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Protocol Stack
The protocol stack or network stack is an implementation of a computer networking protocol suite or protocol family. The terms are often used interchangeably; strictly speaking, the suite is the definition of the Communications protocols, and the stack is the software implementation of them.[1] Individual protocols within a suite are often designed with a single purpose in mind. This modularization makes design and evaluation easier. Because each protocol module usually communicates with two others, they are commonly imagined as layers in a stack of protocols. The lowest protocol always deals with low-level interaction with the communications hardware. Every higher layer adds more features and capability. User applications usually deal only with the topmost layers (see also OSI model).[2] In practical implementation, protocol stacks are often divided into three major sections: media, transport, and applications
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Electrical Ground
In electrical engineering, ground or earth is the reference point in an electrical circuit from which voltages are measured, a common return path for electric current, or a direct physical connection to the Earth. Electrical circuits may be connected to ground (earth) for several reasons. In mains powered equipment, exposed metal parts are connected to ground so that if, due to any fault conditions, a "Line" supply voltage connection occurs to any such conductive parts, the current flow will then be such that any protective equipment installed for either overload or "leakage" protection will operate and disconnect the "Line" voltage. This is done to prevent harm resulting to the user from coming in contact with any such dangerous voltage in a situation where the user may, at the same time, also come in contact with an object at ground/earth potential
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Proprietary Protocol
In telecommunications, a proprietary protocol is a communications protocol owned by a single organization or individual.[1]Contents1 Intellectual property rights and enforcement1.1 Examples2 Effects of incompatibility 3 Reverse engineering 4 ReferencesIntellectual property rights and enforcement[edit] Ownership by a single organization gives the owner the ability to place restrictions on the use of the protocol and to change the protocol unilaterally. Specifications for proprietary protocols may or may not be published, and implementations are not freely distributed. Proprietors may enforce restrictions through control of the intellectual property rights, for example through enforcement of patent rights, and by keeping the protocol specification a trade secret
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Binary Synchronous Communications
Binary Synchronous Communication (BSC or Bisync) is an IBM character-oriented, half-duplex link protocol, announced in 1967 after the introduction of System/360. It replaced the synchronous transmit-receive (STR) protocol used with second generation computers. The intent was that common link management rules could be used with three different character encodings for messages. Six-bit Transcode looked backwards to older systems; US ASCII
ASCII
with 128 characters and EBCDIC
EBCDIC
with 256 characters looked forward
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Peripherals
A peripheral device is "an ancillary device used to put information into and get information out of the computer."[1] Three categories of peripheral devices exist based on their relationship with the computer:an input device sends data or instructions to the computer, such as a mouse, keyboard, graphics tablet, image scanner, barcode reader, game controller, light pen, light gun, microphone, digital camera, webcam, dance pad, and read-only memory); an output device provides output from the computer, such as a computer monitor, projector, printer, and computer speaker); and an input/output device performs both input and output functions, such as a computer data storage device (including a disk drive, USB flash drive, memory card, and tape drive) and a touchscreen).Many modern electronic devices, such as digital watches, smartphones, and tablet computers, have interfaces that allow them to be used as computer peripheral devices. See also[edit]Look up peripheral in Wi
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Expansion Slot
In computing, the expansion card, expansion board, adapter card or accessory card is a printed circuit board that can be inserted into an electrical connector, or expansion slot, on a computer motherboard, backplane or riser card to add functionality to a computer system via the expansion bus. An expansion bus is a computer bus which moves information between the internal hardware of a computer system (including the CPU and RAM) and peripheral devices
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Universal Serial Bus
USB, short for Universal Serial Bus, is an industry standard that was developed to define cables, connectors and protocols for connection, communication, and power supply between personal computers and their peripheral devices. [3] USB
USB
was designed to standardize the connection of computer peripherals (including keyboards, pointing devices, digital cameras, printers, portable media players, disk drives and network adapters) to personal computers, both to communicate and to supply electric power. It has largely replaced interfaces such as serial ports and parallel ports, and has become commonplace on a wide range of devices
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Apple III
The Apple III
Apple III
(often styled as apple ///) is a business-oriented personal computer produced and released by Apple Computer in 1980. It was intended as the successor to the Apple II
Apple II
series, but was largely considered a failure in the market. Development work on the Apple III
Apple III
started in late 1978 under the guidance of Dr. Wendell Sander
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Networking Stack
The protocol stack or network stack is an implementation of a computer networking protocol suite or protocol family. The terms are often used interchangeably; strictly speaking, the suite is the definition of the Communications protocols, and the stack is the software implementation of them.[1] Individual protocols within a suite are often designed with a single purpose in mind. This modularization makes design and evaluation easier. Because each protocol module usually communicates with two others, they are commonly imagined as layers in a stack of protocols. The lowest protocol always deals with low-level interaction with the communications hardware. Every higher layer adds more features and capability. User applications usually deal only with the topmost layers (see also OSI model).[2] In practical implementation, protocol stacks are often divided into three major sections: media, transport, and applications
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Berkeley Macintosh Users Group
Berkeley Macintosh Users Group (BMUG) is a Macintosh User Group, founded in September 1984 by U.C. Berkeley students including Reese Jones,[1] Raines Cohen[2] and Bernt Wahl[3] to share knowledge of graphical computing, primarily the Apple Macintosh. The group had more than 13,000 members at its peak in 1993, with associated BBSs in Boston and Tokyo, and was the largest independent computer users' group in the world at the time.[citation needed] Some notable members include: John Draper (Captain Crunch), Hassanal Bolkiah (Sultan of Brunei), and Eric Brewer (Inktomi founder). One of the early successes for the group was BMUGNet, a variant of Apple's LocalTalk system which used standard telephone wires to connect Macintosh computers together in a local area network. Wiring plans were initially published in the Fall 1985 BMUG Newsletter, but members could purchase adapters assembled by the group
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Steve Jobs
Steven Paul Jobs (/dʒɒbz/; February 24, 1955 – October 5, 2011) was an American entrepreneur, business magnate, inventor, and industrial designer. He was the chairman, chief executive officer (CEO), and a co-founder of Apple Inc., CEO and majority shareholder of Pixar,[2] a member of The Walt Disney
Disney
Company's board of directors following its acquisition of Pixar, and the founder, chairman, and CEO of NeXT. Jobs and Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak
Steve Wozniak
are widely recognized as pioneers of the microcomputer revolution of the 1970s and 1980s. Jobs was born in San Francisco, California, to parents who put him up for adoption at birth
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Telephone Plug
A telephone plug is a type of connector used to connect a telephone set to the telephone wiring inside a building, establishing a connection to a telephone network. It is inserted into its counterpart, a telephone jack, commonly affixed to a wall or baseboard. The standard for telephone plugs varies from country to country, though the RJ11
RJ11
modular connector has become by far the most common. A connection standard, such as RJ11, specifies not only the physical aspects of an electrical connector, but also the pinout, i.e
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Clock
A clock is an instrument to measure, keep, and indicate time. The clock is one of the oldest human inventions, meeting the need to measure intervals of time shorter than the natural units: the day, the lunar month, and the year. Devices operating on several physical processes have been used over the millennia. Some predecessors to the modern clock may be considered as "clocks" that are based on movement in nature: A sundial shows the time by displaying the position of a shadow on a flat surface. There is a range of duration timers, a well-known example being the hourglass. Water clocks, along with the sundials, are possibly the oldest time-measuring instruments
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Macintosh II
The Macintosh
Macintosh
II is a personal computer designed, manufactured and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from March 1987 to January 1990. It is the first model of the Macintosh
Macintosh
II family, and the first Macintosh
Macintosh
to support a color display
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Nubus
NuBus
NuBus
(pron. 'New Bus') is a 32-bit
32-bit
parallel computer bus, originally developed at MIT and standardized in 1987 as a part of the NuMachine workstation project.[1] The first complete implementation of the NuBus was done by Western Digital
Western Digital
for their NuMachine, and for the Lisp Machines Inc. LMI Lambda. The NuBus
NuBus
was later incorporated in Lisp products by Texas Instruments
Texas Instruments
(Explorer), and used as the main expansion bus by Apple Computer
Apple Computer
and NeXT. It is no longer widely used outside the embedded market.Contents1 Architecture 2 Implementations 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksArchitecture[edit] Early microcomputer buses like S-100 were often just connections to the pins of the microprocessor and to the power rails
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