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Antihistamines
Antihistamines are drugs which treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies.[1] Antihistamines can give relief when a person has nasal congestion, sneezing, or hives because of pollen, dust mites, or animal allergy.[1] Typically people take antihistamines as an inexpensive, generic, over-the-counter drug with few side effects.[1] As an alternative to taking an antihistamine, people who suffer from allergies can instead avoid the substance which irritates them.[1] Antihistamines are usually for short-term treatment.[1] Chronic allergies increase the risk of health problems which antihistamines might not treat, including asthma, sinusitis, and lower respiratory tract infection.[1] Doctors recommend that people talk to them before any longer term use of antihistamines.[1] Although typical people use the word “antihistamine” to describe drugs for treating allergies, doctors and scientists use the term to describe a class of drug that opposes the activity of histamine receptors in the bo
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Drug Class
A drug class is a set of medications that have similar chemical structures, the same mechanism of action (i.e., bind to the same biological target), a related mode of action, and/or are used to treat the same disease.[1][2] In several dominant drug classification systems, these four types of classifications form a hierarchy. For example, the fibrates are a chemical class of drugs (amphipathic carboxylic acids) that share the same mechanism of action (PPAR agonist), mode of action (reducing blood triglycerides), and are used to prevent and to treat the same disease (atherosclerosis)
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Endothelium
Endothelium
Endothelium
refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels,[1] forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. It is a thin layer of simple, or single-layered, squamous cells called endothelial cells. Endothelial cells in direct contact with blood are called vascular endothelial cells, whereas those in direct contact with lymph are known as lymphatic endothelial cells. Vascular endothelial cells line the entire circulatory system, from the heart to the smallest capillaries. These cells have unique functions in vascular biology
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Lower Respiratory Tract Infection
Lower respiratory tract
Lower respiratory tract
infection (LRTI), while often used as a synonym for pneumonia, can also be applied to other types of infection including lung abscess and acute bronchitis. Symptoms include shortness of breath, weakness, fever, coughing and fatigue. There are a number of symptoms that are characteristic of lower respiratory tract infections
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Histamine
Histamine
Histamine
is an organic nitrogenous compound involved in local immune responses, as well as regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter for the brain, spinal cord, and uterus.[3][4] Histamine
Histamine
is involved in the inflammatory response and has a central role as a mediator of itching.[5] As part of an immune response to foreign pathogens, histamine is produced by basophils and by mast cells found in nearby connective tissues
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H2 Antagonist
H2 antagonists, sometimes referred to as H2RA[1] and also called H2 blockers, are a class of medications that block the action of histamine at the histamine H2 receptors of the parietal cells in the stomach. This decreases the production of stomach acid. H2 antagonists can be used in the treatment of dyspepsia, peptic ulcers and gastroesophageal reflux disease. They have been surpassed by proton pump inhibitors (PPIs); the PPI omeprazole was found to be more effective at both healing and alleviating symptoms of ulcers and reflux oesophagitis than the H2 blockers ranitidine and cimetidine.[2] H2 antagonists are a type of antihistamine, although in common use the term "antihistamine" is often reserved for H1 antagonists, which relieve allergic reactions
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Inner Ear
The inner ear (internal ear, auris interna) is the innermost part of the vertebrate ear. In vertebrates, the inner ear is mainly responsible for sound detection and balance.[1] In mammals, it consists of the bony labyrinth, a hollow cavity in the temporal bone of the skull with a system of passages comprising two main functional parts:[2]The cochlea, dedicated to hearing; converting sound pressure patterns from the outer ear into electrochemical impulses which are passed on to the brain via the auditory nerve. The vestibular system, dedicated to balanceThe inner ear is found in all vertebrates, with substantial variations in form and function. The inner ear is innervated by the eighth cranial nerve in all vertebrates.Contents1 Structure1.1 Bony vs. membranous 1.2 Vestibular vs
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Gastric Acid
Gastric acid, gastric juice or stomach acid, is a digestive fluid formed in the stomach and is composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium chloride (NaCl). The acid plays a key role in digestion of proteins, by activating digestive enzymes, and making ingested proteins unravel so that digestive enzymes break down the long chains of amino acids. Gastric acid
Gastric acid
is produced by cells in the lining of the stomach, which are coupled in feedback systems to increase acid production when needed. Other cells in the stomach produce bicarbonate, a base, to buffer the fluid, ensuring that it does not become too acidic. These cells also produce mucus, which forms a viscous physical barrier to prevent gastric acid from damaging the stomach
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Peptic Ulcers
Peptic ulcer
Peptic ulcer
disease (PUD) is a break in the lining of the stomach, first part of the small intestine or occasionally the lower esophagus.[1][7] An ulcer in the stomach is known as a gastric ulcer while that in the first part of the intestines is known as a duodenal ulcer.[1] The most common symptoms of a duodenal ulcer are waking at night with upper abdominal pain or upper abdominal pain that improves with eating.[1] With a gastric ulcer the pain may worsen with eating.[8] The pain is often described as a burning or dull ache.[1] Other symptoms include belching, vomiting, weight loss, or poor appetite.[1] About a th
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Acid Reflux
Gastroesophageal reflux disease
Gastroesophageal reflux disease
(GERD), also known as acid reflux, is a long-term condition where stomach contents come back up into the esophagus resulting in either symptoms or complications.[5][6] Symptoms include the taste of acid in the back of the mouth, heartburn, bad breath, chest pain, vomiting, breathing problems, and wearing away of the teeth.[5] Complications include esophagitis, esophageal strictures, and Barrett's esophagus.[5] Risk factors include obesity, pregnancy, smoking, hiatus hernia, and taking certain medicines.[5] Medic
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Mast Cells
A mast cell (also known as a mastocyte or a labrocyte[1]) is a type of white blood cell. Specifically, it is a type of granulocyte derived from the myeloid stem cell that is a part of the immune and neuroimmune systems and contains many granules rich in histamine and heparin. Although best known for their role in allergy and anaphylaxis, mast cells play an important protective role as well, being intimately involved in wound healing, angiogenesis, immune tolerance, defense against pathogens, and blood–brain barrier function.[2][3] The mast cell is very similar in both appearance and function to the basophil, another type of white blood cell
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Smooth Muscle
Smooth muscle
Smooth muscle
is an involuntary non-striated muscle. It is divided into two subgroups; the single-unit (unitary) and multiunit smooth muscle
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Tuberomammillary Nucleus
The tuberomammillary nucleus is a histaminergic nucleus located within the posterior third of the hypothalamus.[1] It consists of, largely, histaminergic neurons (i.e., histamine-releasing neurons) and is involved with the control of arousal, learning, memory, sleep and energy balance.[1] Histaminergic outputs[edit] See also: Neurotransmitter system The tuberomammillary nucleus is the sole source of histamine pathways in the human brain. The densest axonal projections from the tuberomammillary nucleus are sent to the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, neostriatum, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and other parts of the hypothalamus.[1] The projections to the cerebral cortex directly increase cortical activation and arousal, and projections to acetylcholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain and dorsal pons do so indirectly, by increasing the release of acetylcholine in the cerebral cortex.[medical citation needed] References[edit]^ a b c Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009)
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Asthma
Asthma
Asthma
is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.[3] It is characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction, and bronchospasm.[10] Symptoms include episodes of wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath.[2] These episodes may occur a few times a day or a few times per week.[3] Depending on the person, they may become worse at night or with exercise.[3]
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Human Gastrointestinal Tract
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces. The mouth, esophagus, stomach, and intestines are part of the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal is an adjective meaning of or pertaining to the stomach and intestines. A tract is a collection of related anatomic structures or a series of connected body organs. All bilaterians have a gastrointestinal tract, also called a gut or an alimentary canal. This is a tube that transfers food to the organs of digestion.[1] In large bilaterians, the gastrointestinal tract generally also has an exit, the anus, by which the animal disposes of feces (solid wastes)
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Stomach
The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates. The stomach has a dilated structure and functions as a vital digestive organ. In the digestive system the stomach is involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication (chewing). In humans and many other animals, the stomach is located between the oesophagus and the small intestine. It secretes digestive enzymes and gastric acid to aid in food digestion
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