcome. Conciliation differs from arbitration in that the conciliation process, in and of itself, has no legal standing, and the conciliator usually has no authority to seek evidence or call witnesses, usually writes no decision, and makes no award. Conciliation differs from mediation in that in conciliation, often the parties are in need of restoring or repairing a relationship, either personal or business
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Mediation
MEDIATION is a dynamic, structured, interactive process where a neutral third party assists disputing parties in resolving conflict through the use of specialized communication and negotiation techniques. All participants in mediation are encouraged to actively participate in the process. Mediation
Mediation
is a "party-centered" process in that it is focused primarily upon the needs, rights, and interests of the parties. The mediator uses a wide variety of techniques to guide the process in a constructive direction and to help the parties find their optimal solution. A mediator is facilitative in that s/he manages the interaction between parties and facilitates open communication. Mediation
Mediation
is also evaluative in that the mediator analyzes issues and relevant norms ("reality-testing"), while refraining from providing prescriptive advice to the parties (e.g., "You should do... .")
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Negotiation
NEGOTIATION is a dialogue between two or more people or parties intended to reach a beneficial outcome over one or more issues where a conflict exists with respect to at least one of these issues. This beneficial outcome can be for all of the parties involved, or just for one or some of them. It is aimed to resolve points of difference, to gain advantage for an individual or collective , or to craft outcomes to satisfy various interests. It is often conducted by putting forward a position and making small concessions to achieve an agreement. The degree to which the negotiating parties trust each other to implement the negotiated solution is a major factor in determining whether negotiations are successful. In many cases, negotiation is not a zero-sum game , allowing for cooperation to improve the results of the negotiation. People negotiate daily, often without considering it a negotiation
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Collaborative Law
COLLABORATIVE LAW, also known as COLLABORATIVE PRACTICE, DIVORCE or FAMILY LAW, is a legal process enabling couples who have decided to separate or end their marriage to work with their lawyers and, on occasion, other family professionals in order to avoid the uncertain outcome of court and to achieve a settlement that best meets the specific needs of both parties and their children without the underlying threat of litigation . The process allows parties to have a fair settlement. The voluntary process is initiated when the couple signs a contract (a "participation agreement") binding each other to the process and disqualifying their respective lawyer's right to represent either one in any future family-related litigation. The collaborative process can be used to facilitate a broad range of other family issues, including disputes between parents and the drawing up of pre and post-marital contracts
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Conflict Resolution
CONFLICT RESOLUTION is conceptualized as the methods and processes involved in facilitating the peaceful ending of conflict and retribution . Committed group members attempt to resolve group conflicts by actively communicating information about their conflicting motives or ideologies to the rest of the group (e.g., intentions; reasons for holding certain beliefs), and by engaging in collective negotiation . Dimensions of resolution typically parallel the dimensions of conflict in the way the conflict is processed. Cognitive resolution is the way disputants understand and view the conflict, with beliefs and perspectives and understandings and attitudes. Emotional resolution is in the way disputants feel about a conflict, the emotional energy. Behavioral resolution is how one thinks the disputants act, their behavior
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Dispute Resolution
DISPUTE RESOLUTION is the process of resolving disputes between parties . The term dispute resolution may also be used interchangeably with conflict resolution , where conflict styles can be used for different scenarios. CONTENTS * 1 Methods * 2 Judicial dispute resolution * 3 Extrajudicial dispute resolution * 4 Online dispute resolution * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links METHODSMethods of dispute resolution include: * lawsuits (litigation) * arbitration * collaborative law * mediation * conciliation * many types of negotiation * facilitationOne could theoretically include violence or even war as part of this spectrum, but dispute resolution practitioners do not usually do so; violence rarely ends disputes effectively, and indeed, often only escalates them
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Lawyer-supported Mediation
LAWYER-SUPPORTED MEDIATION is a "non-adversarial method of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) to resolves disputes, such as to settle family issues at a time of divorce or separation , including child support, custody issues and division of property". The approach sets out to integrate the contribution of family lawyer or solicitor with that of a family mediator. Users of lawyer-supported mediation first meet their respective lawyers to take advice before jointly attending mediation sessions. Legal advice is taken between sessions to inform options being discussed at mediation. Following mediation, the lawyers are called upon to review any agreement reached and to make aspects of it made legally binding. Since neither lawyer is initially being retained as a negotiator or litigator, the cost of legal advice is typically fixed for clients choosing lawyer-supported mediation
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Party-directed Mediation
PARTY-DIRECTED MEDIATION (PDM) is an approach to mediation that seeks to empower each party in a dispute, enabling each party to have more direct influence upon the resolution of a conflict, by offering both means and processes for enhancing the negotiation skills of contenders. The intended prospect of party-directed mediation is to improve upon the ability and willingness of disputants to deal with subsequent differences. The concept behind party-directed mediation, depending upon the degree to which a case lends itself, is that if and when parties wish to spend the time to acquire the skills necessary to become more effective negotiators, then they can be empowered to achieve a self-directed resolution. The concept is most effective for disputants who wish to have a greater hand in resolving their own conflicts
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Restorative Justice
RESTORATIVE JUSTICE is an approach to justice that personalizes the crime by having the victims and the offenders mediate a restitution agreement to the satisfaction of each, as well as involving the community. This contrasts to more punitive approaches where the main aim is retributive justice or to satisfy abstract legal principles. Victims take an active role in the process. Meanwhile, offenders take meaningful responsibility for their actions, taking the opportunity to right their wrongs and redeem themselves, in their own eyes and in the eyes of the community. In addition, the restorative justice approach aims to help the offender to avoid future offenses. The approach is based on a theory of justice that considers crime and wrongdoing to be an offense against an individual or community, rather than the State
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