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Anna Karenina
_ANNA KARENINA_ (Russian : «Анна Каренина»; IPA: ) is a novel by the Russian writer Leo Tolstoy
Leo Tolstoy
, published in serial installments from 1873 to 1877 in the periodical _The Russian Messenger ._ Tolstoy clashed with editor Mikhail Katkov over political issues that arose in the final installment (Tolstoy's negative views of Russian volunteers going to fight in Serbia
Serbia
); therefore, the novel's first complete appearance was in book form in 1878. Widely regarded as a pinnacle in realist fiction , Tolstoy considered _Anna Karenina_ his first true novel, after he came to consider _War and Peace _ to be more than a novel
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Adaptations Of Anna Karenina
This is a list of adaptations of Anna Karenina , the novel by Leo Tolstoy . CONTENTS * 1 Stage * 2 Film * 3 Radio * 4 Television * 5 Ballet * 6 Musical theatre * 7 Opera * 8 Popular music * 9 Literature * 10 References STAGE * 1907: Anna Karénine by French playwright Edmond Guiraud . * 1937: Anna Karenina by Russian Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko
Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko
* 1950s: a stage version of Anna Karenina has played at the Madach Theatre of Budapest. * 1992: Anna Karenina by English playwright Helen Edmundson and theatre company Shared Experience ; an English stage adaptation of the novel which won London Time Out Award for Outstanding Theatrical Event of 1992. * 2008: Anna Karenina by Lithuanian director Eimuntas Nekrošius , Italian production. * 2010: Anna Karenina by Ukrainian director and playwright Andriy Zholdak ; a Finnish stage version of the novel. * 2012: Anna Karenina by American playwright Kevin McKeon and Portland Center Stage director Chris Coleman; an English stage version of the novel.FILM * 1911: Anna Karenina, a French adaptation directed by Maurice André Maître
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Leo Tolstoy
COUNT LEV NIKOLAYEVICH TOLSTOY (/ˈtoʊlstɔɪ, ˈtɒl-/ ; Russian : Лев Никола́евич Толсто́й, _Lev Nikolajevič Tolstoj_, pronounced ( listen ); 9 September 1828 – 20 November 1910), usually referred to in English as LEO TOLSTOY, was a Russian writer who is regarded as one of the greatest authors of all time. Born to an aristocratic Russian family in 1828, he is best known for the novels _ War and Peace _ (1869) and _ Anna Karenina _ (1877), often cited as pinnacles of realist fiction. He first achieved literary acclaim in his twenties with his semi-autobiographical trilogy, _Childhood _, _Boyhood _, and _Youth _ (1852–1856), and _Sevastopol Sketches _ (1855), based upon his experiences in the Crimean War . Tolstoy's fiction includes dozens of short stories and several novellas such as _ The Death of Ivan Ilyich _, _ Family Happiness _, and _Hadji Murad _. He also wrote plays and numerous philosophical essays. In the 1870s Tolstoy
Tolstoy
experienced a profound moral crisis, followed by what he regarded as an equally profound spiritual awakening, as outlined in his non-fiction work _ A Confession _. His literal interpretation of the ethical teachings of Jesus, centering on the Sermon on the Mount , caused him to become a fervent Christian anarchist and pacifist
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Constance Garnett
CONSTANCE CLARA GARNETT (née BLACK; 19 December 1861 – 17 December 1946) was an English translator of nineteenth-century Russian literature. Garnett was one of the first English translators of Leo Tolstoy , Fyodor Dostoyevsky and Anton Chekhov
Anton Chekhov
and introduced them on a wide basis to the English-speaking public. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Translations * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Sources * 6 External links LIFEGarnett was born in Brighton
Brighton
, England, the sixth of the eight children of the solicitor David Black (1817–1892), afterwards town clerk and coroner, and his wife, Clara Maria Patten (1825–1875), daughter of George Patten . Her brother was the mathematician Arthur Black , and her sister was the labour organiser and novelist Clementina Black . Her father became paralysed in 1873, and two years later her mother died from a heart attack after lifting him from his chair to his bed. She was initially educated at Brighton
Brighton
and Hove High School . Afterwards she studied Latin and Greek at Newnham College, Cambridge , on a government scholarship. In 1883 she moved to London, where she started work as a governess, and then as the librarian at the People's Palace Library. Through her sister, Clementina, she met Dr
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Literary Realism
LITERARY REALISM is part of the realist art movement beginning with mid nineteenth-century French literature ( Stendhal
Stendhal
), and Russian literature ( Alexander Pushkin ) and extending to the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Literary realism, in contrast to idealism, attempts to represent familiar things as they are. Realist authors chose to depict everyday and banal activities and experiences, instead of using a romanticized or similarly stylized presentation. CONTENTS* 1 Background * 1.1 Social realism * 1.2 Socialist realism * 1.3 Naturalism * 2 The novel * 2.1 United Kingdom * 2.2 American realism * 2.3 Europe * 3 The theatre * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 Bibliography * 7 External links BACKGROUNDBroadly defined as "the representation of reality", realism in the arts is the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, as well as implausible, exotic and supernatural elements. Realism has been prevalent in the arts at many periods, and is in large part a matter of technique and training, and the avoidance of stylization. In the visual arts, illusionistic realism is the accurate depiction of lifeforms, perspective, and the details of light and colour. Realist works of art may emphasize the ugly or sordid, such as works of social realism , regionalism , or Kitchen sink realism
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The Russian Messenger
The RUSSIAN MESSENGER or RUSSIAN HERALD (Russian : Ру́сский ве́стник Russkiy Vestnik, Pre-reform Russian : Русскій Вѣстникъ Russkiy Vestnik) has been the title of three notable magazines published in Russia
Russia
during the 19th century and early 20th century. Since 1991, in Moscow
Moscow
, a new publication named the Russian Messenger has appeared once again. It is published weekly and its editor-in-chief from 1991-2013 was Alexei Senin, from 2014 Oleg Platonov . CONTENTS * 1 Russian Messenger period I and II * 2 Russian Messenger period III * 2.1 Featured titles * 3 Russian Messenger today * 4 External links * 5 Notes and references RUSSIAN MESSENGER PERIOD I AND IIThe first publishing period of the Russian Messenger falls within the period 1808 to 1820, and 1824. Relocated to Moscow, the monthly journal was edited by writer Sergey Glinka . It was sponsored by the minister and adjutant general Count Fyodor Rostopchin and its orientation classified as patriotic monarchist . The second publishing period falls in the years from 1841 to 1844 and appeared in Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
. On its creation, the publisher, editor, journalist and publicist Nikolay Gretsch and writer, playwright, journalist and historian Nikolai Polevoy were involved. Another employee was the historian Ivan Snegiryov
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1877 In Literature
This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1877. CONTENTS * 1 Events * 2 New books * 2.1 Fiction * 2.2 Children and young adults * 2.3 Drama * 2.4 Poetry * 2.5 Non-fiction * 3 Births * 4 Deaths * 5 Awards * 6 References EVENTS * January 24 Émile Zola
Émile Zola
's L\'Assommoir (sometimes translated as "The Dram Shop"), 7th in his novel sequence Les Rougon-Macquart
Les Rougon-Macquart
, is first published in book format a few weeks after conclusion of its serialization in Le Bien public (Paris). It sells more than 50,000 copies by the end of the year. * February 24 March 17 Robert Louis Stevenson 's first published work of fiction, the novella "An Old Song", appears anonymously in four episodes in the magazine London. * July – The ending of Leo Tolstoy 's Anna Karenina is published in Russkiy vestnik . * October – Robert Louis Stevenson publishes the short story "A Lodging for the Night" (in Temple Bar magazine), later collected in New Arabian Nights . * October 15 – Edward L. Wheeler 's first story featuring Deadwood Dick , set on the American frontier , opens the first number of Beadle's Half-Dime Library, published in New York
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Serial (literature)
In literature, a SERIAL is a printed format by which a single larger work, often a work of narrative fiction, is published in sequential installments. The installments are also known as numbers, parts or fascicles, and are either issued as separate publications or within sequential issues of the same periodical publication . CONTENTS * 1 Early history * 2 19th and early 20th centuries * 3 Late 20th and early-21st centuries * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links EARLY HISTORYThe growth of moveable type in the 17th century prompted episodic and often disconnected narratives such as L\'Astrée and Le Grand Cyrus . At that time, books remained a premium item, so to reduce the price and expand the market, publishers produced large works in lower-cost installments called fascicles. 19TH AND EARLY 20TH CENTURIESSerialized fiction surged in popularity during Britain's Victorian era , due to a combination of the rise of literacy, technological advances in printing, and improved economics of distribution. :34 A significant majority of "original" novels from the Victorian era actually first appeared in either monthly or weekly installments in magazines or newspapers. :13 The wild success of Charles Dickens
Charles Dickens
' The Pickwick Papers , first published in 1836, is widely considered to have established the viability and appeal of the serialized format within periodical literature
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero). Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure; however, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN), identifies periodical publications such as magazines ; and the International Standard Music Number (ISMN) covers for musical scores
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * _Special_ (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials , a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on _The Blind Leading the Naked _ * "Special", a song on _ The Documentary _ album by GameFILM AND TELEVISION * Special (lighting) , a stage light that is used for a single, specific purpose * "Special" (Lost) , an episode of the television series _Lost_ * _Special_ (film) * _The Specials_ (film) * Television special , television programming that temporarily replaces scheduled programmingOTHER USES * A special price, a form of discounts and allowances * A kit car or one-off home built vehicle * A euphemi
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Russian Language
RUSSIAN (Russian: ру́сский язы́к, tr. _russkiy yazik_) is an East Slavic language and an official language in Russia , Belarus , Kazakhstan , Kyrgyzstan and many minor or unrecognised territories. It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Ukraine , and to a lesser extent, the other countries that were once constituent republics of the Soviet Union and former participants of the Eastern Bloc. Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages and is one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages . Written examples of Old East Slavonic are attested from the 10th century and beyond. It is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia and the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. It is also the largest native language in Europe , with 144 million native speakers in Russia , Ukraine and Belarus . Russian is the eighth most spoken language in the world by number of native speakers and the seventh by total number of speakers . The language is one of the six official languages of the United Nations . Russian is also the second most widespread language on the Internet after English . Russian distinguishes between consonant phonemes with palatal secondary articulation and those without, the so-called _soft_ and _hard_ sounds
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Novel
A NOVEL is any relatively long, written work of narrative fiction , normally in prose , and typically published as a book. The genre has been described as having "a continuous and comprehensive history of about two thousand years," with its origins in classical Greece and Rome , in medieval and early modern romance , and in the tradition of the novella . The latter, an Italian word for a short story to distinguish it from a novel, has been used in English since the 18th century for a work that falls somewhere in between. Ian Watt , in _The Rise of the Novel_, suggested in 1957 that the novel first came into being in the early 18th century. Miguel de Cervantes
Miguel de Cervantes
, author of _ Don Quixote
Don Quixote
_, is frequently cited as the first significant European novelist of the modern era , the first part of which was published in 1605. The ROMANCE is a closely related long prose narrative. Walter Scott defined it as "a fictitious narrative in prose or verse; the interest of which turns upon marvellous and uncommon incidents", whereas in the novel "the events are accommodated to the ordinary train of human events and the modern state of society"
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Mikhail Katkov
MIKHAIL NIKIFOROVICH KATKOV (Russian : Михаи́л Ники́форович Катко́в; 13 February 1818 – 1 August 1887) was a conservative Russian journalist influential during the reign of tsar Alexander III . He was a proponent of Russian nationalism, an important figure in the creation of a feeling of national identity and purpose. After the Crimean War (1856) and the Polish insurrection of 1863 , Katkov abandoned his liberal Anglophile views and rejected the early reforms of tsar Alexander II . Instead he promoted a strong Russian state supported by an enthusiastic Russian people with a unified national outlook. His ideas were based on Western ideas (as opposed to Slavophile ideas). His literary magazine _Russkii Vestnik _ (:The Russian Messenger") and newspaper _Moskovskie Vedomosti _ (" Moscow
Moscow
News") were successful and influential media for promoting his views. LIFE AND WORKKatkov was born of a Russian government official and a Georgian noblewoman (Tulayeva ). On finishing his course at the Moscow University , Katkov devoted himself to literature and philosophy. He showed so little individuality that during the reign of Nicholas I , he never came into disagreeable contact with the authorities
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Serbia
Coordinates : 44°N 21°E / 44°N 21°E / 44; 21 Republic of Serbia Република Србија (Serbian ) _Republika Srbija_ (Serbian ) Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: Боже правде / Bože pravde _God of Justice_ Location of Serbia (green) and the disputed territory of Kosovo (light green) in Europe (dark grey)
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Realist Fiction
LITERARY REALISM is part of the realist art movement beginning with mid nineteenth-century French literature ( Stendhal ), and Russian literature ( Alexander Pushkin ) and extending to the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Literary realism, in contrast to idealism, attempts to represent familiar things as they are. Realist authors chose to depict everyday and banal activities and experiences, instead of using a romanticized or similarly stylized presentation. CONTENTS* 1 Background * 1.1 Social realism * 1.2 Socialist realism * 1.3 Naturalism * 2 The novel * 2.1 United Kingdom * 2.2 American realism * 2.3 Europe * 3 The theatre * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 Bibliography * 7 External links BACKGROUNDBroadly defined as "the representation of reality", realism in the arts is the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, as well as implausible, exotic and supernatural elements. Realism has been prevalent in the arts at many periods, and is in large part a matter of technique and training, and the avoidance of stylization. In the visual arts, illusionistic realism is the accurate depiction of lifeforms, perspective, and the details of light and colour. Realist works of art may emphasize the ugly or sordid, such as works of social realism , regionalism , or Kitchen sink realism
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