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Appalachian Mountains
The Appalachian Mountains
Appalachian Mountains
(/ˌæpəˈlæʃɪn, -ˈleɪtʃɪn/ ( listen);[note 1] French: les Appalaches), often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America. The Appalachians first formed roughly 480 million years ago during the Ordovician
Ordovician
Period. They once reached elevations similar to those of the Alps
Alps
and the Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
before experiencing natural erosion.[3][4] The Appalachian chain is a barrier to east-west travel, as it forms a series of alternating ridgelines and valleys oriented in opposition to most highways and railroads running east-west. Definitions vary on the precise boundaries of the Appalachians
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Permian
The Permian
Permian
is a geologic period and system which spans 46.7 million years from the end of the Carboniferous
Carboniferous
Period 298.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Triassic
Triassic
period 251.902 Mya. It is the last period of the Paleozoic
Paleozoic
era; the following Triassic
Triassic
period belongs to the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
era. The concept of the Permian
Permian
was introduced in 1841 by geologist Sir Roderick Murchison, who named it after the city of Perm. The Permian
Permian
witnessed the diversification of the early amniotes into the ancestral groups of the mammals, turtles, lepidosaurs, and archosaurs. The world at the time was dominated by two continents known as Pangaea
Pangaea
and Siberia, surrounded by a global ocean called Panthalassa
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New Hampshire
New Hampshire
Hampshire
is a state in the New England
New England
region of the northeastern United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts
Massachusetts
to the south, Vermont to the west, Maine
Maine
and the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the east, and the Canadian province
Canadian province
of Quebec
Quebec
to the north. New Hampshire
Hampshire
is the 5th smallest by land area and the 10th least populous of the 50 states. In January 1776, it became the first of the British North American colonies to establish a government independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain's authority, and it was the first to establish its own state constitution
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Ordovician
The Ordovician
Ordovician
( /ɔːrdəˈvɪʃən/) is a geologic period and system, the second of six periods of the Paleozoic
Paleozoic
Era
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Taconic Orogeny
The Taconic orogeny
Taconic orogeny
was a mountain building period that ended 440 million years ago and affected most of modern-day New England. A great mountain chain formed from eastern Canada
Canada
down through what is now the Piedmont of the East coast of the United States. As the mountain chain eroded in the Silurian
Silurian
and Devonian
Devonian
periods, sediments from the mountain chain spread throughout the present-day Appalachians
Appalachians
and midcontinental North America.[1]Contents1 New England
New England
and Canada 2 Southern Appalachians 3 Relation with the Famatinian orogeny 4 Aftermath 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References New England
New England
and Canada[edit] Beginning in Cambrian
Cambrian
time, about 550 million years ago, the Iapetus Ocean began to close
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Orogeny
An orogeny is an event that leads to a large structural deformation of the Earth's lithosphere (crust and uppermost mantle) due to the interaction between tectonic plates. An orogen or orogenic belt develops when a continental plate crumples and is pushed upwards to form one or more mountain ranges; this involves many geological processes collectively called orogenesis.[1][2] Orogeny
Orogeny
is the primary mechanism by which mountains are built on continents.[citation needed] The word "orogeny" comes from Ancient Greek (ὄρος oros, "mountain" + γένεσις genesis for "creation, origin").[3] Though it was used before him, the term was employed by the American geologist G.K
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Alps
The Alps
Alps
(/ælps/; French: Alpes [alp]; German: Alpen [ˈalpn̩]; Italian: Alpi [ˈalpi]; Romansh: Alps; Slovene: Alpe [ˈáːlpɛ]) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,[2][note 1] stretching approximately 1,200 kilometres (750 mi) across eight Alpine countries
Alpine countries
(from west to east): France, Switzerland, Italy, Monaco, Liechtenstein, Austria, Germany, and Slovenia.[3] The mountains were formed over tens of millions of years as the African and Eurasian tectonic plates collided. Extreme shortening caused by the event resulted in marine sedimentary rocks rising by thrusting and folding into high mountain peaks such as Mont Blanc
Mont Blanc
and the Matterhorn. Mont Blanc
Mont Blanc
spans the French–Italian border, and at 4,810 m (15,781 ft) is the highest mountain in the Alps
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Back Allegheny Mountain
Back Allegheny Mountain
Back Allegheny Mountain
is a long mountain ridge in eastern West Virginia. It is part of the Shavers Fork Mountain Complex
Shavers Fork Mountain Complex
in the Allegheny Range of the Appalachians.Contents1 Geography 2 Preservation and recreation 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksGeography[edit] Back Allegheny Mountain
Back Allegheny Mountain
runs 18 miles (29 km) north to south and 8 miles (13 km) east to west, covering a geographic area of 76 square miles (200 km2). The mountain rises abruptly from the Greenbrier River
Greenbrier River
valley in Pocahontas County, West Virginia, and runs nearly parallel to Cheat Mountain
Cheat Mountain
to its west. The mountain reaches its elevational climax of 4,843 feet (1,476 m) at Bald Knob, 5 miles (8.0 km) north of Snowshoe Ski Resort
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Ohio
Ohio
Ohio
/oʊˈhaɪ.oʊ/ ( listen) is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region
Great Lakes region
of the United States. Ohio
Ohio
is the 34th largest by area, the 7th most populous, and the 10th most densely populated of the 50 United States. The state's capital and largest city is Columbus. The state takes its name from the Ohio
Ohio
River
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Highway
A highway is any public or private road or other public way on land. It is used for major roads, but also includes other public roads and public tracks: It is not an equivalent term to controlled-access highway, or a translation for autobahn, autoroute, etc. In North American and Australian English, major roads such as controlled-access highways or arterial roads are often state highways (Canada: provincial highways). Other roads may be designated "county highways" in the US and Ontario. These classifications refer to the level of government (state, provincial, county) that maintains the roadway. In British English, "highway" is primarily a legal term
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French Language
French (le français [lə fʁɑ̃sɛ] ( listen) or la langue française [la lɑ̃ɡ fʁɑ̃sɛz]) is a Romance language
Romance language
of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin
Latin
in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France
France
and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages
Celtic languages
of Northern Roman Gaul
Gaul
like Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders
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Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Massachusetts
(/ˌmæsəˈtʃuːsɪts/ ( listen), /-zɪts/), officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England
New England
region of the northeastern United States. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the east, the states of Connecticut
Connecticut
and Rhode Island
Rhode Island
to the south, New Hampshire
New Hampshire
and Vermont
Vermont
to the north, and New York to the west. The state is named after the Massachusett
Massachusett
tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area. The capital of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
and the most populous city in New England
New England
is Boston
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Vermont
Vermont
Vermont
(/vərˈmɒnt, vɜːr-/ ( listen))[8][a] is a state in the New England
New England
region of the Northeastern United States. It borders the U.S. states of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
to the south, New Hampshire to the east and New York to the west, and the Canadian province of Quebec
Quebec
to the north. Lake Champlain
Lake Champlain
forms half of Vermont's western border with New York. The Green Mountains
Green Mountains
run north-south for the length of the state. Vermont
Vermont
is the second smallest by population and the sixth smallest by area of the 50 U.S. states. The state capital is Montpelier, the least populous state capital in the United States. The most populous city, Burlington, is the least populous city to be the most populous city in a state
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Connecticut
Coordinates: 41°36′N 72°42′W / 41.6°N 72.7°W / 41.6; -72.7State of ConnecticutFlag SealNickname(s):The Constitution State (official) The Nutmeg
Nutmeg
State The Provisions State The Land of Steady HabitsMotto(s): Qui transtulit sustinet
Qui transtulit sustinet

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Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
(/ˌnoʊvə ˈskoʊʃə/; Latin for "New Scotland"; French: Nouvelle-Écosse; Scottish Gaelic: Alba Nuadh) is one of Canada's three maritime provinces, and one of the four provinces that form Atlantic Canada. Its provincial capital is Halifax. Nova Scotia is the second-smallest of Canada's ten provinces, with an area of 55,284 square kilometres (21,300 sq mi), including Cape Breton and another 3,800 coastal islands. As of 2016, the population was 923,598
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