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Apollo 8
Left to right: Lovell, Anders, Borman Apollo program Apollo 7 Apollo 9 → APOLLO 8, the second human spaceflight mission in the United States Apollo space program , was launched on December 21, 1968, and became the first crewed spacecraft to leave Earth orbit , reach the Earth's Moon , orbit it and return safely to Earth
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Earthrise
EARTHRISE is a photograph of the Earth
Earth
and parts of the Moon
Moon
's surface taken from lunar orbit by astronaut Bill Anders
Bill Anders
in 1968, during the Apollo 8 mission. Nature photographer Galen Rowell declared it "the most influential environmental photograph ever taken". This had been preceded by the crude 1966 black-and-white raster earthrise image taken by the Lunar Orbiter 1
Lunar Orbiter 1
robotic probe
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William Anders
WILLIAM ALISON "BILL" ANDERS (born October 17, 1933), (Maj Gen , USAFR , Ret.), is a former United States Air Force officer , electrical engineer , nuclear engineer , NASA
NASA
astronaut , and businessman . Anders, along with Apollo 8
Apollo 8
crewmates Frank Borman
Frank Borman
and Jim Lovell
Jim Lovell
, is one of the first three persons to have left Earth orbit and traveled to the Moon
Moon
. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Personal life * 3 Air Force service and NASA
NASA
career * 3.1 Spaceflight experience * 4 Post- NASA
NASA
career * 5 Organizations * 6 Awards and honors * 7 In popular culture * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links EARLY LIFEAnders was born on October 17, 1933, in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
, to U.S. Navy Lt. Arthur F. Anders (d
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NASA
The NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ( NASA
NASA
/ˈnæsə/ ) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program , as well as aeronautics and aerospace research. President Dwight D. Eisenhower established NASA
NASA
in 1958 with a distinctly civilian (rather than military) orientation encouraging peaceful applications in space science . The National Aeronautics
Aeronautics
and Space Act was passed on July 29, 1958, disestablishing NASA's predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The new agency became operational on October 1, 1958. Since that time, most US space exploration efforts have been led by NASA, including the Apollo Moon landing missions, the Skylab space station, and later the Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle

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International Designator
The INTERNATIONAL DESIGNATOR, also known as COSPAR DESIGNATION, and in the United States as NSSDC ID, is an international naming convention for satellites . It consists of the launch year, a 3-digit incrementing launch number of that year and up to a 3-letter code representing the sequential identifier of a piece in a launch. For example, 1990-037A is the Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-31 , which carried the Hubble Space Telescope (1990-037B) into space. This launch was the 37th known successful launch worldwide in 1990. The number reveals that it was launched in 1990 and that it was the 37th launch made that year. Spacecraft which do not complete an orbit of the Earth, for example launches which fail to achieve orbit, are not usually assigned IDs
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Satellite Catalog Number
The SATELLITE CATALOG NUMBER (also known as NORAD CATALOG NUMBER, NASA CATALOG NUMBER, USSPACECOM OBJECT NUMBER or simply CATALOG NUMBER and similar variants) is a sequential 5-digit number assigned by USSPACECOM ( United States Space Command ) to all Earth orbiting satellites in order of identification. Before USSPACECOM, the catalog was maintained by NORAD . The first catalogued object, catalog number 1957-001A, is the final stage of the rocket which launched Sputnik 1 and remained in orbit for almost two months. (Sputnik itself is 1957-001B and lasted in orbit an additional month.) As of 22 September 2016, the National Space Science Data Center Master Catalog listed more than 40,000 tracked objects including 7,576 satellites launched into orbit since 1957
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Apollo Command/Service Module
North American Aviation
North American Aviation
North American Rockwell DESIGNER Maxime Faget
Maxime Faget
COUNTRY OF ORIGIN United Sta
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Rockwell International
ROCKWELL INTERNATIONAL was a major American manufacturing conglomerate in the latter half of the 20th century, involved in aircraft, the space industry , both defense-oriented and commercial electronics, automotive and truck components, printing presses, valves and meters, and industrial automation. It was the ultimate incarnation of a series of companies founded by Colonel Willard Rockwell . At its peak in the 1990s, Rockwell International was No. 27 on the Fortune 500 list, with assets of over $8 billion, sales of $27 billion and 115,000 employees. CONTENTS * 1 Predecessor companies * 2 Products * 2.1 Aircraft * 2.2 Manned spacecraft * 2.3 Missiles * 2.4 Unmanned aerial vehicles * 3 Apex and break-up * 4 Research laboratory
Research laboratory
* 5 References * 6 Further reading * 6.1 Primary sources * 7 External links PREDECESSOR COMPANIESBoston-born Willard F
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Frank Borman
FRANK FREDERICK BORMAN II (born March 14, 1928), (Col , USAF , Ret.), is a retired United States Air Force
United States Air Force
pilot , aeronautical engineer , test pilot , and NASA
NASA
astronaut , best remembered as the Commander of Apollo 8
Apollo 8
, the first mission to fly around the Moon
Moon
, making him, along with crew mates Jim Lovell
Jim Lovell
and Bill Anders
Bill Anders
, the first of only 24 humans to do so . Before flying on Apollo, he set a fourteen-day spaceflight endurance record on Gemini 7
Gemini 7
, and also served on the NASA review board which investigated the Apollo 1
Apollo 1
fire. After leaving NASA, he was the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of Eastern Air Lines
Eastern Air Lines
from 1975 to 1986. Borman is a recipient of the Congressional Space Medal of Honor
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Jim Lovell
JAMES ARTHUR LOVELL JR. (born March 25, 1928) is a former NASA astronaut and a retired captain in the United States Navy
United States Navy
, most famous as the commander of the Apollo 13
Apollo 13
mission, which suffered a critical failure en route to the Moon
Moon
but was brought back safely to Earth by the efforts of the crew and mission control. Lovell was also the command module pilot of Apollo 8
Apollo 8
, the first Apollo mission to enter lunar orbit. He is a recipient of the Congressional Space Medal of Honor
Congressional Space Medal of Honor
and the Presidential Medal of Freedom . He is one of only 24 people to have flown to the Moon
Moon
, the first of only three people to fly to the Moon
Moon
twice, and the only one to have flown there twice without making a landing . Lovell was also the first person to fly in space four times
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Saturn V
The SATURN V (spoken as "Saturn five") was an American human-rated expendable rocket used by NASA between 1967 and 1973. The three-stage liquid-fueled super heavy-lift launch vehicle was developed to support the Apollo program for human exploration of the Moon and was later used to launch Skylab , the first American space station. The Saturn V was launched 13 times from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida with no loss of crew or payload. As of 2017, the Saturn V remains the tallest, heaviest, and most powerful (highest total impulse ) rocket ever brought to operational status, and holds records for the heaviest payload launched and largest payload capacity to low Earth orbit (LEO) of 140,000 kg (310,000 lb), which included the third stage and unburned propellant needed to send the Apollo Command/Service Module and Lunar Module to the Moon
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Kennedy Space Center
The JOHN F. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER (KSC) is one of ten National Aeronautics and Space Administration field centers . Since December 1968, Kennedy Space Center has been NASA's primary launch center of human spaceflight. Launch operations for the Apollo , Skylab and Space Shuttle programs were carried out from Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39 and managed by KSC. Located on the east coast of Florida, KSC is adjacent to Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The management of the two entities work very closely together, share resources, and even own facilities on each other's property. Though the first Apollo flights, and all Project Mercury and Project Gemini flights took off from CCAFS, the launches were managed by KSC and its previous organization, the Launch Operations Directorate
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Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39
LAUNCH COMPLEX 39 (LC-39) is a rocket launch site at the John F. Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island in Florida , United States. The site and its collection of facilities were originally built for the Apollo program , and later modified for the Space Shuttle program . As of 2017, only Launch Complex 39A is active, launching SpaceX 's Falcon 9 . LC-39 is also being modified to support launches of the SpaceX's Dragon 2 and Falcon Heavy , as well as NASA's Space Launch System , with a new, smaller pad, C, added to support smaller launches
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USS Yorktown (CV-10)
USS YORKTOWN (CV/CVA/CVS-10) is one of 24 Essex-class aircraft carriers built during World War II
World War II
for the United States Navy
United States Navy
. She is named after the Battle of Yorktown of the American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
, and is the fourth U.S. Navy ship to bear the name. Initially to have been named Bonhomme Richard , she was renamed Yorktown while under construction to commemorate USS Yorktown (CV-5) , lost at the Battle of Midway in June 1942. Yorktown was commissioned in April 1943, and participated in several campaigns in the Pacific Theater of Operations , earning 11 battle stars and the Presidential Unit Citation . Decommissioned shortly after the end of the war, she was modernized and recommissioned in the early 1950s as an attack carrier (CVA), and then eventually became an antisubmarine carrier (CVS)
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Apsis
An APSIS (Greek : ἁψίς; plural APSIDES /ˈæpsᵻdiːz/ , Greek: ἁψῖδες) is an extreme point in an object's orbit . The word comes via Latin from Greek and is cognate with apse . For elliptic orbits about a larger body, there are two apsides, named with the prefixes _peri-_ (from περί _(peri)_, meaning 'near') and _ap-_, or _apo-_ (from ἀπ(ό) _(ap(ó))_, meaning 'away from') added to a reference to the thing being orbited. * For a body orbiting the Sun , the point of least distance is the PERIHELION (/ˌpɛrᵻˈhiːliən/ ), and the point of greatest distance is the APHELION (/æpˈhiːliən/ )
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Orbital Inclination
ORBITAL INCLINATION measures the tilt of an object's orbit around a celestial body. It is expressed as the angle between a reference plane and the orbital plane or axis of direction of the orbiting object. For a satellite orbiting the Earth directly above the equator, the plane of the satellite's orbit is the same as the Earth's equatorial plane, and the satellite's orbital inclination is 0°. The general case is that the satellite's orbit is tilted; it spends half an orbit over the northern hemisphere and hal