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Arabic Language
Arabic
Arabic
(Arabic: العَرَبِيَّة‎) al-ʻarabiyyah [ʔalʕaraˈbijːah] ( listen) or (Arabic: عَرَبِيّ‎) ʻarabī [ˈʕarabiː] ( listen) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world.[4] It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic
Arabic
is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form (Modern Standard Arabic) [5]. The modern written language (Modern Standard Arabic) is derived from Classical Arabic
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Latin Script
Latin
Latin
or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin
Latin
alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans. Several Latin-script alphabets exist which differ in graphemes, collation and phonetic values from the classical Latin
Latin
alphabet. The Latin
Latin
script is the basis of the International Phonetic Alphabet and the 26 most widespread letters are the letters contained in the ISO basic Latin
Latin
alphabet. Latin
Latin
script is the basis for the largest number of alphabets of any writing system[1] and is the most widely adopted writing system in the world (commonly used by about 70% of the world's population)
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Language Family
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics, which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree, or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy. Linguists therefore describe the daughter languages within a language family as being genetically related.[1] According to Ethnologue
Ethnologue
the 7,099 living human languages are distributed in 141 different language families.[2] A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people
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Syriac Alphabet
Sogdian→Old Turkic alphabet→Old Hungarian alphabet →Old Uyghur alphabet→Mongolian script→Manichaean alphabetNabataean alphabet→ Arabic
Arabic
alphabet→N'Ko alphabetDirection Right-to-leftISO 15924 Syrc, 135Syre, 138 (ʾEsṭrangēlā variant) Syrj, 137 (Western variant) Syrn, 136 (Eastern variant) Unicode
Unicode
aliasSyriac Unicode
Unicode
rangeU+0700–U+074F Syriac U+0860-U+086F Syriac SupplementThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.This article contains Syriac text, written from right to left in a cursive style with some letters joined
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Writing System
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication. While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages, writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer.[1] The processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing
Writing
is usually recorded onto a durable medium, such as paper or electronic storage, although non-durable methods may also be used, such as writing on a computer display, on a blackboard, in sand, or by skywriting. The general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets, syllabaries, or logographies. Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category
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Manually Coded Language
Manually coded languages are not themselves languages but are representations of oral languages in a gestural-visual form; that is, signed versions of oral languages (signed languages). Unlike the sign languages that have evolved naturally in Deaf communities, which have distinct spatial structures, these manual codes (MCL) are the conscious invention of deaf and hearing educators, and mostly follow the grammar of the oral language—or, more precisely, of the written form of the oral language
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Greek Alphabet
The Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
has been used to write the Greek language
Greek language
since the late 9th century BC or early 8th century BC.[3][4] It was derived from the earlier Phoenician alphabet,[5] and was the first alphabetic script to have distinct letters for vowels as well as consonants. It is the ancestor of the Latin and Cyrillic scripts.[6] Apart from its use in writing the Greek language, in both its ancient and its modern forms, the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
today also serves as a source of technical symbols and labels in many domains of mathematics, science and other fields. In its classical and modern forms, the alphabet has 24 letters, ordered from alpha to omega
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Afroasiatic Languages
Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic)[3] or Semito-Hamitic,[4] is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.[5] It includes languages spoken predominantly in West Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
and parts of the Sahel. Afroasiatic languages
Afroasiatic languages
have over 495 million native speakers, the fourth largest number of any language family (after Indo-European, Sino-Tibetan and Niger–Congo).[6] The phylum has six branches: Berber, Chadic, Cushitic, Egyptian, Omotic
Omotic
and Semitic. By far the most widely spoken Afroasiatic language is Arabic. A language within the Semitic branch, it includes Modern Standard Arabic as well as spoken colloquial varieties
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West Semitic Languages
The West Semitic languages
Semitic languages
are a proposed major sub-grouping of ancient Semitic languages. The term was first coined in 1883 by Fritz Hommel.[2][3][4] The grouping,[5] supported by semiticists like Robert Hetzron and John Huehnergard, divides the Semitic language family into two branches: Eastern and Western. The East Semitic languages
Semitic languages
consist of the extinct Eblaite and Akkadian
Akkadian
languages, while the remaining majority of Semitic languages
Semitic languages
form the West Semitic languages
Semitic languages
grouping. It consists of the clearly defined sub-groups: Ethiopic, South Arabian, Arabic and Northwest Semitic (this including Hebrew, Aramaic, Amorite and Ugaritic). The first two, Ethiopic and South Arabian, show particular common features, and are often grouped together as South Semitic
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Eritrea
Coordinates: 15°N 39°E / 15°N 39°E / 15; 39State of Eritreaሃገረ ኤርትራ (Tigrinya) Hagere Ertra دولة إرتريا (Arabic) Dawlat IritriyáFlagEmblemAnthem: Ertra, Ertra, Ertra Eritrea, Eritrea, EritreaLocation within Africa
Africa
(dark gray) and the Eastern Hemisphere (gray)Capital and largest city Asmara 15°20′N 38°55′E / 15.333°N 38.917°E / 15.333; 38.917Official languages None[1] (see working languages)Recognised national languagesTigrinya Arabic[2] Tigre Kunama Saho Bilen Nara Afar[3]Working languagesTigrinya[4] Arabic[4] English[4]Ethnic groups (2012[5])55% Tigrinya 30% Tigre 4% Saho 2% Kunama 2% Bilen 2% Rashaida 5% othersDemonym EritreanGovernment Unitary one-party presidential republic• PresidentIsaias AfwerkiLegislature National AssemblyFormation• Dʿmtc. 980 BC• Kingdom of Aksumc
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Proto-Arabic
Proto-Arabic is the name given to the hypothetical reconstructed ancestor of all the varieties of Arabic attested since the 9th century BC. There are two lines of evidence to reconstruct proto-Arabic:Evidence of Arabic becomes more frequent in the 2nd century BC, with the documentation of Arabic names in the Nabataean
Nabataean
script as well as evidence of an Arabic substratum in the Nabataean
Nabataean
language.The Safaitic
Safaitic
and Hismaic inscriptions were composed between the 1st century BC and the 4th century AD, in the basalt desert of northwest Arabia and the southern Levant. They also are crucial to the reconstruction of Proto-Arabic since they show many features that are shared by epigraphic Old South Arabian
Old South Arabian
and Classical Arabic
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Central Semitic Languages
The Central Semitic languages[2][3] are a proposed intermediate group of Semitic languages, comprising the Late Iron Age, modern dialect of Arabic (prior to which Arabic was a Southern Semitic language), and older Bronze Age Northwest Semitic languages
Semitic languages
(which include Aramaic, Ugaritic, and the Canaanite languages of Hebrew and Phoenician)
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Lebanese Arabic
Lebanese Arabic
Arabic
or Lebanese is a variety of Levantine Arabic, indigenous to and spoken primarily in Lebanon, with significant linguistic influences borrowed from other Middle Eastern and European languages, and is in some ways unique from other varieties of Arabic. Due to multilingualism among Lebanese people
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Arab League
The Arab
Arab
League (Arabic: الجامعة العربية‎ al-Jāmiʻah al-ʻArabīyah), formally the League of Arab
Arab
States (Arabic: جامعة الدول العربية‎ Jāmiʻat ad-Duwal al-ʻArabīyah), is a regional organization of Arab
Arab
states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
and Arabia. It was formed in Cairo
Cairo
on 22 March 1945 with six members: Kingdom of Egypt, Kingdom of Iraq, Transjordan (renamed Jordan
Jordan
in 1949), Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Syria.[3] Yemen
Yemen
joined as a member on 5 May 1945
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Hebrew Alphabet
Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCEDemotic 7 c. BCEMeroitic 3 c. BCEProto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCEUgaritic 15 c. BCE Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCEGe’ez 5–6 c. BCEPhoenician 12 c. BCEPaleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCESamaritan 6 c. BCE Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
3 c. BCETifinaghPaleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE Aramaic 8 c. BCE Kharoṣṭhī
Kharoṣṭhī
4 c. BCE Brāhmī 4 c. BCE Brahmic family
Brahmic family
(see)E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE Devanagari
Devanagari
13 c. CECanadian syllabics 1840Hebrew 3 c. BCE Pahlavi 3 c. BCEAvestan 4 c. CEPalmyrene 2 c. BCE Syriac 2 c. BCENabataean 2 c. BCE Arabic
Arabic
4 c. CEN'Ko 1949 CESogdian 2 c. BCEOrkhon (old Turkic) 6 c. CEOld Hungarian c. 650 CEOld UyghurMongolian 1204 CEMandaic 2 c. CEGreek 8 c
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Israel
Coordinates: 31°N 35°E / 31°N 35°E / 31; 35State of Israelמְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל (Hebrew) دَوْلَة إِسْرَائِيل (Arabic)FlagEmblemAnthem: "Hatikvah" (Hebrew for "The Hope")(pre-) 1967 border (Green Line)Capital and largest city Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(limited recognition)[fn 1] 31°47′N 35°13′E / 31.783°N 35.217°E / 31.783; 35.217Official languagesHebrew ArabicEthnic groups (2017)74.7% Jewish
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