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Arabic
Arabic
Arabic
(Arabic: العَرَبِيَّة‎) al-ʻarabiyyah [ʔalʕaraˈbijːah] ( listen) or (Arabic: عَرَبِيّ‎) ʻarabī [ˈʕarabiː] ( listen) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world.[4] It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic
Arabic
is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form (Modern Standard Arabic) [5]. The modern written language (Modern Standard Arabic) is derived from Classical Arabic
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Language Family
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics, which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree, or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy. Linguists therefore describe the daughter languages within a language family as being genetically related.[1] According to Ethnologue
Ethnologue
the 7,099 living human languages are distributed in 141 different language families.[2] A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people
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Manually Coded Language
Manually coded languages are not themselves languages but are representations of oral languages in a gestural-visual form; that is, signed versions of oral languages (signed languages). Unlike the sign languages that have evolved naturally in Deaf communities, which have distinct spatial structures, these manual codes (MCL) are the conscious invention of deaf and hearing educators, and mostly follow the grammar of the oral language—or, more precisely, of the written form of the oral language
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Greek Alphabet
The Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
has been used to write the Greek language
Greek language
since the late 9th century BC or early 8th century BC.[3][4] It was derived from the earlier Phoenician alphabet,[5] and was the first alphabetic script to have distinct letters for vowels as well as consonants. It is the ancestor of the Latin and Cyrillic scripts.[6] Apart from its use in writing the Greek language, in both its ancient and its modern forms, the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
today also serves as a source of technical symbols and labels in many domains of mathematics, science and other fields. In its classical and modern forms, the alphabet has 24 letters, ordered from alpha to omega
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Latin Script
Latin
Latin
or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin
Latin
alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans. Several Latin-script alphabets exist which differ in graphemes, collation and phonetic values from the classical Latin
Latin
alphabet. The Latin
Latin
script is the basis of the International Phonetic Alphabet and the 26 most widespread letters are the letters contained in the ISO basic Latin
Latin
alphabet. Latin
Latin
script is the basis for the largest number of alphabets of any writing system[1] and is the most widely adopted writing system in the world (commonly used by about 70% of the world's population)
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Eritrea
Coordinates: 15°N 39°E / 15°N 39°E / 15; 39State of Eritreaሃገረ ኤርትራ (Tigrinya) Hagere Ertra دولة إرتريا (Arabic) Dawlat IritriyáFlagEmblemAnthem: Ertra, Ertra, Ertra Eritrea, Eritrea, EritreaLocation within Africa
Africa
(dark gray) and the Eastern Hemisphere (gray)Capital and largest city Asmara 15°20′N 38°55′E / 15.333°N 38.917°E / 15.333; 38.917Official languages None[1] (see working languages)Recognised national languagesTigrinya Arabic[2] Tigre Kunama Saho Bilen Nara Afar[3]Working languagesTigrinya[4] Arabic[4] English[4]Ethnic groups (2012[5])55% Tigrinya 30% Tigre 4% Saho 2% Kunama 2% Bilen 2% Rashaida 5% othersDemonym EritreanGovernment Unitary one-party presidential republic• PresidentIsaias AfwerkiLegislature National AssemblyFormation• Dʿmtc. 980 BC• Kingdom of Aksumc
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Syriac Alphabet
Sogdian→Old Turkic alphabet→Old Hungarian alphabet →Old Uyghur alphabet→Mongolian script→Manichaean alphabetNabataean alphabet→ Arabic
Arabic
alphabet→N'Ko alphabetDirection Right-to-leftISO 15924 Syrc, 135Syre, 138 (ʾEsṭrangēlā variant) Syrj, 137 (Western variant) Syrn, 136 (Eastern variant) Unicode
Unicode
aliasSyriac Unicode
Unicode
rangeU+0700–U+074F Syriac U+0860-U+086F Syriac SupplementThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.This article contains Syriac text, written from right to left in a cursive style with some letters joined
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Afroasiatic Languages
Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic)[3] or Semito-Hamitic,[4] is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.[5] It includes languages spoken predominantly in West Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
and parts of the Sahel. Afroasiatic languages
Afroasiatic languages
have over 495 million native speakers, the fourth largest number of any language family (after Indo-European, Sino-Tibetan and Niger–Congo).[6] The phylum has six branches: Berber, Chadic, Cushitic, Egyptian, Omotic
Omotic
and Semitic. By far the most widely spoken Afroasiatic language is Arabic. A language within the Semitic branch, it includes Modern Standard Arabic as well as spoken colloquial varieties
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Romanization Of Arabic
The romanization of Arabic
Arabic
writes written and spoken Arabic
Arabic
in the Latin script
Latin script
in one of various systematic ways. Romanized Arabic
Arabic
is used for a number of different purposes, among them transcription of names and titles, cataloging Arabic language
Arabic language
works, language education when used in lieu of or alongside the Arabic
Arabic
script, and representation of the language in scientific publications by linguists
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Chad
Coordinates: 15°N 19°E / 15°N 19°E / 15; 19Republic of Chad République du Tchad (French) جمهورية تشاد‎ (Arabic) Jumhūrīyat TashādFlagCoat of armsMotto: "Unité, Travail, Progrès" (French) "Unity, Work, Progress" "الاتحاد، العمل، التقدم" (Arabic)Anthem: La Tchadienne  (French) نشيد تشاد الوطني  (Arabic) The Chadian HymnLocation of  Chad  (dark blue)Capital and largest city N'Djamena 12°06′N 16°02′E / 12.100°N 16.033°E / 12.100; 16.033Official languagesArabic FrenchEthnic groups (2010)27.7% Sara 12.3% Arab 10.5% Toubou 9.5% Mayo-Kebbi 9.0% Kanem-Bornou 8.7% Ouaddaï 6.7% Hadjarai 6.5% Tandjilé 4.7% Bilala 6.4% other 0.3% unknownDemonym ChadianGovernment Unitary dominant-party presidential republic• PresidentIdriss Déb
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Israel
Coordinates: 31°N 35°E / 31°N 35°E / 31; 35State of Israelמְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל (Hebrew) دَوْلَة إِسْرَائِيل (Arabic)FlagEmblemAnthem: "Hatikvah" (Hebrew for "The Hope")(pre-) 1967 border (Green Line)Capital and largest city Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(limited recognition)[fn 1] 31°47′N 35°13′E / 31.783°N 35.217°E / 31.783; 35.217Official languagesHebrew ArabicEthnic groups (2017)74.7% Jewish
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Comoros
Coordinates: 12°10′S 44°15′E / 12.167°S 44.250°E / -12.167; 44.250Union of the Comorosالاتحاد القمري (Arabic) al-Ittiḥād al-Qumurī/Qamarī Union des Comores  (French) Udzima wa Komori  (Swahili)FlagSealMotto: وحدة، تضامن، تنمية (Arabic) "Unité – Solidarité – Développement" (French) "Unity – Solidarity – Development"Anthem: Udzima wa ya Masiwa  (Comorian) The Unity of the Great IslandsLocation of the  Comoros  (dark blue) – in Africa  (light blue & dark grey) – in the African Union  (light blue)Capital and largest city Moroni 11°41′S 43°16′E / 11.683°S 43.267°E / -11.683; 43.267Official languagesComorian Arabic FrenchReligion Sunni IslamDemonym ComorianGovernment Federal presidential republic<
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Writing System
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication. While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages, writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer.[1] The processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing
Writing
is usually recorded onto a durable medium, such as paper or electronic storage, although non-durable methods may also be used, such as writing on a computer display, on a blackboard, in sand, or by skywriting. The general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets, syllabaries, or logographies. Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category
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Djibouti
Coordinates: 11°30′N 43°00′E / 11.500°N 43.000°E / 11.500; 43.000 Republic
Republic
of DjiboutiRépublique de Djibouti  (French) جمهورية جيبوتي  (Arabic) Gabuutih Ummuuno  (Afar) Jamhuuriyadda Jabuuti  (Somali)FlagEmblemMotto: اتحاد، مساواة، سلام (Arabic) Unité, Égalité, Paix (French) Unity, Equality, PeaceAnthem: DjiboutiCapital and largest city Djibouti 11°36′N 43°10′E / 11.600°N 43.167°E / 11.600; 43.167Official languagesArabic French Somali[
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Bahrain
Bahrain
Bahrain
(/bɑːˈreɪn/ ( listen); Arabic: البحرين‎ al-Baḥrayn IPA: [aɫ baħrajn] ( listen)), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain
Bahrain
(Arabic: مملكة البحرين‎  Mamlakat al-Baḥrayn), is an Arab
Arab
constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf. It is an island country consisting of a small archipelago centered around Bahrain
Bahrain
Island, situated between the Qatar peninsula and the north eastern coast of Saudi Arabia, to which it is connected by the 25-kilometre (16 mi) King
King
Fahd Causeway. Bahrain's population is 1,234,571 (c
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Iraq
Coordinates: 33°N 44°E / 33°N 44°E / 33; 44 Republic
Republic
of Iraqجمهورية العراق (Arabic) کۆماری عێراق (Kurdish)FlagCoat of armsMotto: الله أكبر (Arabic) "Allahu Akbar" (transliteration) "God is the Greatest"Anthem: "Mawtini" "موطني" (English: "My Homeland")Capital and largest city Baghdad 33°20′N 44°26′E / 33.333°N 44.433°E / 33.333; 44.433Official languagesArabic KurdishReligion IslamDemonym IraqiGovernment Federal parliamentary republic•&#
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