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Anno Domini
The terms anno Domini[a][1][2] (AD) and before Christ[b][3][4][5] (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars. The term anno Domini is Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
and means "in the year of the Lord",[6] but is often presented using "our Lord" instead of "the Lord",[7][8] taken from the full original phrase "anno Domini nostri Jesu Christi", which translates to "in the year of our Lord Jesus
Jesus
Christ". This calendar era is based on the traditionally reckoned year of the conception or birth of Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth, with AD counting years from the start of this epoch, and BC denoting years before the start of the era. There is no year zero in this scheme, so the year AD 1 immediately follows the year 1 BC
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Europe
Europe
Europe
is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.[5] Though the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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United Nations
The United Nations
United Nations
(UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order. A replacement for the ineffective League of Nations, the organization was established on 24 October 1945 after World War II
World War II
with the aim of preventing another such conflict. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; there are now 193. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, and is subject to extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi, and Vienna. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, promoting human rights, fostering social and economic development, protecting the environment, and providing humanitarian aid in cases of famine, natural disaster, and armed conflict
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Diocletianic Persecution
The Diocletianic or Great Persecution was the last and most severe persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire.[1] In 303, the Emperors Diocletian, Maximian, Galerius, and Constantius issued a series of edicts rescinding Christians' legal rights and demanding that they comply with traditional religious practices. Later edicts targeted the clergy and demanded universal sacrifice, ordering all inhabitants to sacrifice to the gods. The persecution varied in intensity across the empire—weakest in Gaul
Gaul
and Britain, where only the first edict was applied, and strongest in the Eastern provinces. Persecutory laws were nullified by different emperors at different times, but Constantine and Licinius's Edict of Milan (313) has traditionally marked the end of the persecution. Christians had always been subject to local discrimination in the empire, but early emperors were reluctant to issue general laws against the sect
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Olympiad
An Olympiad
Olympiad
(Greek: Ὀλυμπιάς, Olympiás) is a period of four years associated with the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
of the Ancient Greeks. During the Hellenistic period, beginning with Ephorus, it was used as a calendar epoch. Converting to the modern BC/AD dating system the first Olympiad
Olympiad
began in the summer of 776 BC and lasted until the summer of 772 BC, when the second Olympiad
Olympiad
would begin with the commencement of the next games. By extrapolation to the Gregorian calendar, the 2nd year of the 699th Olympiad
Olympiad
begins in (Northern-Hemisphere) mid-summer 2018. A modern Olympiad
Olympiad
refers to a four-year period beginning on the opening of the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
for the summer sports
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Bonnie J. Blackburn
Bonnie Jean Blackburn (born July 15, 1939, Albany, New York) is an American musicologist. She graduated in 1970 from the University of Chicago
University of Chicago
with a PhD. She studied with Edward Lowinsky and Howard Mayer Brown. She was Lecturer at Northwestern University, and visiting faculty member at the University of Chicago
University of Chicago
in 1986, and University at Buffalo, The State University of New York in 1989–90. She moved to Oxford in 1990 and became a freelance editor.[1] She married Edward Lowinsky (d. 1985) and subsequently Leofranc Holford-Strevens. She is a corresponding member of the American Musicological Society.,[2] and was elected a Fellow of the British Academy in 2005.Contents1 Awards 2 Works 3 References 4 External linksAwards[edit]1988 Guggenheim FellowshipWorks[edit]The Oxford companion to the year, Bonnie J
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Leofranc Holford-Strevens
Leofranc Holford-Strevens (born 19 May 1946) is an English classical scholar and polymath, an authority on the works of Aulus Gellius, and a former reader for the Oxford University Press. He is married to the American musicologist Bonnie J. Blackburn.Contents1 Career 2 Languages 3 Selected publications 4 Citations4.1 ReferencesCareer[edit] After Southgate County Grammar School, in 1963 Holford-Strevens went up to Christ Church, Oxford, to read Literae Humaniores (a form of classical studies), and stayed on to obtain his doctorate there with a dissertation entitled Select Commentary on Aulus Gellius, Book 2 (1971). In 1971 Holford-Strevens started work with the Oxford University Press as a graduate proof reader and later rose to become consultant scholar-editor there. His first book-length publication, Aulus Gellius, was published in 1988
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Incarnation (Christianity)
In Christian theology, the doctrine of the Incarnation
Incarnation
holds that Jesus, the preexistent divine Logos ( Koine Greek
Koine Greek
for "Word") and the second hypostasis of the Trinity, God the Son
God the Son
and Son of the Father, taking on a human body and human nature, "was made flesh"[2] and conceived in the womb of Mary the Theotokos
Theotokos
(Greek for "God-bearer"; Latin: Mater Dei, lit. 'Mother of God'). The doctrine of the Incarnation, then, entails that Jesus
Jesus
Christ
Christ
is fully God and fully human, His two natures joined in hypostatic union. In the Incarnation, as traditionally defined by those Churches that adhere to the Council of Chalcedon, the divine nature of the Son was united but not mixed with human nature[3] in one divine Person, Jesus Christ, Who was both "truly God and truly man"
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Hegira
The Hegira
Hegira
(also called Hijrah, Arabic: هِجْرَة‎) is the migration or journey of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca
Mecca
to Yathrib, later renamed by him to Medina, in the year 622.[1] In June 622, after being warned of a plot to assassinate him, Muhammad secretly left his home in
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End Of The World (religion)
— Events —Death Resurrection Last JudgementJewishMessianismBook of Daniel KabbalahTaoistLi HongZoroastrianFrashokereti SaoshyantInter-religiousEnd times Apocalypticism2012 phenomenonMillenarianism Last JudgmentResurrection of the deadGog and Magog Messianic Agev t eThe end time (also called end times, end of time, end of days, last days, final days, or eschaton) is a future time-period described variously in the eschatologies of several world religions (both Abrahamic and non-Abrahamic), which believe that world events will achieve a final climax. The Abrahamic faiths maintain a linear cosmology, with end-time scenarios containing themes of transformation and redemption. In Judaism, the term "end of days" makes reference to the Messianic Age and includes an in-gathering of the exiled Jewish diaspora, the coming of the Messiah, the resurrection of the righteous, and the world to come
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Millennium
A millennium (plural millennia or millenniums) is a period equal to 1000 years,[1] also called kiloyears. It derives from the Latin
Latin
mille, thousand, and annus, year. It is often, but not always, related to a particular dating system. Sometimes, it is used specifically for periods of a thousand years that begin at the starting point (initial reference point) of the calendar in consideration (typically the year "1"), or in later years that are whole number multiples of a thousand years after it
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Century
A century (from the Latin
Latin
centum, meaning one hundred; abbreviated c.[1]) is a period of 100 years. Centuries are numbered ordinally in English and many other languages. A centenary is a hundredth anniversary, or a celebration of this, typically the remembrance of an event which took place a hundred years earlier.Contents1 Start and end in the Gregorian calendar1.1 Viewpoint 1: Strict usage 1.2 Viewpoint 2: General usage2 1st century BC and AD 3 Dating units in other calendar systems 4 Centuries in astronomical year numbering 5 Alternative naming systems 6 See also 7 References 8 BibliographyStart and end in the Gregorian calendar[edit] Although a century can mean any arbitrary period of 100 years, there are two viewpoints on the nature of standard centuries
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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English Language
English is a West Germanic language
West Germanic language
that was first spoken in early medieval England
England
and is now a global lingua franca.[4][5] Named after the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to England, it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea. It is closely related to the Frisian languages, but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, particularly Norse (a North Germanic
North Germanic
language), as well as by Latin
Latin
and Romance languages, especially French.[6] English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are called Old English
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Scythia Minor
Scythia
Scythia
Minor or Lesser Scythia
Scythia
(Greek: Μικρά Σκυθία, Mikrá Skythia) was in ancient times the region surrounded by the
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Flavius Anicius Probus Iunior
Flavius Probus iunior was a Roman Consul in 525. Bibliography[edit]Martindale, The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, "Fl. Probus iunior 10", Volume 2, 1980, p. 913.Political officesPreceded by Justin I, Venantius Opilio Consul of the Roman Empire 525 with Theodorus Philoxenus Soterichus Philoxenus Succeeded by OlybriusThis article about an Ancient Roman politician is a stub
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