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Arabic Language
THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS ARABIC TEXT . Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols .ARABIC ( Arabic
Arabic
: العَرَبِيَّة‎‎, _al-ʻarabiyyah_ (_ listen ) or Arabic
Arabic
: عَرَبِيّ‎‎ ʻarabī_ (_ listen ) or ) is a Central Semitic language complex that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca _ of the Arab world . It is named after the Arabs
Arabs
, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. The modern written language ( Modern Standard Arabic ) is derived from Classical Arabic . It is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic
Arabic
(_fuṣḥā_), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam
Islam
. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary
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Modern Standard Arabic
MODERN STANDARD ARABIC (MSA; Arabic
Arabic
: اللغة العربية الفصحى‎‎ _al-lughat ul-ʻArabīyat ul-fuṣḥá_ 'the most eloquent Arabic
Arabic
language'), STANDARD ARABIC, or LITERARY ARABIC is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic
Arabic
used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication. It is considered a pluricentric language . Most Western scholars distinguish two standard _(al-)fuṣḥá_ (الفصحى) varieties of Arabic: the CLASSICAL ARABIC (CA) (اللغة العربية التراثية _al-lughah al-ʻArabīyah al-turāthīyah_) of the Quran
Quran
and early Islamic (7th to 9th centuries) literature , and MODERN STANDARD ARABIC (MSA) (اللغة العربية المعيارية الحديثة _al-lughah al-ʻArabīyah al-miʻyārīyah al-ḥadīthah_), the standard language in use today. MSA is based on classical Arabic, and differences between the two varieties of the language are directly related to modernizing and simplification, both in speaking and writing styles. Most Arabic
Arabic
speakers consider the two varieties to be two registers of one language, although the two registers can be referred to in Arabic
Arabic
as فصح ى العصر _fuṣḥá l-ʻaṣr_ (MSA) and فصح ى التراث _fuṣḥá t-turāth_ (CA)
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Varieties Of Arabic
There are many varieties of Arabic
Arabic
(dialects or otherwise) in existence. Arabic
Arabic
is a Semitic language within the Afroasiatic family that originated on the Arabian Peninsula . The largest divisions occur between the spoken languages of different regions. Some VARIETIES OF ARABIC in North Africa
North Africa
, for example, are incomprehensible to an Arabic
Arabic
speaker from the Levant
Levant
or the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
. Within these broad regions further and considerable geographic distinctions exist, within countries, across country borders, even between cities and villages. Another major distinction is to be made between the widely diverging colloquial spoken varieties, used for nearly all everyday speaking situations, and the formal standardized language, found mostly in writing or in prepared speech. The regionally prevalent variety is learned as the speaker's first language while the formal language is subsequently learned in school. The formal language itself varies between its modern iteration, Modern Standard Arabic
Arabic
(often called MSA in English) and the Classical Arabic
Arabic
that serves as its basis, though Arabic
Arabic
speakers typically do not make this distinction
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Arabic Languages
The ARABIC language family consists of all of the descendants of Proto-Arabic , including: * Old Arabic
Old Arabic
, the language of northwestern Arabia in the pre-Islamic period and its varieties: * Northern Old Arabic
Old Arabic
(including Safaitic and Hismaic) * Old Hejazi * Classical Arabic , the liturgical language of Islam which emerged in the 7th century AD,* Neo-Arabic, the descendants of spoken Old Arabic, including: * Maltese * Colloquial Arabic * Western Arabic * Eastern Arabic * Modern Standard Arabic , the standardized variety of Arabic used since the 19th century and modernized version of the liturgical language of IslamNOTES * ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Arabian". Glottolog 2.7 . Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. LITERATURE * Cantineau, Jean (1955). "La dialectologie arabe", Orbis 4:149–169. * Fischer, Wolfdietrich, & Otto Jastrow (ed) (1980). Handbuch der arabischen Dialekte, Wiesbaden: Harrasowitz. * Kaye, Alan S., & Judith Rosenhouse (1997). "Arabic Dialects and Maltese", The Semitic Languages. Ed. Robert Hetzron. New York: Routledge. Pages 263–311. * Lozachmeur, H., (ed.), (1995)
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Naskh (script)
NASKH ( Arabic
Arabic
: نسخ‎‎ nasḫ/nasḵ; also known as NASKHI or by its Turkish name NESIH) is a specific style of the Arabic
Arabic
alphabet , said to have been invented by the calligrapher Ibn Muqlah Shirazi (d. 940). The root of this Arabic
Arabic
term nasakh-a (نسخ) means "to copy". It either refers to the fact that it replaced its predecessor, Kufic script, or that this style allows faster copying of texts. This type of script was derived from Thuluth by introducing a number of modifications resulting in smaller size and greater delicacy. It is written using a small, very fine pen known as a cava pen , which makes the script eminently suitable for use in book production. Naskhi was used in copying Qur\'ans , Delails, En-ams and Hadiths . It was also used in commentaries on the Qur'an
Qur'an
( Tafsir ) and in collections of poetry ( Divan
Divan
). It was and is a very widely used form of script. With small modifications, this is the style most commonly used for printing Arabic
Arabic
, Persian , Pashto and Sindhi languages and for representations of the Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet
by computer fonts
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Arab League
The ARAB LEAGUE ( Arabic
Arabic
: الجامعة العربية‎‎ _al-Jāmiʻah al-ʻArabīyah_), formally the LEAGUE OF ARAB STATES ( Arabic
Arabic
: جامعة الدول العربية‎‎ _Jāmiʻat ad-Duwal al-ʻArabīyah_), is a regional organization of Arab countries in and around North Africa
North Africa
, the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
and Arabia
Arabia
. It was formed in Cairo
Cairo
on 22 March 1945 with six members: Kingdom of Egypt
Egypt
, Kingdom of Iraq
Iraq
, Transjordan (renamed Jordan
Jordan
in 1949), Lebanon
Lebanon
, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
, and Syria
Syria
. Yemen
Yemen
joined as a member on 5 May 1945. Currently, the League has 22 members , but Syria
Syria
's participation has been suspended since November 2011, as a consequence of government repression during the Syrian Civil War
Syrian Civil War
. The League's main goal is to "draw closer the relations between member States and co-ordinate collaboration between them, to safeguard their independence and sovereignty, and to consider in a general way the affairs and interests of the Arab
Arab
countries"
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Language Family
A LANGUAGE FAMILY is a group of languages related through descent from a common _ancestral language_ or _parental language_, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics , which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree , or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy . Linguists therefore describe the _daughter languages_ within a language family as being _genetically related_. Estimates of the number of living languages vary from 5,000 to 8,000, depending on the precision of one's definition of "language", and in particular on how one classifies dialects . The 2013 edition of Ethnologue catalogs just over 7,000 living human languages. A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people. There are also many dead and extinct languages, as well as some that are still insufficiently studied to be classified, or are even unknown outside their respective speech communities. Membership of languages in a language family is established by comparative linguistics . Sister languages are said to have a "genetic" or "genealogical" relationship. The latter term is older
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Afroasiatic Languages
AFROASIATIC (AFRO-ASIATIC), also known as AFRASIAN and traditionally as HAMITO-SEMITIC (CHAMITO-SEMITIC), is a large language family of several hundred related languages and dialects. It comprises about 300 or so living languages and dialects, according to the 2009 Ethnologue estimate. It includes languages spoken predominantly in West Asia , North Africa
North Africa
, the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
, and parts of the Sahel
Sahel
. Afroasiatic languages
Afroasiatic languages
have over 350 million native speakers, the fourth largest number of any language family (after Indo-European , Sino-Tibetan and Niger–Congo ). The phylum has six branches: Berber , Chadic , Cushitic , Egyptian , Omotic and Semitic . By far the most widely spoken Afroasiatic language is Arabic
Arabic
. It is also the most widely spoken language within the Semitic branch, and includes Modern Standard Arabic
Arabic
and spoken colloquial varieties . Arabic
Arabic
has around 290 million native speakers, who are concentrated primarily in West Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, and Malta
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Semitic Languages
The SEMITIC LANGUAGES are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East
Middle East
. Semitic languages
Semitic languages
are spoken by more than 330 million people across much of Western Asia
Western Asia
, North Africa and the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
, as well as in often large expatriate communities in North America
North America
and Europe
Europe
, with smaller communities in the Caucasus
Caucasus
and Central Asia
Central Asia
. The terminology was first used in the 1780s by members of the Göttingen School of History , who derived the name from Shem , one of the three sons of Noah in the Book of Genesis . The most widely spoken Semitic languages
Semitic languages
today are (numbers given are for native speakers only) Arabic
Arabic
(300 million), Amharic (22 million), Tigrinya (7 million), Hebrew
Hebrew
(unknown; 5 million native and non-native L1 speakers), Aramaic (575,000 to 1 million largely Assyrian fluent speakers) and Maltese (520,000 speakers)
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Central Semitic Languages
The CENTRAL SEMITIC LANGUAGES are a proposed intermediate group of Semitic languages
Semitic languages
, comprising the Late Iron Age, modern dialect of Arabic (prior to which Arabic was a Southern Semitic language), and older Bronze Age Northwest Semitic languages
Semitic languages
(which include Aramaic , Ugaritic , and the Canaanite languages of Hebrew and Phoenician ). In this reckoning, Central Semitic itself is one of three divisions of Semitic along with East Semitic ( Akkadian
Akkadian
and Eblaite ) and South Semitic (South Arabian and the Ethiopian Semitic languages
Semitic languages
)
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Maghrebi Arabic
MAGHREBI ARABIC, or _MAGHREBI DARIJA_, is the principal spoken language in the Maghreb
Maghreb
region, including Morocco
Morocco
, Algeria
Algeria
, Tunisia and Libya
Libya
. It includes Moroccan Arabic , Algerian Arabic , Tunisian Arabic
Arabic
and Libyan Arabic . It is sometimes referred to as WESTERN ARABIC (as opposed to the Eastern Arabic
Arabic
known as Mashriqi Arabic ). Speakers of Maghrebi call their language DERJA, DERIJA or DARIJA. Modern Standard Arabic
Modern Standard Arabic
(الفصحى _(al-)fushā_) is the preferred language of governments, legislation and judiciary of countries in Maghreb. Therefore, Maghrebi Arabic
Arabic
is mainly a spoken and vernacular language , even though it occasionally appears in entertainment and advertising in urban areas of Algeria, Morocco
Morocco
and Tunisia. In Algeria, where it was taught as a separate subject under French colonization, some textbooks in the language exist, although they are no longer officially endorsed but the Algerian authorities
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Egyptian Arabic
EGYPTIAN ARABIC, locally known as the EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL LANGUAGE or MAṣRI, meaning simply "Egyptian," is spoken by most contemporary Egyptians
Egyptians
. Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
is a North African
North African
dialect of the Arabic
Arabic
language which is a Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family . It originated in the Nile Delta
Nile Delta
in Lower Egypt
Egypt
around the capital Cairo
Cairo
. Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
descended from the Arabic language
Arabic language
which was brought to Egypt
Egypt
during the seventh-century AD Muslim conquest , its development was highly influenced by the Coptic language
Coptic language
which was the native language of the Egyptians
Egyptians
of pre-Arabacized Egypt
Egypt
, and later it had small influences by other languages such as French , Italian , Turkish and English . The 94 million Egyptians
Egyptians
speak a continuum of dialects , among which Cairene is the most prominent
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Sudanese Arabic
SUDANESE ARABIC is the variety of Arabic
Arabic
spoken throughout Sudan
Sudan
. Some of the tribes in Sudan
Sudan
still have similar accents to the ones in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Unique phonological characteristics * 3 Influence of Nubian languages * 4 Regional variation * 5 Greetings in Sudanese Arabic
Arabic
* 6 Assenting - saying yes * 7 See also * 8 References * 8.1 English * 8.2 French * 8.3 German * 8.4 Arabic
Arabic
* 9 External links HISTORYIn 1889 the Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain claimed that the Arabic
Arabic
spoken in Sudan
Sudan
was "a pure but archaic Arabic". The pronunciation of certain letters was like Hijazi, and not Egyptian, such as g being the pronunciation for the Arabic letter Qāf and J being the pronunciation for Jim . UNIQUE PHONOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICSSudanese Arabic
Arabic
is distinct from Egyptian Arabic and does not share some of the characteristic properties of that dialect despite the overall similarity of the two dialects
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Levantine Arabic
LEVANTINE ARABIC ( Arabic
Arabic
: اللهجة الشامية‎‎, ʾal-lahǧatu š-šāmiyyah, Levantine Arabic: il-lahže š-šāmiyye) is a broad dialect of Arabic
Arabic
spoken in the 100 to 200 kilometre-wide Eastern Mediterranean coastal strip. It is considered one of the five major varieties of Arabic. In the frame of the general diglossia status of the Arab world, Levantine Arabic
Arabic
is used for daily spoken use, while most of the written and official documents and media use Modern Standard Arabic
Arabic
. CONTENTS * 1 Classification * 2 Geographical distribution * 3 History * 4 Phonology * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Bibliography * 8 External links CLASSIFICATIONLevantine Arabic
Arabic
is most closely related to North Mesopotamian Arabic , Anatolian Arabic, and Cypriot Arabic
Arabic
. These four varieties are descended from a common variety of northern Old Arabic
Arabic
. GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTIONLevantine Arabic
Arabic
is spoken in the fertile strip on the eastern shores of the Mediterranean. To the East, in the desert, one finds North Arabian Bedouin varieties
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Mesopotamian Arabic
MESOPOTAMIAN ARABIC is a continuum of mutually-intelligible varieties of Arabic
Arabic
native to the Mesopotamian basin of Iraq
Iraq
as well as spanning into Syria
Syria
, Iran
Iran
, southeastern Turkey
Turkey
, and spoken in Iraqi diaspora communities. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Phonology * 2.1 Vowels * 2.2 Consonants * 3 Varieties * 4 Distribution * 5 References HISTORYAramaic was the lingua franca in Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
from the early 1st millennium BCE until the late 1st millennium CE, and as may be expected, Iraqi Arabic
Arabic
shows signs of an Aramaic substrate . The Gelet and the Judeo-Iraqi varieties have retained features of Babylonian Aramaic . Due to Iraq
Iraq
's inherent multiculturalism as well as history, Iraqi Arabic
Arabic
in turn bears extensive borrowings in its lexicon from Aramaic, Akkadian , Persian and Turkish . PHONOLOGYVOWELSCONSONANTSEven in the most formal of conventions, pronunciation depends upon a speaker's background. Nevertheless, the number and phonetic character of most of the 28 consonants has a broad degree of regularity among Arabic-speaking regions. Note that Arabic
Arabic
is particularly rich in uvular , pharyngeal , and pharyngealized ("emphatic ") sounds
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Peninsular Arabic
PENINSULAR ARABIC, or SOUTHERN ARABIC, is the varieties of Arabic spoken throughout the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
. This includes the countries of Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
, Yemen
Yemen
, Oman
Oman
, United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
, Kuwait
Kuwait
, Bahrain
Bahrain
, Qatar
Qatar
, Southern Iraq
Iraq
and the tribal people of Jordan
Jordan
(the native Jordanians). As this area is the homeland of the Arabic
Arabic
language, the language spoken there is closer to Classical Arabic
Classical Arabic
than elsewhere. Some of the local dialects have retained many archaic features lost in other dialects, such as the conservation of nunation for indeterminate noand . They retain most Classical syntax and vocabulary but still have some differences from Classical Arabic
Classical Arabic
like the other dialects. VARIETIES An overview of the different Arabic
Arabic
varieties The following varieties are usually noted: * Yemeni Arabic , displays a past conjugation with the very archaic -k suffix, as in southern Semitic languages
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