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Arab League
The ARAB LEAGUE ( Arabic
Arabic
: الجامعة العربية‎‎ _al-Jāmiʻah al-ʻArabīyah_), formally the LEAGUE OF ARAB STATES ( Arabic
Arabic
: جامعة الدول العربية‎‎ _Jāmiʻat ad-Duwal al-ʻArabīyah_), is a regional organization of Arab countries in and around North Africa
North Africa
, the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
and Arabia
Arabia
. It was formed in Cairo
Cairo
on 22 March 1945 with six members: Kingdom of Egypt
Egypt
, Kingdom of Iraq
Iraq
, Transjordan (renamed Jordan
Jordan
in 1949), Lebanon
Lebanon
, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
, and Syria
Syria
. Yemen
Yemen
joined as a member on 5 May 1945. Currently, the League has 22 members , but Syria
Syria
's participation has been suspended since November 2011, as a consequence of government repression during the Syrian Civil War
Syrian Civil War
. The League's main goal is to "draw closer the relations between member States and co-ordinate collaboration between them, to safeguard their independence and sovereignty, and to consider in a general way the affairs and interests of the Arab
Arab
countries"
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Arab World
The ARAB WORLD (Arabic : العالم العربي‎‎ _al-ʿālam al-ʿarabī_; formally: ARAB HOMELAND, الوطن العربي _al-wațan al-ʿarabī_), also known as the ARAB NATION (الأمة العربية _al-ʾummah al-ʿarabīah_) or the ARAB STATES, currently consists of the 22 Arabic-speaking countries of the Arab League . These Arab states occupy an area stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to the Horn of Africa and the Indian Ocean in the southeast. The contemporary Arab world has a combined population of around 422 million inhabitants, over half of whom are under 25 years of age. In the Middle Ages, the Arab world was synonymous with the historic Arab empires and caliphates . Arab nationalism arose in the second half of the 19th century along with other nationalist movements within the Ottoman Empire . The Arab League was formed in 1945 to represent the interests of Arab people and especially to pursue the political unification of the Arab countries; a project known as Pan-Arabism
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Muslim World
The terms MUSLIM WORLD and ISLAMIC WORLD commonly refer to the unified Islamic community ( Ummah ), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam
Islam
, or to societies where Islam
Islam
is practiced. In a modern geopolitical sense, these terms refer to countries where Islam
Islam
is widespread , although there are no agreed criteria for inclusion. The history of the Muslim
Muslim
world spans about 1400 years and includes a variety of socio-political developments, as well as advances in the arts, science, philosophy, and technology, particularly during the Islamic Golden Age . All Muslims
Muslims
look for guidance to the Quran
Quran
and believe in the prophetic mission of Muhammad
Muhammad
, but disagreements on other matters have led to appearance of different religious schools and branches within Islam. In the modern era, most of the Muslim
Muslim
world came under influence or colonial domination of European powers. The nation states that emerged in the post-colonial era have adopted a variety of political and economic models, and they have been affected by secular and as well as religious trends. As of 2015, over 1.7 billion or about 23% of the world population are Muslims
Muslims
including the 4% who live as minorities
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Flag Of The Arab League
The FLAG OF THE ARAB LEAGUE comprises a green banner bearing the seal of the Arab League. The twenty-two links in the chain represent the twenty-two members of the League at the time of the flag's adoption. The script gives the name of the organization: "League of Arab States". There are also several flags for the Arab League, usually seen at Arab League summits: one, a color-inverted Arab League flag with a white background for the President of the summit was clearly seen in the Arab League Summit in Beirut
Beirut
(2002). Older Arab League flags have the chains in red or black, the Arabic script in black or gold with green or white crescents, usually adopted in the 1950s to the 1970s. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Description * 3 Other Flags * 4 See also * 5 References HISTORYThe flag was adopted on March 8, 1945 as the organization's National flag . The original creator of the flag is unknown
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Cairo
CAIRO (/ˈkaɪroʊ/ _KYE-roh_ ; Arabic : القاهرة‎‎ _al-Qāhirah_, _ pronunciation (help ·info ), Coptic : ⲕⲁϩⲓⲣⲏ Kahire_) is the capital and largest city of Egypt . The city's metropolitan area is the largest in the Middle East and the Arab world , and 15th-largest in the world, and is associated with ancient Egypt , as the famous Giza pyramid complex and the ancient city of Memphis are located in its geographical area. Located near the Nile Delta , modern Cairo was founded in 969 CE by Jawhar of the Fatimid dynasty , but the land composing the present-day city was the site of ancient national capitals whose remnants remain visible in parts of Old Cairo . Cairo has long been a center of the region's political and cultural life, and is titled "the city of a thousand minarets " for its preponderance of Islamic architecture . Cairo is considered a World City with a "Beta +" classification according to GaWC . Cairo has the oldest and largest film and music industries in the Arab world, as well as the world's second-oldest institution of higher learning, Al-Azhar University . Many international media, businesses, and organizations have regional headquarters in the city; the Arab League has had its headquarters in Cairo for most of its existence
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Egypt
Coordinates : 26°N 30°E / 26°N 30°E / 26; 30 Arab Republic of Egypt جمهورية مصر العربية * ARABIC : Jumhūrīyat Miṣr al-ʿArabīyah EGYPTIAN : Gomhoreyet Maṣr El ʿArabeya _ Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: Bilady, Bilady, Bilady _ _My country, my country, my country_ Capital and largest city Cairo 30°2′N 31°13′E / 30.033°N 31.217°E / 30.033; 31.217 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Arabic NATIONAL LANGUAGE Egyptian Arabic RELIGION * 90% Muslim * 9% Orthodox Christian * 1% Other Christian DEMONYM Egyptian GOVERNMENT Unitary semi-presidential republic • PRESIDENT Abdel Fattah el-Sisi • PRIME MINISTER Sherif Ismail LEGISLATURE House of Representatives ESTABLISHMENT • Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt c
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Arabic Language
THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS ARABIC TEXT . Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols .ARABIC ( Arabic
Arabic
: العَرَبِيَّة‎‎, _al-ʻarabiyyah_ (_ listen ) or Arabic
Arabic
: عَرَبِيّ‎‎ ʻarabī_ (_ listen ) or ) is a Central Semitic language complex that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca _ of the Arab world . It is named after the Arabs
Arabs
, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. The modern written language ( Modern Standard Arabic ) is derived from Classical Arabic . It is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic
Arabic
(_fuṣḥā_), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam
Islam
. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary
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Demonym
A DEMONYM (/ˈdɛmənɪm/ ; δῆμος _dẽmos_ "people, tribe", ὄνομα _ónoma_ "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place. It is a neologism (i.e., a recently minted term); previously _GENTILIC_ was recorded in English dictionaries, e.g., the _ Oxford English Dictionary _ and _Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary_. Examples of demonyms include a _ Pakistani _ for a person from Pakistan , _Swahili _ for a person of the Swahili coast , the colloquial _Kiwi _ for a person from New Zealand , and a _Cochabambino_ for a person from the city of Cochabamba . Demonyms do not always clearly distinguish place of origin or ethnicity from place of residence or citizenship, and many demonyms overlap with the ethnonym for the ethnically dominant group of a region. Thus a _Thai_ may be any resident or citizen of Thailand of any ethnic group, or more narrowly a member of the Thai people . Conversely, some groups of people may be associated with multiple demonyms. For example, a native of the United Kingdom may be called a _ British person _, a _Briton_ or, informally, a _Brit_. In some languages, when a parallel demonym does not exist, a demonym is borrowed from another language as a nickname or descriptive adjective of a group of people
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Arabs
ARABS ( Arabic
Arabic
: عَرَب‎‎ ; ( listen )) are a population inhabiting the Arab world . They primarily live in the Arab
Arab
states in Western Asia , North Africa
North Africa
, the Horn of Africa and western Indian Ocean islands . The Arabs
Arabs
are first mentioned in the mid-ninth century BC as tribal people in eastern and southern Syria, and the north of the Arabian Peninsula. The Arabs
Arabs
appear to have been under the vassalage of the Neo-Assyrian Empire (911–612 BC), and the succeeding Neo-Babylonian (626–539 BC), Achaemenid (539–332 BC), Seleucid and Parthian empires. Arab
Arab
tribes , most notably the Ghassanids and Lakhmids , begin to appear in the southern Syrian Desert from the mid 3rd century CE onward, during the mid to later stages of the Roman and Sasanian empires. Tradition holds that Arabs
Arabs
descend from Ishmael
Ishmael
, the son of Abraham
Abraham
. The Arabian Desert is the birthplace of "Arab". There are other Arab
Arab
groups as well that spread in the land and existed for millennia
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Regional Organization
REGIONAL ORGANIZATIONS (ROS) are, in a sense, international organizations (IOs), as they incorporate international membership and encompass geopolitical entities that operationally transcend a single nation state . However, their membership is characterized by boundaries and demarcations characteristic to a defined and unique geography, such as continents, or geopolitics, such as economic blocs . They have been established to foster cooperation and political and economic integration or dialogue among states or entities within a restrictive geographical or geopolitical boundary. They both reflect common patterns of development and history that have been fostered since the end of World War II
World War II
as well as the fragmentation inherent in globalization . Most ROs tend to work alongside well-established multilateral organizations such as the United Nations
United Nations
. While in many instances a regional organization is simply referred to as an international organization, in many others it makes sense to use the term regional organization to stress the more limited scope of a particular membership
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Algeria
Coordinates : 28°N 2°E / 28°N 2°E / 28; 2 People's Democratic Republic of Algeria الجمهورية الجزائرية الديمقراطية الشعبية ( Arabic ) ⵟⴰⴳⴷⵓⴷⴰ ⵜⴰⵎⴻⴳⴷⴰⵢⵜ ⵜⴰⵖⴻⵔⴼⴰⵏⵜ ⵜⴰⵣⵣⴰⵢⵔⵉⵜ (Berber ) _République démocratique populaire d'Algérie_ (French ) Flag Emblem MOTTO: بالشّعب وللشّعب By the people and for the people ANTHEM: _ Kassaman _ (English: "We Pledge") Location of Algeria (dark green) Capital and largest city Algiers 36°42′N 3°13′E / 36.700°N 3.217°E / 36.700; 3.217 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES * Arabic * Berber OTHER LANGUAGES English and French (business and education) ETHNI
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Bahrain
BAHRAIN (/bɑːˈreɪn/ (_ listen ); Arabic : البحرين‎‎ al-Baḥrayn_ ), officially the KINGDOM OF BAHRAIN (Arabic : مملكة البحرين‎‎ _ Mamlakat al-Baḥrayn _), is a small Arab
Arab
monarchy in the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
. It is an island country consisting of a small archipelago centered around Bahrain Island , situated between the Qatar
Qatar
peninsula and the north eastern coast of Saudi Arabia
Arabia
, to which it is connected by the 25 km (16 mi) King
King
Fahd Causeway
Causeway
. Bahrain's population is 1,234,571 (c. 2010), including 666,172 non-nationals. It is 780 km2 in size, making it the third smallest nation in Asia
Asia
after the Maldives
Maldives
and Singapore
Singapore
. Bahrain
Bahrain
is the site of the ancient Dilmun civilisation . It has been famed since antiquity for its pearl fisheries , which were considered the best in the world into the 19th century. Bahrain
Bahrain
was one of the earliest areas to convert to Islam
Islam
(AD 628)
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Comoros
Coordinates : 12°10′S 44°15′E / 12.167°S 44.250°E / -12.167; 44.250 Union of the Comoros* الاتحاد القمري (Arabic ) _al-Ittiḥād al-Qumurī/Qamarī_ * _Union des Comores_ (French ) * _Udzima wa Komori_ (Swahili ) _ Flag Seal MOTTO: * وحدة، تضامن، تنمية (Arabic ) * "Unité – Solidarité – Développement" (French ) * "Unity – Solidarity – Development" ANTHEM: Udzima wa ya Masiwa _ (Comorian) _The Unity of the Great Islands_ Location of the Comoros (dark blue) – in Africa (light blue "> (light blue) Capital and largest city Moroni 11°41′S 43°16′E / 11.683°S 43.267°E / -11.683; 43.267 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES * Comorian * Arabic * French RELIGION Sunni Islam DEMONYM Comorian GOVERNMENT Federal presidential republic • PR
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Djibouti
Coordinates : 11°30′N 43°00′E / 11.500°N 43.000°E / 11.500; 43.000 Republic of Djibouti * _République de Djibouti_ (French ) * _جمهورية جيبوتي_ (Arabic ) * _Gabuutih Ummuuno_ (Afar ) * _Jamhuuriyadda Jabuuti_ (Somali ) Flag Emblem MOTTO: اتحاد، مساواة، سلام (Arabic ) Unité, Égalité, Paix (French ) Unity, Equality, Peace ANTHEM: _ Djibouti _ Capital and largest city Djibouti City 11°36′N 43°10′E / 11.600°N 43.167°E / 11.600; 43.167 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES * French * Arabic RECOGNISED NATIONAL LANGUAGES * Somali * Afar RELIGION Islam DEMONYM Djiboutian GOVERNMENT Dominant-party semi-presidential republic • PRESIDENT
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Iraq
Coordinates : 33°N 44°E / 33°N 44°E / 33; 44 Republic of Iraq * جمهورية العـراق ( Arabic ) * كۆماريى عێراق (Kurdish ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: الله أكبر ( Arabic ) "Allahu Akbar " (transliteration ) "God is the Greatest" ANTHEM: "_ Mawtini _" "موطني" "My Homeland" Capital and largest city Baghdad 33°20′N 44°26′E / 33.333°N 44.433°E / 33.333; 44.433 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES * Arabic * Kurdish RELIGION Islam


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Jordan
JORDAN (/ˈdʒɔːrdən/ ; Arabic : الأردن‎‎ _Al-Urdunn_), officially THE HASHEMITE KINGDOM OF JORDAN ( Arabic : المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية‎‎ _Al-Mamlakah Al-Urdunnīyah Al-Ḥāshimīyah_), is an Arab kingdom in Western Asia , on the East Bank of the Jordan River . Jordan is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the east and south; Iraq to the north-east; Syria to the north; Israel , Palestine and the