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Application-specific Integrated Circuit
An APPLICATION-SPECIFIC INTEGRATED CIRCUIT (ASIC) /ˈeɪsɪk/ , is an integrated circuit (IC) customized for a particular use, rather than intended for general-purpose use. For example, a chip designed to run in a digital voice recorder or a high-efficiency Bitcoin miner is an ASIC. Application-specific standard products (ASSPs) are intermediate between ASICs and industry standard integrated circuits like the 7400 or the 4000 series . As feature sizes have shrunk and design tools improved over the years, the maximum complexity (and hence functionality) possible in an ASIC has grown from 5,000 gates to over 100 million. Modern ASICs often include entire microprocessors , memory blocks including ROM , RAM , EEPROM , flash memory and other large building blocks. Such an ASIC is often termed a SoC (system-on-chip ). Designers of digital ASICs often use a hardware description language (HDL), such as Verilog or VHDL , to describe the functionality of ASICs. Field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA) are the modern-day technology for building a breadboard or prototype from standard parts; programmable logic blocks and programmable interconnects allow the same FPGA to be used in many different applications. For smaller designs or lower production volumes, FPGAs may be more cost effective than an ASIC design even in production
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ASIC (other)
ASIC is an integrated circuit developed for a particular use, as opposed to a general-purpose device. ASIC may also refer to: * Accreditation Service for International Colleges , an educational accreditation agency in the UK * Acid-sensing ion channels , a protein family * Air and Space Interoperability Council * Arfoire Syndicate of International Crime, the antagonist group in the video game Hyperdimension Neptunia Mk2 * ASIC programming language , a dialect of BASIC * Associated Signature Containers (ASiC) specifies the use of container structures to bind together one or more signed objects with either advanced electronic signatures or time-stamp tokens into one single digital container. * Association for Science and Information on Coffee , see Andrea Illy * Australian Securities and Investments Commission
Australian Securities and Investments Commission
, an independent Australian government body that acts as Australia's corporate regulator * Aviation Security Identification Card , an Australian identification card * Application-specific integrated circuit .SEE ALSO * ASICS , an athletic equipment company This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title ASIC. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article
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Integrated Circuit
An INTEGRATED CIRCUIT or MONOLITHIC INTEGRATED CIRCUIT (also referred to as an IC, a CHIP, or a MICROCHIP) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material , normally silicon . The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip results in circuits that are orders of magnitude smaller, cheaper, and faster than those constructed of discrete electronic components . The IC's mass production capability, reliability and building-block approach to circuit design has ensured the rapid adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs using discrete transistors. ICs are now used in virtually all electronic equipment and have revolutionized the world of electronics . Computers , mobile phones , and other digital home appliances and are now inextricable parts of the structure of modern societies, made possible by the small size and low cost of ICs. ICs were made possible by experimental discoveries showing that semiconductor devices could perform the functions of vacuum tubes , and by mid-20th-century technology advancements in semiconductor device fabrication . Since their origins in the 1960s, the size, speed, and capacity of chips have progressed enormously, driven by technical advances that allow more and more transistors on chips of the same size - a modern chip may have several billion transistors in an area the size of a human fingernail
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Digital Voice Recorder
A DICTATION MACHINE is a sound recording device most commonly used to record speech for later playback or to be typed into print. It includes DIGITAL VOICE RECORDERS and tape recorders . The name " Dictaphone
Dictaphone
" is a trademark of the company of the same name, but has also become a common term for all dictation machines, as a genericized trademark . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Common dictation formats * 3 See also * 4 References HISTORY Main article: Phonograph
Phonograph
Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell
and his two associates took Edison's tinfoil phonograph and modified it considerably to make it reproduce sound from wax instead of tinfoil. They began their work at Bell's Volta Laboratory in Washington, D.C., in 1879, and continued until they were granted basic patents in 1886 for recording in wax. Thomas A. Edison dictating in 1907. Thomas A. Edison
Thomas A. Edison
had invented the phonograph in 1877, but the fame bestowed on him for this invention — sometimes called his most original — was not due to its efficiency. Recording with his tinfoil phonograph was too difficult to be practical, as the tinfoil tore easily, and even when the stylus was properly adjusted, its reproduction of sound was distorted and squeaky, and good for only a few playbacks
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Bitcoin Mining
The BITCOIN NETWORK is a peer-to-peer payment network that operates on a cryptographic protocol . Users send and receive bitcoins , the units of currency, by broadcasting digitally signed messages to the network using bitcoin wallet software. Transactions are recorded into a distributed, replicated public database known as the blockchain , with consensus achieved by a proof-of-work system called "mining". The protocol was designed in 2008 and released in 2009 as open source software by " Satoshi Nakamoto ", the name or pseudonym of the original developer/developer group. The network requires minimal structure to share transactions. An ad hoc decentralized network of volunteers is sufficient. Messages are broadcast on a best effort basis, and nodes can leave and rejoin the network at will. Upon reconnection, a node downloads and verifies new blocks from other nodes to complete its local copy of the blockchain
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Application-specific Standard Product
An APPLICATION SPECIFIC STANDARD PRODUCT or ASSP is an integrated circuit that implements a specific function that appeals to a wide market. As opposed to ASICs that combine a collection of functions and are designed by or for one customer, ASSPs are available as off-the-shelf components. ASSPs are used in all industries, from automotive to communications. As a general rule, if you can find a design in a data book, then it is probably not an ASIC, but there are some exceptions. For example, two ICs that might or might not be considered ASICs are a controller chip for a PC and a chip for a modem. Both of these examples are specific to an application (which is typical of an ASIC) but are sold to many different system vendors (which is typical of standard parts). ASICs such as these are sometimes called Application-Specific Standard Products (ASSPs). Examples of ASSPs are integrated circuits that perform video and/or audio encoding and/or decoding. This computer hardware article is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Application-specific_standard_product additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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7400 Series
The 7400 SERIES of transistor–transistor logic (TTL) integrated circuits are the most popular family of TTL integrated circuit logic. Quickly replacing diode–transistor logic , it was used to build the mini and mainframe computers of the 1960s and 1970s. Several generations of pin-compatible descendants of the original family have since become _de facto_ standard electronic components. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 7400 series
7400 series
derivative families * 3 History * 4 Part numbering * 5 Second sources in Europe and the Eastern Bloc * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links OVERVIEWThe 7400 series
7400 series
contains hundreds of devices that provide everything from basic logic gates , flip-flops , and counters, to special purpose bus transceivers and arithmetic logic units (ALU). Specific functions are described in a list of 7400 series
7400 series
integrated circuits . Today, surface-mounted CMOS
CMOS
versions of the 7400 series
7400 series
are used in various applications in electronics and for glue logic in computers and industrial electronics. The original through-hole devices in dual in-line packages (DIP/DIL) were the mainstay of the industry for many decades. They are useful for rapid breadboard -prototyping and for education and remain available from most manufacturers
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4000 Series
The 4000 SERIES is a family of integrated circuits (ICs) first introduced in 1968. Almost all IC manufacturers active during this initial era fabricated models for this series. It is still in use today. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Design considerations * 3 Common 4000 series
4000 series
chips * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORYThe 4000 series
4000 series
was introduced as the CD4000 COS/MOS series in 1968 by RCA
RCA
as a lower power and more versatile alternative to the 7400 series of transistor-transistor logic (TTL) chips. The logic functions were implemented with the newly introduced Complementary Metal–Oxide–Semiconductor (CMOS) technology. While initially marketed with "COS/MOS" labeling by RCA
RCA
(which stood for Complementary Symmetry Metal-Oxide Semiconductor), the shorter CMOS
CMOS
terminology emerged as the industry preference to refer to the technology. The first chips in the series were designed by a group led by Albert Medwin . Wide adoption was initially hindered by the comparatively slower speeds of the designs compared to TTL based designs. Speed limitations were eventually overcome with newer fabrication methods, leaving the older TTL chips to be phased out
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Logic Gate
In electronics , a LOGIC GATE is an idealized or physical device implementing a Boolean function ; that is, it performs a logical operation on one or more binary inputs and produces a single binary output. Depending on the context, the term may refer to an IDEAL LOGIC GATE, one that has for instance zero rise time and unlimited fan-out , or it may refer to a non-ideal physical device (see Ideal and real op-amps for comparison). Logic gates are primarily implemented using diodes or transistors acting as electronic switches , but can also be constructed using vacuum tubes , electromagnetic relays (relay logic ), fluidic logic , pneumatic logic , optics , molecules , or even mechanical elements. With amplification, logic gates can be cascaded in the same way that Boolean functions can be composed, allowing the construction of a physical model of all of Boolean logic , and therefore, all of the algorithms and mathematics that can be described with Boolean logic. Logic circuits include such devices as multiplexers , registers , arithmetic logic units (ALUs), and computer memory , all the way up through complete microprocessors , which may contain more than 100 million gates. In modern practice, most gates are made from field-effect transistors (FETs), particularly metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs)
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Central Processing Unit
A CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic , logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions. The computer industry has used the term "central processing unit" at least since the early 1960s. Traditionally, the term "CPU" refers to a PROCESSOR, more specifically to its processing unit and control unit (CU), distinguishing these core elements of a computer from external components such as main memory and I/O circuitry. The form, design and implementation of CPUs have changed over the course of their history, but their fundamental operation remains almost unchanged. Principal components of a CPU include the arithmetic logic unit (ALU) that performs arithmetic and logic operations , processor registers that supply operands to the ALU and store the results of ALU operations, and a control unit that orchestrates the fetching (from memory) and execution of instructions by directing the coordinated operations of the ALU, registers and other components. Most modern CPUs are microprocessors , meaning they are contained on a single integrated circuit (IC) chip. An IC that contains a CPU may also contain memory, peripheral interfaces, and other components of a computer; such integrated devices are variously called microcontrollers or systems on a chip (SoC)
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Memory
MEMORY is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved. Memory is vital to experiences and related to limbic systems , it is the retention of information over time for the purpose of influencing future action. If we could not remember past events, we could not learn or develop language, relationships, nor personal identity (Eysenck, 2012). Often memory is understood as an informational processing system with explicit and implicit functioning that is made up of a sensory processor, short-term (or working ) memory, and long-term memory (Baddely, 2007). The sensory processor allows information from the outside world to be sensed in the form of chemical and physical stimuli and attended to with various levels of focus and intent. Working memory serves as an encoding and retrieval processor. Information in the form of stimuli is encoded in accordance with explicit or implicit functions by the working memory processor. The working memory also retrieves information from previously stored material. Finally, the function of long-term memory is to store data through various categorical models or systems (Baddely, 2007). Explicit and implicit functions of memory are also known as declarative and non-declarative systems (Squire, 2009). These systems involve the purposeful intention of memory retrieval and storage , or lack thereof
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Read-only Memory
READ-ONLY MEMORY (ROM) is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers and other electronic devices. Data stored in ROM can only be modified slowly, with difficulty, or not at all, so it is mainly used to store firmware (software that is closely tied to specific hardware , and unlikely to need frequent updates) or application software in plug-in cartridges . Strictly, read-only memory refers to memory that is hard-wired, such as diode matrix and the later mask ROM (MROM), which cannot be changed after manufacture. Although discrete circuits can be altered in principle, integrated circuits (ICs) cannot, and are useless if the data is bad or requires an update. That such memory can never be changed is a disadvantage in many applications, as bugs and security issues cannot be fixed, and new features cannot be added. More recently, ROM has come to include memory that is read-only in normal operation, but can still be reprogrammed in some way. Erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM) and electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM) can be erased and re-programmed, but usually this can only be done at relatively slow speeds, may require special equipment to achieve, and is typically only possible a certain number of times
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RAM
RANDOM-ACCESS MEMORY (RAM /ræm/ ) is a form of computer data storage which stores frequently used program instructions to increase the general speed of a system. A random-access memory device allows data items to be read or written in almost the same amount of time irrespective of the physical location of data inside the memory. In contrast, with other direct-access data storage media such as hard disks , CD-RWs , DVD-RWs and the older magnetic tapes and drum memory , the time required to read and write data items varies significantly depending on their physical locations on the recording medium, due to mechanical limitations such as media rotation speeds and arm movement. RAM contains multiplexing and demultiplexing circuitry, to connect the data lines to the addressed storage for reading or writing the entry. Usually more than one bit of storage is accessed by the same address, and RAM devices often have multiple data lines and are said to be '8-bit' or '16-bit' etc. devices. In today's technology, random-access memory takes the form of integrated circuits . RAM is normally associated with volatile types of memory (such as DRAM
DRAM
memory modules ), where stored information is lost if power is removed, although non-volatile RAM has also been developed. Other types of non-volatile memories exist that allow random access for read operations, but either do not allow write operations or have other kinds of limitations on them
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EEPROM
E EPROM (also written E2PROM and pronounced "e-e-prom", "double-e-prom" or "e-squared-prom") stands for _e_lectrically _e_rasable _p_rogrammable _r_ead-_o_nly _m_emory and is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers and other electronic devices to store relatively small amounts of data but allowing individual bytes to be erased and reprogrammed. EEPROMs are organized as arrays of floating-gate transistors . EEPROMs can be programmed and erased in-circuit, by applying special programming signals. Originally, EEPROMs were limited to single byte operations which made them slower, but modern EEPROMs allow multi-byte page operations. It also has a limited life for erasing and reprogramming, now reaching a million operations in modern EEPROMs. In an E EPROM that is frequently reprogrammed while the computer is in use, the life of the E EPROM is an important design consideration. Unlike most other kinds of non-volatile memory, an E EPROM typically allows bytes to be read, erased, and re-written individually
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Flash Memory
FLASH MEMORY is an electronic (solid-state ) non-volatile computer storage medium that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed. Toshiba
Toshiba
developed flash memory from E EPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) in the early 1980s and introduced it to the market in 1984. The two main types of flash memory are named after the NAND and NOR logic gates . The individual flash memory cells exhibit internal characteristics similar to those of the corresponding gates. Where EPROMs had to be completely erased before being rewritten, NAND-type flash memory may be written and read in blocks (or pages) which are generally much smaller than the entire device. NOR-type flash allows a single machine word (byte) to be written‍—‌to an erased location‍—‌or read independently. The NAND type operates primarily in memory cards , USB
USB
flash drives , solid-state drives (those produced in 2009 or later), and similar products, for general storage and transfer of data. NAND or NOR flash memory is also often used to store configuration data in numerous digital products, a task previously made possible by E EPROM or battery-powered static RAM . One key disadvantage of flash memory is that it can only endure a relatively small number of write cycles in a specific block
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