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Arabic Languages
The ARABIC language family consists of all of the descendants of Proto-Arabic , including: * Old Arabic , the language of northwestern Arabia in the pre-Islamic period and its varieties: * Northern Old Arabic (including Safaitic and Hismaic) * Old Hejazi * Classical Arabic
Classical Arabic
, the liturgical language of Islam which emerged in the 7th century AD,* Neo-Arabic, the descendants of spoken Old Arabic, including: * Maltese * Colloquial Arabic * Western Arabic * Eastern Arabic * Modern Standard Arabic
Modern Standard Arabic
, the standardized variety of Arabic used since the 19th century and modernized version of the liturgical language of IslamNOTES * ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Arabian". Glottolog 2.7
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North Africa
NORTH AFRICA is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries situated in the northern-most region of the African continent
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Western Neo-Aramaic
WESTERN NEO-ARAMAIC is a modern Aramaic language
Aramaic language
. Today, it is spoken in three villages in the Anti-Lebanon Mountains of western Syria
Syria
. Western Neo-Aramaic
Western Neo-Aramaic
is the only living language among the Western Aramaic languages . All other Neo-Aramaic languages are of the Eastern Aramaic branch
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Arab (etymology)
The proper name ARAB or ARABIAN (and cognates in other languages) has been used to translate several different but similar-sounding words in ancient and classical texts which do not necessarily have the same meaning or origin. The etymology of the term is of course closely linked to that of the place name Arabia
Arabia
. Gustave E. von Grunebaum , in his book Classical Islam said that an approximate translation is passerby or nomad . CONTENTS * 1 Semitic etymology * 2 In Arabic * 3 In Assyrian * 4 In Hebrew * 5 Notes * 6 References SEMITIC ETYMOLOGYThe root of the word has many meanings in Semitic languages including desert, nomad, merchant, raven and comprehensible with all of these having varying degrees of relevance to the emergence of the name
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Edomite Language
The EDOMITE LANGUAGE was a Canaanite language , very similar to Hebrew, spoken by the Edomites in southwestern Jordan
Jordan
and parts of Israel
Israel
in the first millennium BC. It is known only from a very small corpus. In early times, it seems to have been written with a Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
; like the Moabite language, it retained feminine -t. However, in the 6th century BC, it adopted the Aramaic alphabet
Aramaic alphabet
. Meanwhile, Aramaic or Arabic features such as whb ("gave") and tgr "merchant" entered the language, with whb becoming especially common in proper names. According to Glottolog , referencing Huehnergard "> * ^ Edomite at MultiTree on the Linguist List * ^ A B Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Edomite"
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Ammonite Language
AMMONITE is the extinct Canaanite language of the Ammonite people mentioned in the Bible
Bible
, who used to live in modern-day Jordan
Jordan
, and after whom its capital Amman
Amman
is named. Only fragments of their language survive - chiefly the 9th century BC Amman
Amman
Citadel Inscription , the 7th-6th century BC Tell Siran bronze bottle, and a few ostraca . As far as can be determined from the small corpus, it was extremely similar to Biblical Hebrew
Hebrew
, with some possible Aramaic influence including the use of the verb ‘bd (עבד) instead of the more common Biblical Hebrew
Hebrew
‘śh (עשה) for "make"
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Glottolog
GLOTTOLOG is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and maintained first at the former Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig
Leipzig
, Germany, and since 2015 at the new Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena
Jena
, Germany. In addition to the languoid catalogue (the catalog of the world's languages and language families), Glottolog provides a comprehensive bibliography on the world's smaller languages
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Proto-Arabic
PROTO-ARABIC is the name given to the hypothetical reconstructed ancestor of all the varieties of Arabic attested since the 9th century BC. There are two lines of evidence that could help build up proto-arabic. (i) Evidence of Arabic becomes more frequent in the 2nd century BC with the documentation of Arabic names in the Nabataean script , as well as evidence of an Arabic substratum in the Nabataean language. (ii) The Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions, composed between the 1st century BC and the 4th century AD in the basalt desert of northwest Arabia and the southern Levant, are also crucial to the reconstruction of Proto-Arabic since they exhibit many features in common with Epigraphic
Epigraphic
Old South Arabian
Old South Arabian
and Classical Arabic
Classical Arabic

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Language Family
A LANGUAGE FAMILY is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics , which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree , or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy . Linguists therefore describe the daughter languages within a language family as being genetically related. According to Ethnologue the 7,099 living human languages are distributed in 141 different language families. A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people. There are also many dead and extinct languages, as well as some that are still insufficiently studied to be classified, or are even unknown outside their respective speech communities
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Mizrahi Hebrew
MIZRAHI HEBREW, or EASTERN HEBREW, refers to any of the pronunciation systems for Biblical Hebrew used liturgically by Mizrahi Jews , that is, Jews from Arab countries or further east and with a background of Arabic , Persian , or other languages of the Middle East and Asia . As such, Mizrahi Hebrew is actually a blanket term for many dialects. Sephardi Hebrew is not considered one of these even if it has been spoken in the Middle East and North Africa . The Sephardim were expellees from Spain , and settled among the Mizrahim, but in countries such as Syria and Morocco, there was a fairly high degree of convergence between the Sephardi and the local pronunciations of Hebrew. Yemenite Hebrew is also considered quite separate, as it has a wholly different system for the pronunciation of vowels
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Aramaic Of Hatra
ARAMAIC OF HATRA refers to inscriptions from the site of the ancient city of Hatra that were published by W. Andrae in 1912 and were studied by S. Ronzevalle and P. Jensen. The excavations undertaken by the Iraqi Department of Antiquities brought to light more than 100 new texts, the publication of which was undertaken by F. Safar in the journal Sumer. The first four series were the subject of reviews in the journal Syria. The texts range in date from the 2nd or 3rd century BCE to the destruction of the city c. 240 CE; the earliest dated text provides a date of 98 BCE. For the most part, these inscriptions are short commemorative graffiti with minimal text. The longest of the engraved inscriptions does not have more than 13 lines. It is therefore difficult to identify more than a few features of the Aramaic dialect of Hatra, which shows overall the greatest affinity to Syriac . The stone inscriptions bear witness to an effort to establish a monumental script
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Malta
Coordinates : 35°53′N 14°30′E / 35.883°N 14.500°E / 35.883; 14.500 MALTA (/ˈmɒltə/ ( listen ); Maltese: ), officially known as the REPUBLIC OF MALTA (Maltese : Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea . It lies 80 km (50 mi) south of Italy , 284 km (176 mi) east of Tunisia , and 333 km (207 mi) north of Libya . The country covers just over 316 km2 (122 sq mi), with a population of just under 450,000, making it one of the world's smallest and most densely populated countries. The capital of Malta is Valletta , which at 0.8 km2, is the smallest national capital in the European Union by area. Malta has one national language , which is Maltese , and English as an official language
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Middle East
The MIDDLE EAST is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia
Asia
, Turkey
Turkey
(both Asian and European ), and Egypt
Egypt
(which is mostly in North Africa
North Africa
). The corresponding adjective is Middle Eastern and the derived noun is Middle Easterner. The term has come into wider usage as a replacement of the term Near East (as opposed to the Far East ) beginning in the early 20th century. Arabs
Arabs
, Turks , Persians , Kurds
Kurds
, and Azeris (excluding Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
) constitute the largest ethnic groups in the region by population
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Afroasiatic Languages
AFROASIATIC (AFRO-ASIATIC), also known as AFRASIAN and traditionally as HAMITO-SEMITIC (CHAMITO-SEMITIC), is a large language family of several hundred related languages and dialects. It comprises about 300 or so living languages and dialects, according to the 2009 Ethnologue estimate. It includes languages spoken predominantly in West Asia
West Asia
, North Africa
North Africa
, the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
, and parts of the Sahel
Sahel
. Afroasiatic languages
Afroasiatic languages
have over 350 million native speakers, the fourth largest number of any language family (after Indo-European , Sino-Tibetan and Niger–Congo ). The phylum has six branches: Berber , Chadic , Cushitic , Egyptian , Omotic and Semitic . By far the most widely spoken Afroasiatic language is Arabic
Arabic

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