HOME TheInfoList.com
Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff
[::MainTopicLength::#1500] [::ListTopicLength::#1000] [::ListLength::#15] [::ListAdRepeat::#3]

Arabic
THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS ARABIC TEXT . Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols .ARABIC ( Arabic : العَرَبِيَّة‎‎, _al-ʻarabiyyah_ (_ listen ) or Arabic : عَرَبِيّ‎‎ ʻarabī_ (_ listen ) or ) is a Central Semitic language complex that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca _ of the Arab world . It is named after the Arabs , a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti- Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. The modern written language ( Modern Standard Arabic ) is derived from Classical Arabic . It is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media
[...More...]

"Arabic" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Modern Standard Arabic
MODERN STANDARD ARABIC (MSA; Arabic
Arabic
: اللغة العربية الفصحى‎‎ _al-lughat ul-ʻArabīyat ul-fuṣḥá_ 'the most eloquent Arabic
Arabic
language'), STANDARD ARABIC, or LITERARY ARABIC is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic
Arabic
used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication. It is considered a pluricentric language . Most Western scholars distinguish two standard _(al-)fuṣḥá_ (الفصحى) varieties of Arabic: the CLASSICAL ARABIC (CA) (اللغة العربية التراثية _al-lughah al-ʻArabīyah al-turāthīyah_) of the Quran
Quran
and early Islamic (7th to 9th centuries) literature , and MODERN STANDARD ARABIC (MSA) (اللغة العربية المعيارية الحديثة _al-lughah al-ʻArabīyah al-miʻyārīyah al-ḥadīthah_), the standard language in use today
[...More...]

"Modern Standard Arabic" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Varieties Of Arabic
There are many varieties of Arabic
Arabic
(dialects or otherwise) in existence. Arabic
Arabic
is a Semitic language within the Afroasiatic family that originated on the Arabian Peninsula . The largest divisions occur between the spoken languages of different regions. Some VARIETIES OF ARABIC in North Africa
North Africa
, for example, are incomprehensible to an Arabic
Arabic
speaker from the Levant
Levant
or the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
. Within these broad regions further and considerable geographic distinctions exist, within countries, across country borders, even between cities and villages. Another major distinction is to be made between the widely diverging colloquial spoken varieties, used for nearly all everyday speaking situations, and the formal standardized language, found mostly in writing or in prepared speech
[...More...]

"Varieties Of Arabic" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Arabic Languages
The ARABIC language family consists of all of the descendants of Proto-Arabic , including: * Old Arabic
Old Arabic
, the language of northwestern Arabia in the pre-Islamic period and its varieties: * Northern Old Arabic
Old Arabic
(including Safaitic and Hismaic) * Old Hejazi * Classical Arabic , the liturgical language of Islam which emerged in the 7th century AD,* Neo-Arabic, the descendants of spoken Old Arabic, including: * Maltese * Colloquial Arabic * Western Arabic * Eastern Arabic * Modern Standard Arabic , the standardized variety of Arabic used since the 19th century and modernized version of the liturgical language of IslamNOTES * ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Arabian". Glottolog 2.7 . Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History
[...More...]

"Arabic Languages" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Naskh (script)
NASKH ( Arabic
Arabic
: نسخ‎‎ nasḫ/nasḵ; also known as NASKHI or by its Turkish name NESIH) is a specific style of the Arabic
Arabic
alphabet , said to have been invented by the calligrapher Ibn Muqlah Shirazi (d. 940). The root of this Arabic
Arabic
term nasakh-a (نسخ) means "to copy". It either refers to the fact that it replaced its predecessor, Kufic script, or that this style allows faster copying of texts. This type of script was derived from Thuluth by introducing a number of modifications resulting in smaller size and greater delicacy. It is written using a small, very fine pen known as a cava pen , which makes the script eminently suitable for use in book production. Naskhi was used in copying Qur\'ans , Delails, En-ams and Hadiths
[...More...]

"Naskh (script)" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Arab League
The ARAB LEAGUE ( Arabic
Arabic
: الجامعة العربية‎‎ _al-Jāmiʻah al-ʻArabīyah_), formally the LEAGUE OF ARAB STATES ( Arabic
Arabic
: جامعة الدول العربية‎‎ _Jāmiʻat ad-Duwal al-ʻArabīyah_), is a regional organization of Arab countr
[...More...]

"Arab League" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Language Family
A LANGUAGE FAMILY is a group of languages related through descent from a common _ancestral language_ or _parental language_, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics , which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree , or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy . Linguists therefore describe the _daughter languages_ within a language family as being _genetically related_. Estimates of the number of living languages vary from 5,000 to 8,000, depending on the precision of one's definition of "language", and in particular on how one classifies dialects . The 2013 edition of Ethnologue catalogs just over 7,000 living human languages. A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people
[...More...]

"Language Family" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Afroasiatic Languages
AFROASIATIC (AFRO-ASIATIC), also known as AFRASIAN and traditionally as HAMITO-SEMITIC (CHAMITO-SEMITIC), is a large language family of several hundred related languages and dialects. It comprises about 300 or so living languages and dialects, according to the 2009 Ethnologue estimate. It includes languages spoken predominantly in West Asia , North Africa
North Africa
, the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
, and parts of the Sahel
Sahel
. Afroasiatic languages
Afroasiatic languages
have over 350 million native speakers, the fourth largest number of any language family (after Indo-European , Sino-Tibetan and Niger–Congo ). The phylum has six branches: Berber , Chadic , Cushitic , Egyptian , Omotic and Semitic . By far the most widely spoken Afroasiatic language is Arabic
Arabic

[...More...]

"Afroasiatic Languages" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Semitic Languages
The SEMITIC LANGUAGES are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East
Middle East
. Semitic languages
Semitic languages
are spoken by more than 330 million people across much of Western Asia
Western Asia
, North Africa and the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
, as well as in often large expatriate communities in North America
North America
and Europe
Europe
, with smaller communities in the Caucasus
Caucasus
and Central Asia
Central Asia
. The terminology was first used in the 1780s by members of the Göttingen School of History , who derived the name from Shem , one of the three sons of Noah in the Book of Genesis
[...More...]

"Semitic Languages" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Central Semitic Languages
The CENTRAL SEMITIC LANGUAGES are a proposed intermediate group of Semitic languages
Semitic languages
, comprising the Late Iron Age, modern dialect of Arabic (prior to which Arabic was a Southern Semitic language), and older Bronze Age Northwest Semitic languages
Semitic languages
(which include Aramaic , Ugaritic , and the Canaanite languages of Hebrew and Phoenician ). In this reckoning, Central Semitic itself is one of three divisions of Semitic along with East Semitic ( Akkadian
Akkadian
and Eblaite ) and South Semitic (South Arabian and the Ethiopian Semitic languages
Semitic languages
)
[...More...]

"Central Semitic Languages" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Maghrebi Arabic
MAGHREBI ARABIC, or _MAGHREBI DARIJA_, is the principal spoken language in the Maghreb
Maghreb
region, including Morocco
Morocco
, Algeria
Algeria
, Tunisia and Libya
Libya
. It includes Moroccan Arabic , Algerian Arabic , Tunisian Arabic
Arabic
and Libyan Arabic . It is sometimes referred to as WESTERN ARABIC (as opposed to the Eastern Arabic
Arabic
known as Mashriqi Arabic ). Speakers of Maghrebi call their language DERJA, DERIJA or DARIJA. Modern Standard Arabic
Modern Standard Arabic
(الفصحى _(al-)fushā_) is the preferred language of governments, legislation and judiciary of countries in Maghreb
[...More...]

"Maghrebi Arabic" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Egyptian Arabic
EGYPTIAN ARABIC, locally known as the EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL LANGUAGE or MAṣRI, meaning simply "Egyptian," is spoken by most contemporary Egyptians
Egyptians
. Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
is a North African
North African
dialect of the Arabic
Arabic
language which is a Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family
[...More...]

"Egyptian Arabic" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Sudanese Arabic
SUDANESE ARABIC is the variety of Arabic
Arabic
spoken throughout Sudan
Sudan
. Some of the tribes in Sudan
Sudan
still have similar accents to the ones in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Unique phonological characteristics * 3 Influence of Nubian languages * 4 Regional variation * 5 Greetings in Sudanese Arabic
Arabic
* 6 Assenting - saying yes * 7 See also * 8 References * 8.1 English * 8.2 French * 8.3 German * 8.4 Arabic
Arabic
* 9 External links HISTORYIn 1889 the Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain claimed that the Arabic
Arabic
spoken in Sudan
Sudan
was "a pure but archaic Arabic"
[...More...]

"Sudanese Arabic" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Levantine Arabic
LEVANTINE ARABIC ( Arabic
Arabic
: اللهجة الشامية‎‎, ʾal-lahǧatu š-šāmiyyah, Levantine Arabic: il-lahže š-šāmiyye) is a broad dialect of Arabic
Arabic
spoken in the 100 to 200 kilometre-wide Eastern Mediterranean coastal strip. It is considered one of the five major varieties of Arabic. In the frame of the general diglossia status of the Arab world, Levantine Arabic
Arabic
is used for daily spoken use, while most of the written and official documents and media use Modern Standard Arabic
Arabic
. CONTENTS * 1 Classification * 2 Geographical distribution * 3 History * 4 Phonology * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Bibliography * 8 External links CLASSIFICATIONLevantine Arabic
Arabic
is most closely related to North Mesopotamian Arabic , Anatolian Arabic, and Cypriot Arabic
Arabic

[...More...]

"Levantine Arabic" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Mesopotamian Arabic
MESOPOTAMIAN ARABIC is a continuum of mutually-intelligible varieties of Arabic
Arabic
native to the Mesopotamian basin of Iraq
Iraq
as well as spanning into Syria
Syria
, Iran
Iran
, southeastern Turkey
Turkey
, and spoken in Iraqi diaspora communities. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Phonology * 2.1 Vowels * 2.2 Consonants * 3 Varieties * 4 Distribution * 5 References HISTORYAramaic was the lingua franca in Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
from the early 1st millennium BCE until the late 1st millennium CE, and as may be expected, Iraqi Arabic
Arabic
shows signs of an Aramaic substrate . The Gelet and the Judeo-Iraqi varieties have retained features of Babylonian Aramaic
[...More...]

"Mesopotamian Arabic" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Peninsular Arabic
PENINSULAR ARABIC, or SOUTHERN ARABIC, is the varieties of Arabic spoken throughout the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
. This includes the countries of Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
, Yemen
Yemen
, Oman
Oman
, United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
, Kuwait
Kuwait
, Bahrain
Bahrain
, Qatar
Qatar
, Southern Iraq
Iraq
and the tribal people of Jordan
Jordan
(the native Jordanians)
[...More...]

"Peninsular Arabic" on:
Wikipedia