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Arabic
ARABIC ( Arabic
Arabic
: العَرَبِيَّة‎, al-ʻarabiyyah ( listen ) or Arabic
Arabic
: عَرَبِيّ‎ ʻarabī ( listen ) or ) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world
Arab world
. It is named after the Arabs
Arabs
, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula . The modern written language ( Modern Standard Arabic ) is derived from Classical Arabic . It is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media
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Language Family
A LANGUAGE FAMILY is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics , which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree , or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy . Linguists therefore describe the daughter languages within a language family as being genetically related. According to Ethnologue the 7,099 living human languages are distributed in 141 different language families. A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people. There are also many dead and extinct languages, as well as some that are still insufficiently studied to be classified, or are even unknown outside their respective speech communities
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Malta
Coordinates : 35°53′N 14°30′E / 35.883°N 14.500°E / 35.883; 14.500 MALTA (/ˈmɒltə/ ( listen ); Maltese: ), officially known as the REPUBLIC OF MALTA (Maltese : Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea . It lies 80 km (50 mi) south of Italy , 284 km (176 mi) east of Tunisia , and 333 km (207 mi) north of Libya . The country covers just over 316 km2 (122 sq mi), with a population of just under 450,000, making it one of the world's smallest and most densely populated countries. The capital of Malta is Valletta , which at 0.8 km2, is the smallest national capital in the European Union by area. Malta has one national language , which is Maltese , and English as an official language
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Greek Alphabet
The GREEK ALPHABET has been used to write the Greek language
Greek language
since the late 9th century BC or early 8th century BC It was derived from the earlier Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
, and was the first alphabetic script to have distinct letters for vowels as well as consonants. It is the ancestor of the Latin and Cyrillic scripts . Apart from its use in writing the Greek language, in both its ancient and its modern forms, the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
today also serves as a source of technical symbols and labels in many domains of mathematics, science and other fields. In its classical and modern forms, the alphabet has 24 letters, ordered from alpha to omega . Like Latin and Cyrillic, Greek originally had only a single form of each letter; it developed the letter case distinction between upper-case and lower-case forms in parallel with Latin during the modern era
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Maltese Alphabet
The MALTESE ALPHABET is based on the Latin alphabet with the addition of some letters with diacritic marks and digraphs . It is used to write the Maltese language
Maltese language
, which evolved from the extinct Siculo-Arabic dialect, as a result of 800 years independent development
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Manually Coded Language
MANUALLY CODED LANGUAGES are not themselves languages but are representations of oral languages in a gestural-visual form; that is, signed versions of oral languages (signed languages). Unlike the sign languages that have evolved naturally in Deaf communities , which have distinct spatial structures, these manual codes (MCL) are the conscious invention of deaf and hearing educators , and mostly follow the grammar of the oral language—or, more precisely, of the written form of the oral language. They have been mainly used in deaf education in an effort to "represent English on the hands" and by sign language interpreters in K-12 schools, although they have had some influence on Deaf sign languages where their implementation was widespread
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Latin Script
LATIN or ROMAN script is a set of graphic signs (script ) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet , which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
, used by the Etruscans . Several Latin-script alphabets exist which differ in graphemes, collation and phonetic values from the classical Latin alphabet . The Latin
Latin
script is the basis of the International Phonetic Alphabet and the 26 most widespread letters are the letters contained in the ISO basic Latin alphabet . Latin
Latin
script is the basis for the largest number of alphabets of any writing system and is the most widely adopted writing system in the world (commonly used by about 70% of the world's population)
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Eritrea
Coordinates : 15°N 39°E / 15°N 39°E / 15; 39 State of Eritrea * ሃገረ ኤርትራ (Tigrinya ) * Hagere Ertra * دولة إرتريا ( Arabic
Arabic
) * Dawlat Iritriyá Flag Emblem ANTHEM: Ertra, Ertra, Ertra Eritrea, Eritrea, Eritrea Location of Eritrea
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Afroasiatic Languages
AFROASIATIC (AFRO-ASIATIC), also known as AFRASIAN and traditionally as HAMITO-SEMITIC (CHAMITO-SEMITIC), is a large language family of several hundred related languages and dialects. It comprises about 300 or so living languages and dialects, according to the 2009 Ethnologue estimate. It includes languages spoken predominantly in West Asia
West Asia
, North Africa
North Africa
, the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
, and parts of the Sahel
Sahel
. Afroasiatic languages
Afroasiatic languages
have over 350 million native speakers, the fourth largest number of any language family (after Indo-European , Sino-Tibetan and Niger–Congo ). The phylum has six branches: Berber , Chadic , Cushitic , Egyptian , Omotic and Semitic . By far the most widely spoken Afroasiatic language is Arabic
Arabic

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Syriac Alphabet
Sogdian → Old Turkic alphabet Old Hungarian alphabet →Old Uyghur alphabet → Mongolian script
Mongolian script
Manichaean alphabet
Manichaean alphabet
Nabataean alphabet
Nabataean alphabet
Arabic
Arabic
alphabet →N\'Ko alphabet DIRECTION Right-to-left ISO 15924 Syrc, 135 * Syre, 138 (ʾEsṭrangēlā variant) * Syrj, 137 (Western variant) * Syrn, 136 (Eastern variant) UNICODE ALIAS Syriac UNICODE RANGE * U+0700–U+074F Syriac * U+0860-U+086F Syriac Supplement THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS SYRIAC TEXT, WRITTEN FROM RIGHT TO LEFT IN A CURSIVE STYLE WITH SOME LETTERS JOINED
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Israel
Coordinates : 31°N 35°E / 31°N 35°E / 31; 35 State of Israel * מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל (Hebrew ) * دَوْلَة إِسْرَائِيل (Arabic ) Flag Emblem ANTHEM: " Hatikvah " (Hebrew for "The Hope") (pre-) 1967 border (Green Line ) Capital and largest city Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(limited recognition ) 31°47′N 35°13′E / 31.783°N 35.217°E / 31.783; 35.217 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES * Hebrew *
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Writing System
A WRITING SYSTEM is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication . While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages , writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer . The processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing
Writing
is usually recorded onto a durable medium , such as paper or electronic storage , although non-durable methods may also be used, such as writing on a computer display , on a blackboard, in sand, or by skywriting . The general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets , syllabaries , or logographies . Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category
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Chad
Coordinates : 15°N 19°E / 15°N 19°E / 15; 19 Republic of Chad République du Tchad (French ) جمهورية تشاد ( Arabic
Arabic
) Jumhūrīyat Tshād Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: * "Unité, Travail, Progrès" (French ) * "Unity, Work, Progress" * "الاتحاد، العمل، التقدم" ( Arabic
Arabi

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Comoros
Coordinates : 12°10′S 44°15′E / 12.167°S 44.250°E / -12.167; 44.250 Union of the Comoros* الاتحاد القمري (Arabic ) al-Ittiḥād al-Qumurī/Qamarī * Union des Comores (French ) * Udzima wa Komori (Swahili ) Flag Seal MOTTO: * وحدة، تضامن، تنمية (Arabic ) * "Unité – Solidarité – Développement" (French ) * "Unity – Solidarity – Development" ANTHEM: Udzima wa ya Masiwa (Comorian) The Unity of the Great Islands Location of the Comoros
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Djibouti
Coordinates : 11°30′N 43°00′E / 11.500°N 43.000°E / 11.500; 43.000 Republic
Republic
of Djibouti * République de Djibouti
Djibouti
(French ) * جمهورية جيبوتي (Arabic ) * Gabuutih Ummuuno (Afar ) * Jamhuuriyadda Jabuuti (Somali )
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Hebrew Alphabet
Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE * Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCE * Demotic 7 c. BCE * Meroitic 3 c. BCE* Proto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCE * Ugaritic 15 c. BCE* Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCE * Ge’ez 5–6 c. BCE* Phoenician 12 c. BCE * Paleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCE * Samaritan 6 c. BCE* Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
3 c. BCE * Tifinagh * Paleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE* Aramaic 8 c. BCE * Kharoṣṭhī 4 c. BCE* Brāhmī 4 c. BCE * Brahmic family
Brahmic family
(see) * E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE * Hangul
Hangul
(core letters only) 1443* Devanagari
Devanagari
13 c. CE * Canadian syllabics 1840 * Hebrew 3 c. BCE* Pahlavi 3 c. BCE * Avestan 4 c. CE * Palmyrene 2 c. BCE* Syriac 2 c. BCE * Nabataean 2 c. BCE * Arabic
Arabic
4 c
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