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Antirrhineae
About 30, see text The ANTIRRHINEAE are one of the 12 tribes of the Plantaginaceae family . It contains the toadflax relatives, such as snapdragons . They are probably most closely related to the turtlehead tribe (Cheloneae ) and/or a large and badly resolved core group of their family including plants as diverse as water-starworts (Callitriche), foxgloves (Digitalis), and speedwell (Veronica). The Antirrhineae include about 30 genera with roughly 320 species, of which 150 are in genus Linaria
Linaria
. The type genus is Antirrhinum
Antirrhinum
L.
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Herbalism
HERBALISM (also HERBAL MEDICINE or PHYTOTHERAPY) is the study of botany and use of plants intended for medicinal purposes or for supplementing a diet. Plants have been the basis for medical treatments through much of human history, and such traditional medicine is still widely practiced today. Modern medicine recognizes herbalism as a form of alternative medicine , as the practice of herbalism is not strictly based on evidence gathered using the scientific method . Modern medicine makes use of many plant-derived compounds as the basis for evidence-based pharmaceutical drugs . Although phytotherapy may apply modern standards of effectiveness testing to herbs and medicines derived from natural sources, few high-quality clinical trials and standards for purity or dosage exist. The scope of herbal medicine is sometimes extended to include fungal and bee products, as well as minerals , shells and certain animal parts
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Common Toadflax
LINARIA VULGARIS (COMMON TOADFLAX, YELLOW TOADFLAX, or BUTTER-AND-EGGS ) is a species of toadflax (Linaria), native to most of Europe, northern Asia, the United Kingdom , Spain , east to eastern Siberia , and western China . It has also been introduced and is now common in North America. CONTENTS * 1 Growth * 2 Ecology * 3 Cultivation and uses * 4 Other names * 5 References * 6 External links GROWTHIt is a perennial plant with short spreading roots, erect to decumbent stems 15–90 cm high, with fine, threadlike, glaucous blue-green leaves 2–6 cm long and 1–5 mm broad. The flowers are similar to those of the snapdragon , 25–33 mm long, pale yellow except for the lower tip which is orange, borne in dense terminal racemes from mid summer to mid autumn. The flowers are mostly visited by bumblebees . The fruit is a globose capsule 5–11 mm long and 5–7 mm broad, containing numerous small seeds
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Ornamental Plants
ORNAMENTAL PLANTS are plants that are grown for decorative purposes in gardens and landscape design projects, as houseplants , for cut flowers and specimen display. The cultivation of these, called floriculture , forms a major branch of horticulture . CONTENTS * 1 Garden
Garden
plants * 2 Trees * 3 Cultivation * 4 The term * 5 References * 6 External links GARDEN PLANTSCommonly, ornamental plants are grown for the display of aesthetic features including: flowers , leaves , scent, overall foliage texture, fruit, stem and bark, and aesthetic form. In some cases, unusual features may be considered to be of interest, such as the prominent thorns of Rosa sericea and cacti . In all cases, their purpose is for the enjoyment of gardeners, visitors, and the public institutions. TREES See also: Category:Ornamental trees . See also: Roadside park Similarly certain trees may be called ORNAMENTAL TREES
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Gardening
GARDENING is the practice of growing and cultivating plants as part of horticulture . In gardens, ornamental plants are often grown for their flowers , foliage , or overall appearance; useful plants, such as root vegetables , leaf vegetables , fruits , and herbs , are grown for consumption, for use as dyes , or for medicinal or cosmetic use. Gardening
Gardening
is considered by many people to be a relaxing activity. Gardening
Gardening
ranges in scale from fruit orchards , to long boulevard plantings with one or more different types of shrubs , trees , and herbaceous plants , to residential yards including lawns and foundation plantings, to plants in large or small containers grown inside or outside. Gardening
Gardening
may be very specialized, with only one type of plant grown, or involve a large number of different plants in mixed plantings
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Antirrhinum Majus
ANTIRRHINUM MAJUS (COMMON SNAPDRAGON; often - especially in horticulture - simply "SNAPDRAGON") is a species of flowering plant belonging to the genus Antirrhinum . The plant was placed in the Plantaginaceae family following a revision its prior classical family, Scrophulariaceae . It is native to the Mediterranean region, from Morocco and Portugal north to southern France, and east to Turkey and Syria. The common name "snapdragon", originates from the flowers' reaction to having their throats squeezed, which causes the "mouth" of the flower to snap open like a dragon's mouth. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Taxonomy * 3 Cultivation * 4 Model research organism * 5 Chemistry * 6 Pests and Diseases * 6.1 Pests * 6.2 Diseases * 7 References DESCRIPTIONIt is an herbaceous perennial plant , growing to 0.5–1 m tall, rarely up to 2 m. The leaves are spirally arranged, broadly lanceolate, 1–7 cm long and 2-2.5 cm broad
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Folk Medicine
TRADITIONAL MEDICINE (also known as INDIGENOUS or FOLK MEDICINE) comprises medical aspects of traditional knowledge that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine . The World Health Organization
World Health Organization
(WHO) defines traditional medicine as "the sum total of the knowledge, skills, and practices based on the theories, beliefs, and experiences indigenous to different cultures, whether explicable or not, used in the maintenance of health as well as in the prevention, diagnosis, improvement or treatment of physical and mental illness". In some Asian and African countries, up to 80% of the population relies on traditional medicine for their primary health care needs. When adopted outside of its traditional culture, traditional medicine is often called alternative medicine
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Glycosides
In chemistry , a GLYCOSIDE /ˈɡlaɪkəsaɪd/ is a molecule in which a sugar is bound to another functional group via a glycosidic bond . Glycosides play numerous important roles in living organisms. Many plants store chemicals in the form of inactive glycosides. These can be activated by enzyme hydrolysis , which causes the sugar part to be broken off, making the chemical available for use. Many such plant glycosides are used as medications . In animals and humans, poisons are often bound to sugar molecules as part of their elimination from the body. In formal terms, a glycoside is any molecule in which a sugar group is bonded through its anomeric carbon to another group via a glycosidic bond . Glycosides can be linked by an O- (an O-glycoside), N- (a glycosylamine ), S-(a thioglycoside), or C- (a C-glycoside) glycosidic bond. According to the IUPAC , the name "C-glycoside" is a misnomer; the preferred term is "C-glycosyl compound"
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Annual Plants
An ANNUAL PLANT is a plant that completes its life cycle , from germination to the production of seeds , within one year, and then dies. Summer annuals germinate during spring or early summer and mature by autumn of the same year. Winter annuals germinate during the autumn and mature during the spring or summer of the following calendar year. One seed-to-seed life cycle for an annual can occur in as little as a month in some species, though most last several months. Oilseed rapa can go from seed-to-seed in about five weeks under a bank of fluorescent lamps . This style of growing is often used in classrooms for education. Many desert annuals are therophytes , because their seed-to-seed life cycle is only weeks and they spend most of the year as seeds to survive dry conditions
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Nectaries
NECTAR is a sugar -rich liquid produced by plants in glands called NECTARIES, either within the flowers with which it attracts pollinating animals, or by EXTRAFLORAL NECTARIES, which provide a nutrient source to animal mutualists , which in turn provide antiherbivore protection . Common nectar-consuming pollinators include mosquitoes , hoverflies , wasps , bees , butterflies and moths , hummingbirds , and bats . Nectar
Nectar
plays an important role in the foraging economics and overall evolution of nectar-eating species; for example, nectar and its properties are responsible for the differential evolution of the African honey bee, A. m. scutellata and the western honey bee . Nectar
Nectar
is an ecologically important item, the sugar source for honey . It is also useful in agriculture and horticulture because the adult stages of some predatory insects feed on nectar
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Capsule (botany)
In botany a CAPSULE is a type of simple, dry rarely fleshy, dehiscent fruit produced by many species of Angiosperms (flowering plants ). CONTENTS * 1 Origins and structure * 2 Dehiscence * 3 Specialised capsules * 4 Nuts * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Bibliography ORIGINS AND STRUCTUREThe capsule ( Latin
Latin
: capsula, small box) is derived from a compound (multicarpeled) ovary . A capsule is a structure composed of two or more carpels . In (flowering plants), the term locule (or cell) is used to refer to a chamber within the fruit . Depending on the number of locules in the ovary, fruit can be classified as UNI-LOCULAR (unilocular), BI-LOCULAR, TRI-LOCULAR or MULTI-LOCULAR. The number of locules present in a gynoecium may be equal to or less than the number of carpels. The locules contain the ovules or seeds and are separated by septa
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Iridoid
IRIDOIDS are a type of monoterpenoids in the general form of cyclopentanopyran, found in a wide variety of plants and some animals. They are biosynthetically derived from 8-oxogeranial . Iridoids are typically found in plants as glycosides , most often bound to glucose . The chemical structure is exemplified by iridomyrmecin , a defensive chemical produced by the Iridomyrmex genus, for which iridoids are named. Structurally, they are bicyclic cis-fused cyclopentane-pyrans. Cleavage of a bond in the cyclopentane ring gives rise to a subclass known as secoiridoids, such as oleuropein and amarogentin . CONTENTS * 1 Occurrence * 2 Biosynthesis * 3 References * 4 Further reading OCCURRENCE Aucubin and catalpol are two of the most common iridoids in the plant kingdom. The iridoids produced by plants act primarily as a defense against herbivores or against infection by microorganisms
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Cultivar
The term CULTIVAR most commonly refers to an assemblage of plants selected for desirable characteristics that are maintained during propagation . More generally, cultivar refers to the most basic classification category of cultivated plants governed by the ICNCP . Most cultivars have arisen in cultivation, but a few are special selections from the wild. Popular ornamental garden plants like roses , camellias , daffodils , rhododendrons , and azaleas are cultivars produced by careful breeding and selection for flower colour and form. Similarly, the world's agricultural food crops are almost exclusively cultivars that have been selected for characteristics such as improved yield, flavour, and resistance to disease and very few wild plants are now used as food sources. Trees used in forestry are also special selections grown for their enhanced quality and yield of timber
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Polar Circle
A POLAR CIRCLE is either the Arctic Circle or the Antarctic Circle . On Earth , the Arctic Circle is located at a latitude of 66°33′46.8″ N, and the Antarctic Circle is located at a latitude of 66°33′46.8″ S. Areas inside each polar circle and its associated pole (North Pole or South Pole ), known geographically as the frigid zones , would theoretically experience at least one 24-hour period when the sun is continuously above the horizon and at least one 24-hour period when the sun is continuously below the horizon annually. However, due to atmospheric refraction and the Sun being an extended object rather than a point source , the continuous daylight area is somewhat extended while the continuous darkness area is somewhat reduced. The latitude of the polar circles is 90 degrees minus the axial tilt of the Earth's axis of daily rotation relative to the ecliptic , the plane of the Earth's orbit. This tilt varies slightly, a phenomenon described as nutation
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Invasive Plant
An INVASIVE SPECIES is a plant , fungus , or animal species that is not native to a specific location (an introduced species ), and which has a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause damage to the environment, human economy or human health. One study pointed out widely divergent perceptions of the criteria for invasive species among researchers (p. 135) and concerns with the subjectivity of the term "invasive" (p. 136). Some of the alternate usages of the term are below: * The term as most often used applies to introduced species (also called "non-indigenous" or "non-native") that adversely affect the habitats and bioregions they invade economically, environmentally, or ecologically. Such invasive species may be either plants or animals and may disrupt by dominating a region, wilderness areas , particular habitats , or wildland–urban interface land from loss of natural controls (such as predators or herbivores )
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Georges Rouy
GEORGES ROUY (2 December 1851, Paris
Paris
– 25 December 1924, Asnières-sur-Seine ) was a French botanist who was among the first to identify infraspecific (i.e., below the level of species ) taxa , including: subspecies , varieties , and forms . CONTENTS * 1 Published works * 2 Taxa * 3 References * 4 External links PUBLISHED WORKSWith Julien Foucaud and others, he was author of the Flore de France; ou, Description des plantes qui croissent spontanément en France, en Corse et en Alsace-Lorraine (Flora of France; descriptions of plants that are native to France, Corsica
Corsica
and Alsace-Lorraine , published in 14 volumes from 1893 to 1913
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