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Anti-armour
Anti-tank warfare
Anti-tank warfare
arose as a result of the need to develop technology and tactics to destroy tanks during World War I. Since the first tanks were developed by the Triple Entente
Triple Entente
in 1916 but not operated in battle until 1917, the first anti-tank weapons were developed by the German Empire.[1] The first developed anti-tank weapon was a scaled-up bolt-action rifle, the Mauser 1918 T-Gewehr
Mauser 1918 T-Gewehr
that fired a 13mm cartridge with a solid bullet that could penetrate the thin armor of tanks of the time and destroy the engine or ricochet inside killing occupants.[2] Because tanks represent an enemy's greatest force projection on land, anti-tank warfare has been incorporated into the doctrine of nearly every combat service since
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FGR-17 Viper
The FGR-17 Viper
FGR-17 Viper
was an American one man disposable antitank rocket, which was slated in the 1980s to be the replacement for the M72 LAW, but was canceled shortly after production began because of cost overruns and concerns about safety and capability.[1][2]Contents1 Program history1.1 Start of the program 1.2 Poor requirements statement 1.3 Over-optimistic statements by the prime contractor 1.4 Safety issues 1.5 Scandal and congressional intervention 1.6 End of the program2 Description 3 References and notesProgram history[edit] Start of the program[edit] The Viper program began in 1972 as a study to replace the M72 LAW. In 1975, a program designated ILAW (Improved Light Antitank Weapon) issued a request for proposals to the defense industry, and in 1976 after studying the various industry proposals, the U.S
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Reactive Armor
Reactive armor is a type of vehicle armor that reacts in some way to the impact of a weapon to reduce the damage done to the vehicle being protected. It is most effective in protecting against shaped charges and specially hardened kinetic energy penetrators. The most common type is explosive reactive armour (ERA), but variants include self-limiting explosive reactive armour (SLERA), non-energetic reactive armour (NERA), non-explosive reactive armour (NxRA), and electric reactive armour. NERA and NxRA modules can withstand multiple hits, unlike ERA and SLERA, but a second hit in exactly the same location may potentially penetrate any of those. Essentially all anti-tank munitions work by piercing the armour and killing the crew inside, disabling vital mechanical systems, or both. Reactive armour
Reactive armour
can be defeated with multiple hits in the same place, as by tandem-charge weapons, which fire two or more shaped charges in rapid succession
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Maneuver Warfare
Maneuver warfare, or manoeuvre warfare, is a military strategy that advocates attempting to defeat the enemy by incapacitating their decision-making through shock and disruption.Contents1 Background 2 Concepts 3 History3.1 Early examples of maneuver 3.2 Napoleon's use of maneuver 3.3 Mechanization of maneuver 3.4 U.S. Marine Corps doctrine of maneuver 3.5 Development of maneuver warfare theories3.5.1 Recent theorists3.6 Limitations of maneuver in a modern context4 See also 5 References 6 Sources 7 External linksBackground[edit] JGSDF
JGSDF
soldiers rush out of their LAV to counter an ambush.Methods of war stand on a continuum between maneuver warfare and attrition warfare, the focus on achieving victory through killing or capturing the enemy
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Vasily Sokolovsky
Russian Civil War World War IIBattle of Moscow Battle of Kursk Battle of Smolensk Orsha OffensivesAwards Hero of the Soviet Union Order of Lenin
Order of Lenin
(8) Order of the Red Banner
Order of the Red Banner
(2) Order of the October Revolution Order of Suvorov, 1st Class (3) Order of Kutuzov, 1st Class (3)Vasily Danilovich Sokolovsky (Russian: Васи́лий Дани́лович Соколо́вский; July 21, 1897 – May 10, 1968) was a Soviet military commander.Contents1 Early life 2 Military career 3 Honours and awards 4 ReferencesEarly life[edit] Sokolovsky was born into a peasant family in Kozliki, a small town in the province of Grodno
Grodno
(now in Białystok County
Białystok County
in Poland, then part of the Russian Empire)
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Great Patriotic War
Soviet victory Soviet Union
Soviet Union
occupies Central, Eastern, Northeastern and Southeastern Europe and establishes pro-Soviet communist puppet governments in countries including Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and East Germany. Establishment of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia. Beginning of the Cold War
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Anti-tank Guided Missile
An anti-tank missile (ATM), anti-tank guided missile (ATGM), anti-tank guided weapon (ATGW) or anti-armor guided weapon, is a guided missile primarily designed to hit and destroy heavily armored military vehicles. ATGMs range in size from shoulder-launched weapons, which can be transported by a single soldier, to larger tripod-mounted weapons, which require a squad or team to transport and fire, to vehicle and aircraft mounted missile systems. The introduction to the modern battlefield of smaller, man-portable ATGMs with larger warheads has given infantry the ability to defeat light and medium tanks at great ranges, though main battle tanks (MBTs) using composite and reactive armors have proven to be resistant to smaller ATGMs.[1][2] Earlier infantry anti-tank weapons, such as anti-tank rifles, anti-tank rockets and magnetic anti-tank mines, had limited armor-penetration abilities and/or required a soldier to approach the target closely.Contents1 History 2 Countermeasures
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Attack Helicopter
An attack helicopter is an armed helicopter with the primary role of an attack aircraft, with the capability of engaging targets on the ground, such as enemy infantry and armored fighting vehicles. Due to their heavy armament they are sometimes called helicopter gunships. Weapons used on attack helicopters can include autocannons, machine guns, rockets, and guided anti-tank missiles such as the Hellfire. Many attack helicopters are also capable of carrying air-to-air missiles, though mostly for purposes of self-defense. Today's attack helicopter has two main roles: first, to provide direct and accurate close air support for ground troops, and second, the anti-tank role to destroy enemy armor concentrations. Attack helicopters are also used to supplement lighter helicopters in the armed scout role
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Air-to-surface Missile
An air-to-surface missile (ASM) or air-to-ground missile (AGM or ATGM) is a missile designed to be launched from military aircraft at targets on land or sea. There are also unpowered guided glide bombs not considered missiles. The two most common propulsion systems for air-to-surface missiles are rocket motors, usually with shorter range, and slower, longer-range jet engines. Some Soviet-designed air-to-surface missiles are powered by ramjets, giving them both long range and high speed. Guidance for air-to-surface missiles is typically via laser guidance, infrared guidance, optical guidance or via satellite guidance signals. The type of guidance depends on the type of target. Ships, for example, may be detected via passive radar or active radar homing, less effective against multiple, small, fast-moving land targets. There is some cross-over between air-to-surface missiles and surface-to-surface missiles
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Improvised Explosive Device
An improvised explosive device (IED) is a bomb constructed and deployed in ways other than in conventional military action. It may be constructed of conventional military explosives, such as an artillery shell, attached to a detonating mechanism. IEDs are commonly used as roadside bombs. IEDs are generally seen in heavy terrorist actions or in asymmetric unconventional warfare by insurgent guerrillas or commando forces in a theatre of operations
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Asymmetric Warfare
Asymmetric warfare
Asymmetric warfare
(or asymmetric engagement) is war between belligerents whose relative military power differs significantly, or whose strategy or tactics differ significantly. This is typically a war between a standing, professional army and an insurgency or resistance movement. Asymmetric warfare
Asymmetric warfare
can describe a conflict in which the resources of two belligerents differ in essence and in the struggle, interact and attempt to exploit each other's characteristic weaknesses
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RPG-29
The RPG-29
RPG-29
"Vampir" is a Soviet Union
Soviet Union
reusable rocket-propelled grenade (RPG) launcher. Adopted by the Soviet Army
Soviet Army
in 1989,[6] it was the last RPG to be adopted by the Soviet military before the fall of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1991. The RPG-29
RPG-29
has since been supplemented by other rocket-propelled systems, such as the RPG-30
RPG-30
and RPG-32
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FGM-148 Javelin
The FGM-148 Javelin
FGM-148 Javelin
is an American man-portable fire-and-forget anti-tank missile fielded to replace the M47 Dragon
M47 Dragon
anti-tank missile in US service.[12] It uses an automatic infrared guidance that allows the user to seek cover immediately after launch, as opposed to wired guided systems, like the Dragon, where the user has to actively guide the weapon throughout the engagement
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Tandem Warhead
A tandem-charge or dual-charge weapon is an explosive device or projectile that has two or more stages of detonation.Contents1 Anti-tank 2 Penetrating weapons 3 See also 4 ReferencesAnti-tank[edit]An RPG-29
RPG-29
and its PG-29V rocket with a tandem-charge warheadThe self-guided FGM-148 Javelin
FGM-148 Javelin
missile has a tandem-charge warhead Tandem
Tandem
charges are effective against reactive armour, which is designed to protect an armoured vehicle (mostly tanks) against anti-tank munitions.[1] The first stage of the weapon is typically a weak charge that either pierces the reactive armour of the target without detonating it leaving a channel through the reactive armour so that the second warhead may pass unimpeded, or simply detonating the armourplate causing the timing of the counter-explosion to fail
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Tactical Nuclear Weapon
A tactical nuclear weapon (TNW) or non-strategic nuclear weapon[1] is a nuclear weapon, generally smaller in its explosive power, which is designed to be used on a battlefield in military situations, mostly with friendly forces in proximity and perhaps even on contested friendly territory. This is contrast to strategic nuclear weapons which are designed to be mostly targeted in the enemy interior away from the war front against military bases, cities, towns, arms industries, and other hardened or larger-area targets to damage the enemy's ability to wage war
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High-explosive Anti-tank Warhead
A high-explosive anti-tank (HEAT) warhead is a type of shaped charge explosive that uses the Munroe effect
Munroe effect
to penetrate thick tank armor. The warhead functions by having the explosive charge collapse a metal liner inside the tank to form a high-velocity superplastic jet of liquid metal. This concentrated liquid metal jet is capable of penetrating armor steel to a depth of seven or more times the diameter of the charge (charge diameters, CD) but is usually used to immobilize or destroy tanks. Due to the way they work, they do not have to be fired as fast as an armor piercing shell, allowing less recoil. Contrary to a widespread misconception (possibly resulting from the acronym HEAT), the jet does not melt its way through armor, as its effect is purely kinetic in nature
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