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Apoapsis
An apsis (Greek: ἁψίς; plural apsides /ˈæpsɪdiːz/, Greek: ἁψῖδες) is an extreme point in an object's orbit
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Perihelion And Aphelion
The perihelion (/ˌpɛrɪˈhiːliən/) of any orbit of a celestial body about the Sun
Sun
is the point where the body comes nearest to the Sun. It is the opposite of aphelion (/æpˈhiːliən/), which is the point in the orbit where the celestial body is farthest from the Sun.[1] Apogee
Apogee
means it is the moon far from earth Perigee
Perigee
means that the moon is near earthContents1 Etymology 2 Astronomical meaning 3 Application to Earth 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksEtymology[edit] The words perihelion and aphelion were coined by Johannes Kepler[2] to describe the orbital motion of the planets
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Arithmetic Mean
In mathematics and statistics, the arithmetic mean ( /ˌærɪθˈmɛtɪk ˈmiːn/, stress on third syllable of "arithmetic"), or simply the mean or average when the context is clear, is the sum of a collection of numbers divided by the number of numbers in the collection.[1] The collection is often a set of results of an experiment, or a set of results from a survey. The term "arithmetic mean" is preferred in some contexts in mathematics and statistics because it helps distinguish it from other means, such as the geometric mean and the harmonic mean. In addition to mathematics and statistics, the arithmetic mean is used frequently in fields such as economics, sociology, and history, and it is used in almost every academic field to some extent
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Johannes Kepler
Johannes Kepler
Johannes Kepler
(/ˈkɛplər/;[1] German: [joˈhanəs ˈkɛplɐ]; December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer. Kepler is a key figure in the 17th-century scientific revolution. He is best known for his laws of planetary motion, based on his works Astronomia nova, Harmonices Mundi, and Epitome of Copernican Astronomy. These works also provided one of the foundations for Isaac Newton's theory of universal gravitation. Kepler was a mathematics teacher at a seminary school in Graz, where he became an associate of Prince Hans Ulrich von Eggenberg. Later he became an assistant to the astronomer Tycho Brahe
Tycho Brahe
in Prague, and eventually the imperial mathematician to Emperor Rudolf II and his two successors Matthias and Ferdinand II. He also taught mathematics in Linz, and was an adviser to General Wallenstein
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Orbital Elements
Orbital elements
Orbital elements
are the parameters required to uniquely identify a specific orbit. In celestial mechanics these elements are generally considered in classical two-body systems, where a Kepler orbit
Kepler orbit
is used. There are many different ways to mathematically describe the same orbit, but certain schemes, each consisting of a set of six parameters, are commonly used in astronomy and orbital mechanics. A real orbit (and its elements) changes over time due to gravitational perturbations by other objects and the effects of relativity
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Formula
In science, a formula is a concise way of expressing information symbolically, as in a mathematical formula or a chemical formula
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Kepler's Laws Of Planetary Motion
In astronomy, Kepler's laws of planetary motion
Kepler's laws of planetary motion
are three scientific laws describing the motion of planets around the Sun.Figure 1: Illustration of Kepler's three laws with two planetary orbits. (1) The orbits are ellipses, with focal points F1 and F2 for the first planet and F1 and F3 for the second planet
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Angular Momentum
In physics, angular momentum (rarely, moment of momentum or rotational momentum) is the rotational equivalent of linear momentum. It is an important quantity in physics because it is a conserved quantity – the total angular momentum of a system remains constant unless acted on by an external torque. In three dimensions, the angular momentum for a point particle is a pseudovector r×p, the cross product of the particle's position vector r (relative to some origin) and its momentum vector p = mv. This definition can be applied to each point in continua like solids or fluids, or physical fields. Unlike momentum, angular momentum does depend on where the origin is chosen, since the particle's position is measured from it
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Specific Relative Angular Momentum
In celestial mechanics the specific relative angular momentum h → displaystyle vec h plays a pivotal role in the analysis of the two-body problem. One can show that it is a constant vector for a given orbit under ideal conditions. This essentially proves Kepler's second law. It's called specific angular momentum because it's not the actual angular momentum L → displaystyle vec L , but the angular momentum per mass. Thus, the word "specific" in this term is short for "mass-specific" or divided-by-mass: h → = L → m displaystyle vec h = frac vec L m Thus the SI unit
SI unit
is: m2·s−1
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Specific Orbital Energy
In the gravitational two-body problem, the specific orbital energy ϵ displaystyle epsilon ,! (or vis-viva energy) of two orbiting bodies is the constant sum of their mutual potential energy ( ϵ p displaystyle epsilon _ p ,! ) and their total kinetic energy ( ϵ k displaystyle epsilon _ k ,! ), divided by the reduced mass
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Semi-major Axis
In geometry, the major axis of an ellipse is its longest diameter: a line segment that runs through the center and both foci, with ends at the widest points of the perimeter. The semi-major axis is one half of the major axis, and thus runs from the centre, through a focus, and to the perimeter
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Standard Gravitational Parameter
In celestial mechanics, the standard gravitational parameter μ of a celestial body is the product of the gravitational constant G and the mass M of the body. μ = G M   displaystyle mu =GM For several objects in the Solar System, the value of μ is known to greater accuracy than either G or M.[10] The SI units of the standard gravitational parameter are m3 s−2. However, units of km3 s−2 are frequently used in the scientific literature and in spacecraft navigation.Contents1 Small body orbiting a central body 2 Two bodies orbiting each other 3 Terminology and accuracy 4 See also 5 ReferencesSmall body orbiting a central body[edit]The relation between properties of mass and their associated physical constants. Every massive object is believed to exhibit all five properties
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Geometric Mean
In mathematics, the geometric mean is a type of mean or average, which indicates the central tendency or typical value of a set of numbers by using the product of their values (as opposed to the arithmetic mean which uses their sum)
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Apogee (other)
Apogee
Apogee
is a type of apsis: an extreme point in an object's orbit. Apogee
Apogee
may also refer to:Look up apogee in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.Contents1 Companies 2 Music 3 Fictional characters 4 Other uses 5 See alsoCompanies[edit]
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Semi-minor Axis
In geometry, the major axis of an ellipse is its longest diameter: a line segment that runs through the center and both foci, with ends at the widest points of the perimeter. The semi-major axis is one half of the major axis, and thus runs from the centre, through a focus, and to the perimeter
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Celestial Body
An astronomical object or celestial object is a naturally occurring physical entity, association, or structure that exists in the observable universe.[1] In astronomy, the terms "object" and "body" are often used interchangeably. However, an astronomical body or celestial body is a single, tightly bound contiguous entity, while an astronomical or celestial object is a complex, less cohesively bound structure, that may consist of multiple bodies or even other objects with substructures. Examples for astronomical objects include planetary systems, star clusters, nebulae and galaxies, while asteroids, moons, planets, and stars are astronomical bodies
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