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Apollo 8
Left to right: Lovell, Anders, Borman Apollo program← Apollo 7 Apollo 9 →Apollo 8, the second manned spaceflight mission in the United States Apollo space program, was launched on December 21, 1968, and became the first manned spacecraft to leave Earth
Earth
orbit, reach the Earth's Moon, orbit it and return safely to Earth. The three-astronaut crew — Commander Frank Borman, Command Module Pilot James Lovell, and Lunar Module Pilot William Anders
William Anders
— became the first humans to: travel beyond low Earth
Earth
orbit; see Earth
Earth
as a whole planet; enter the gravity well of another celestial body (Earth's moon); orbit another celestial body (Earth's moon); directly see the far side of the Moon with their own eyes; witness an Earthrise; escape the gravity of another celestial body (Earth's moon); and re-enter the gravitational well of Earth
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Low Earth Orbit
A low Earth
Earth
orbit (LEO) is an orbit around Earth
Earth
with an altitude of 2,000 km (1,200 mi) or less, and with an orbital period of between about 84 and 127 minutes. Objects below approximately 160 km (99 mi) will experience very rapid orbital decay and altitude loss due to atmospheric drag.[1][2] With the exception of the 24 astronauts who flew lunar flights in the Apollo program
Apollo program
during the four-year period spanning 1968 through 1972, all human spaceflights have taken place in LEO or below. The International Space Station
International Space Station
conducts operations in LEO. The altitude record for a human spaceflight in LEO was Gemini 11
Gemini 11
with an apogee of 1,374.1 kilometres (853.8 mi)
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Cape Canaveral Air Force Station
Cape Canaveral
Cape Canaveral
Air Force Station (CCAFS) (known as Cape Kennedy Air Force Station from 1963 to 1973) is an installation of the United States Air Force Space Command's 45th Space Wing.[2] CCAFS is headquartered at the nearby Patrick Air Force Base, and located on Cape Canaveral
Cape Canaveral
in Brevard County, Florida, CCAFS. The station is the primary launch head of America's Eastern Range[3] with three launch pads currently active (Space Launch Complexes 37B, 40, and 41). Popularly known as "Cape Kennedy" from 1963 to 1973, and as "Cape Canaveral" from 1949 to 1963 and from 1973 to the present, the facility is south-southeast of NASA's Kennedy Space Center
Kennedy Space Center
on adjacent Merritt Island, with the two linked by bridges and causeways
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Medium Earth Orbit
Medium Earth
Earth
orbit (MEO), sometimes called intermediate circular orbit (ICO), is the region of space around the Earth
Earth
above low Earth
Earth
orbit (altitude of 2,000 km (1,243 mi)) and below geostationary orbit (altitude of 35,786 km (22,236 mi)).[1] The most common use for satellites in this region is for navigation, communication, and geodetic/space environment science.[1] The most common altitude is approximately 20,200 kilometres (12,552 mi)), which yields an orbital period of 12 hours, as used, for example, by the Global Positioning System
Global Positioning System
(GPS).[1] Other satellites in medium Earth
Earth
orbit include Glonass (with an altitude of 19,100 kilometres (11,868 mi))[citation needed] and Galileo (with an altitude of 23,222 kilometres (14,429 mi))[2] constellations
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Orbit
In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object,[1] such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satellite around a planet. Normally, orbit refers to a regularly repeating trajectory, although it may also refer to a non-repeating trajectory. To a close approximation, planets and satellites follow elliptic orbits, with the central mass being orbited at a focal point of the ellipse,[2] as described by Kepler's laws of planetary motion. Current understanding of the mechanics of orbital motion is based on Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity, which accounts for gravity as due to curvature of spacetime, with orbits following geodesics
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Spacecraft
A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space. Spacecraft
Spacecraft
are used for a variety of purposes, including communications, earth observation, meteorology, navigation, space colonization, planetary exploration, and transportation of humans and cargo. On a sub-orbital spaceflight, a spacecraft enters space and then returns to the surface, without having gone into an orbit. For orbital spaceflights, spacecraft enter closed orbits around the Earth
Earth
or around other celestial bodies. Spacecraft
Spacecraft
used for human spaceflight carry people on board as crew or passengers from start or on orbit (space stations) only, whereas those used for robotic space missions operate either autonomously or telerobotically. Robotic spacecraft used to support scientific research are space probes. Robotic spacecraft that remain in orbit around a planetary body are artificial satellites
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Book Of Genesis
The Book
Book
of Genesis (from the Latin Vulgate, in turn borrowed or transliterated from Greek γένεσις, meaning "Origin"; Hebrew: בְּרֵאשִׁית‬, Bərēšīṯ, "In [the] beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible
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Time (magazine)
Time
Time
(styled TIME) is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City. It was founded in 1923 and originally run by Henry Luce. A European edition ( Time
Time
Europe, formerly known as Time
Time
Atlantic) is published in London and also covers the Middle East, Africa and, since 2003, Latin America. An Asian edition ( Time
Time
Asia) is based in Hong Kong. The South Pacific edition, which covers Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific Islands, is based in Sydney
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Astronaut Ranks And Positions
Astronauts hold a variety of ranks and positions, and each of these roles carries responsibilities that are essential to the operation of a spacecraft. A spacecraft's cockpit, filled with sophisticated equipment, requires skills differing from those used to manage the scientific equipment on board, and so on.Contents1 NASA ranks and positions1.1 Ranks 1.2 Positions2 RKA ranks and positions2.1 Ranks 2.2 Positions3 International space station positions 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksNASA ranks and positions[edit] Ranks[edit] Members of the NASA Astronaut
Astronaut
Corps hold one of two ranks. Astronaut Candidate is the rank of those training to be NASA astronauts. Upon graduation, candidates are promoted to Astronaut
Astronaut
and receive their Astronaut
Astronaut
Pin
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Intervertebral Disc
An intervertebral disc (or intervertebral fibrocartilage) lies between adjacent vertebrae in the vertebral column. Each disc forms a fibrocartilaginous joint (a symphysis), to allow slight movement of the vertebrae, and acts as a ligament to hold the vertebrae together. Their role as shock absorbers in the spine is crucial.Contents1 Structure1.1 Development2 Function 3 Clinical significance3.1 Herniation 3.2 Degeneration 3.3 Scoliosis 3.4 Intervertebral disc
Intervertebral disc
space 3.5 Spelling note4 See also 5 Additional images 6 References 7 External linksStructure[edit]Cervical vertebra with intervertebral discIntervertebral discs consist of an outer fibrous ring, the anulus fibrosus disci intervertebralis, which surrounds an inner gel-like center, the nucleus pulposus[1]. The anulus fibrosus consists of several layers (laminae) of fibrocartilage made up of both type I and type II collagen
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Epoch (astronomy)
In astronomy, an epoch is a moment in time used as a reference point for some time-varying astronomical quantity, such as the celestial coordinates or elliptical orbital elements of a celestial body, because these are subject to perturbations and vary with time.[1] These time-varying astronomical quantities might include, for example, the mean longitude or mean anomaly of a body, the node of its orbit relative to a reference plane, the direction of the apogee or aphelion of its orbit, or the size of the major axis of its orbit. The main use of astronomical quantities specified in this way is to calculate other relevant parameters of motion, in order to predict future positions and velocities
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Orbital Period
The orbital period is the time a given astronomical object takes to complete one orbit around another object, and applies in astronomy usually to planets or asteroids orbiting the Sun, moons orbiting planets, exoplanets orbiting other stars, or binary stars. For objects in the Solar System, this is often referred to as the sidereal period, determined by a 360° revolution of one celestial body around another, e.g. the Earth
Earth
orbiting the Sun. The name sidereal is added as it implies that the object returns to the same position relative to the fixed stars projected in the sky. When describing orbits of binary stars, the orbital period is usually referred to as just the period
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Orbital Inclination
Orbital inclination
Orbital inclination
measures the tilt of an object's orbit around a celestial body. It is expressed as the angle between a reference plane and the orbital plane or axis of direction of the orbiting object. For a satellite orbiting the Earth
Earth
directly above the equator, the plane of the satellite's orbit is the same as the Earth's equatorial plane, and the satellite's orbital inclination is 0°. The general case for a circular orbit is that it is tilted, spending half an orbit over the northern hemisphere and half over the southern
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Apsis
An apsis (Greek: ἁψίς; plural apsides /ˈæpsɪdiːz/, Greek: ἁψῖδες) is an extreme point in an object's orbit
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Spinal Disc Herniation
Spinal disc herniation, also known as a slipped disc, is a medical condition affecting the spine in which a tear in the outer, fibrous ring of an intervertebral disc allows the soft, central portion to bulge out beyond the damaged outer rings. Disc herniation is usually due to age-related degeneration of the outer ring, known as the anulus fibrosus, although trauma, lifting injuries, or straining have been implicated as well. Tears are almost always postero-lateral (on the back of the sides) owing to the presence of the posterior longitudinal ligament in the spinal canal.[1] This tear in the disc ring may result in the release of chemicals causing inflammation, which may directly cause severe pain even in the absence of nerve root compression. Disc herniations are normally a further development of a previously existing disc protrusion, a condition in which the outermost layers of the anulus fibrosus are still intact, but can bulge when the disc is under pressure
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Gemini 7
28.87 degrees[3] Gemini 7
Gemini 7
Mission Report (PDF) January 1966Period 90.54 minutesEpoch December 9, 1965[4](L-R) Lovell, Borman Project Gemini← Gemini 5 Gemini 6A → Gemini 7
Gemini 7
(officially Gemini VII)[5] was a 1965 manned spaceflight in NASA's Gemini program. It was the fourth manned Gemini flight, the twelfth manned American flight and the twentieth manned spaceflight including Soviet flights and X-15 flights above the Kármán line. The crew of Frank Borman
Frank Borman
and Jim Lovell
Jim Lovell
spent nearly 14 days in space, making a total of 206 orbits
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