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Anti-lock Braking System
An anti-lock braking system or anti-skid braking system[1] (ABS) is an automobile safety system that allows the wheels on a motor vehicle to maintain tractive contact with the road surface according to driver inputs while braking, preventing the wheels from locking up (ceasing rotation) and avoiding uncontrolled skidding. It is an automated system that uses the principles of threshold braking and cadence braking which were practiced by skillful drivers with previous generation braking systems. It does this at a much faster rate and with better control than many drivers could manage. ABS generally offers improved vehicle control and decreases stopping distances on dry and slippery surfaces; however, on loose gravel or snow-covered surfaces, ABS can significantly increase braking distance, although still improving vehicle steering control.[2][3][4] Since initial widespread use in production cars, anti-lock braking systems have been improved considerably
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Toyota Crown
The Toyota
Toyota
Crown (Japanese: トヨタクラウン Toyota
Toyota
Kuraun) is a line of mid/full-size luxury sedans by Toyota
Toyota
primarily aimed at the Japanese market and sold in other select Asian markets. Introduced in 1955, it has served as the mainstream sedan from Toyota in the Japanese market throughout its existence and holds the distinction of being the longest running passenger-car nameplate affixed to any Toyota
Toyota
model, along with being the first Toyota
Toyota
vehicle to be exported to the United States
United States
in 1958
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Ferguson P99
The Ferguson P99
Ferguson P99
was a four-wheel drive Formula One
Formula One
car built by Ferguson Research Ltd.
Ferguson Research Ltd.
for the Rob Walker Racing Team. It was the first 4WD F1 car and used a 1.5-litre Climax engine. It remains the most famous example of its type as a result of its twin claims to fame – not only the first 4WD car, but also the last front-engined car ever to win a Formula 1 event. Fred Dixon and Tony Rolt
Tony Rolt
considered the possibility of using 4WD in circuit racing, and with Harry Ferguson
Harry Ferguson
keen to promote the transmission systems of his Ferguson tractor firm work began on the P99 in 1960
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British Aerospace 125
Hawker Beechcraft
Hawker Beechcraft
(2007–2013)First flight 13 August 1962Status Active servicePrimary users Japan
Japan
Air Self-Defense Force Brazilian Air ForceProduced 1962–2013Number built 1,600+[1]Unit cost£150,000 (1962)[2] -600: US$1.45M (1972)[3] $12,995,000 (1995)[4]Variants Hawker 800The British Aerospace
British Aerospace
125 is a twinjet mid-size business jet. Originally developed by de Havilland and initially designated as the DH125 Jet Dragon, it entered production as the Hawker Siddeley
Hawker Siddeley
HS.125, which was the designation used until 1977
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Hawker Siddeley HS 748
The Hawker Siddeley
Hawker Siddeley
HS 748 is a medium-sized turboprop airliner originally designed by the British firm Avro
Avro
in the late 1950s as a replacement for the aging DC-3s then in widespread service as feederliners. Avro
Avro
concentrated on performance, notably for STOL operations, and found a dedicated market. 380 aircraft were built by Hawker Siddeley
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British Aerospace ATP
The British Aerospace
British Aerospace
ATP (Advanced Turbo-Prop) is an airliner produced by British Aerospace, introduced in the 1980s as an evolution of the Hawker Siddeley HS 748. The fuel crisis and increasing worries about aircraft noise led business planners at British Aerospace
British Aerospace
to believe that there was a market for a short-range, low-noise, fuel-efficient turboprop aircraft
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BAC One-Eleven
The British Aircraft Corporation
British Aircraft Corporation
One-Eleven, also known as the BAC-111 or BAC 1-11, is a British short-range jet airliner used during the 1960s and 1970s. It was the second short-haul jet airliner to enter service, following the French Sud Aviation Caravelle. The aircraft was also produced under license in Romania
Romania
during the 1980s as the Rombac One-Eleven. The One-Eleven was originally conceived by Hunting Aircraft
Hunting Aircraft
and was subsequently developed by the British Aircraft Corporation
British Aircraft Corporation
when Hunting merged into BAC along with several other British aircraft manufacturers in 1960. The One-Eleven was intended to replace the earlier turboprop Vickers Viscount
Vickers Viscount
on short-range routes
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Royal Enfield Super Meteor
The Super Meteor was a British motorcycle made by Royal Enfield
Royal Enfield
for export to the US between 1952 and 1962, when the Super Meteor was replaced by the 736 cc Royal Enfield
Royal Enfield
Interceptor.[1]Contents1 Development 2 Anti-lock braking experiment 3 References 4 See alsoDevelopment[edit] In 1953, the US export market led Royal Enfield
Royal Enfield
to develop a 692 cc, overhead valve twin capable of 100 mph (160 km/h), which was launched as the Meteor. The engine was basically a modified 500 twin crankcase with 350 single (Bullet) pistons, valves and identical 90mm stroke length. In 1954, the Super Meteor was updated and fitted with a new cast alloy headlight nacelle (casquette) housing the speedometer, ammeter and light switch
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Motorcycle
A motorcycle often called a bike, motorbike, or cycle is a two-[1][2] or three-wheeled[3][4] motor vehicle. Motorcycle design varies greatly to suit a range of different purposes: long distance travel, commuting, cruising, sport including racing, and off-road riding. Motorcycling
Motorcycling
is riding a motorcycle and related social activity such as joining a motorcycle club and attending motorcycle rallies. In 1894, Hildebrand & Wolfmüller became the first series production motorcycle, and the first to be called a motorcycle. In 2014, the three top motorcycle producers globally by volume were Honda, Yamaha
Yamaha
(both from Japan), and Hero MotoCorp
Hero MotoCorp
(India).[5] In developing countries, motorcycles are overwhelmingly utilitarian due to lower prices and greater fuel economy
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Transport Research Laboratory
Coordinates: 51°22′54″N 0°46′56″W / 51.3818°N 0.7823°W / 51.3818; -0.7823TRL Limited[1]TRL logoTrading nameTRLTypePrivate company limited by guarantee[2]Industry Automotive transport, roads, engineering, insurance, urban environment, rail travel, motorsport[2]Predecessors Road Research Laboratory (RRL), then Transport
Transport
and Road Research Laboratory (TRRL)[3]Founded 1933; 85 years ago (1933), in Harmondsworth, West Drayton, Greater London, Unit
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All Wheel Drive
An all-wheel drive vehicle (AWD vehicle) is one with a powertrain capable of providing power to all its wheels, whether full-time or on-demand. The most common forms of all-wheel drive are: 4×4
4×4
(also, four-wheel drive and 4WD) Reflecting two axles with both wheels on each capable of being powered. 6×6
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De Havilland Comet
The de Havilland DH 106 Comet was the world's first commercial jetliner. Developed and manufactured by de Havilland at its Hatfield Aerodrome in Hertfordshire, United Kingdom, the Comet 1 prototype first flew in 1949. It featured an aerodynamically clean design with four de Havilland Ghost turbojet engines buried in the wing roots, a pressurised cabin, and large square windows. For the era, it offered a relatively quiet, comfortable passenger cabin and was commercially promising at its debut in 1952. However, within a year problems started to emerge, with three Comets lost within twelve months in highly publicised accidents, after suffering catastrophic in-flight break-ups. Two of these were found to be caused by structural failure resulting from metal fatigue in the airframe, a phenomenon not fully understood at the time. The other one was due to overstressing of the airframe during flight through severe weather
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Ford Zodiac
Australia Cork,Ireland Dagenham, United Kingdom New Zealand Salisbury, Rhodesia
Rhodesia
(FMCR) South AfricaBody and chassisClass Full-sizeChronologyPredecessor Ford PilotSuccessor Ford Consul Ford GranadaThe Ford Zephyr
Ford Zephyr
is a car that was manufactured by Ford of Britain
Ford of Britain
from 1950 to 1972
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Chrysler
Chrysler
Chrysler
(/ˈkraɪslər/; officially FCA US LLC, and colloquially Fiat Chrysler
Chrysler
Automobiles) is one of the "Big Three" automobile manufacturers in the United States, headquartered in Auburn Hills, Michigan. The original Chrysler
Chrysler
Corporation was founded in 1925 by Walter Chrysler
Walter Chrysler
from the remains of the Maxwell Motor Company. In 1998, it was acquired by Daimler-Benz, and the holding company was renamed DaimlerChrysler. After Daimler divested Chrysler
Chrysler
in 2007, the company existed as Chrysler
Chrysler
LLC (2007-2009) and Chrysler
Chrysler
Group LLC (2009-2014) before merging in 2014 with Italian holding company Fiat S.p.A. and becoming a subsidiary of its successor Fiat Chrysler Automobiles
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General Motors
General Motors
General Motors
Company,[1] commonly referred to as General Motors (GM), is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Detroit
Detroit
that designs, manufactures, markets, and distributes vehicles and vehicle parts, and sells financial services, with global headquarters in Detroit's Renaissance Center. It was originally founded by William C. Durant
William C. Durant
on September 16, 1908 as a holding company. The company is the largest American automobile manufacturer, and one of the world's largest.[7] As of 2018, General Motors is ranked #10 on the Fortune 500
Fortune 500
rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue.[8] General Motors
General Motors
manufactures vehicles in 37 countries; its core automobile brands include Chevrolet, Buick, GMC, and Cadillac
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Rear-wheel Drive
In automotive design, the automobile layout describes where on the vehicle the engine and drive wheels are found. Many different combinations of engine location and driven wheels are found in practice, and the location of each is dependent on the application for which the vehicle will be used. Factors influencing the design choice include cost, complexity, reliability, packaging (location and size of the passenger compartment and boot), weight distribution, and the vehicle's intended handling characteristics. Layouts can roughly be divided into two categories: front- or rear-wheel drive
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