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Anishinaabe Clan System
The Anishinaabe, like most Algonquian-speaking groups in North America, base their system of kinship on patrilineal clans or totems. The Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe
word for clan (doodem) was borrowed into English as totem. The clans, based mainly on animals, were instrumental in traditional occupations, intertribal relations, and marriages. Today, the clan remains an important part of Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe
identity.Contents1 Tradition 2 Etymology 3 Clan totems3.1 Bimaawidaasi group 3.2 Giishkizhigwan group 3.3 Nooke group 3.4 Baswenaazhi group 3.5 Bemaangik group 3.6 Metaphors4 Social order 5 Kinship 6 Notable6.1 White Crane 6.2 Loon 6.3 Bear 6.4 Eagle7 External links 8 ReferencesTradition[edit] The Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe
peoples were divided into a number of odoodeman, or clans, (singular: odoodem) named mainly for animal totems (or doodem, as an Ojibwe person would say this word in English)
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Coluber Constrictor
Coluber
Coluber
constrictor is a species of nonvenomous snake in the family Colubridae. The species is endemic to North America
North America
and Central America
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Skunk
Skunks are North and South American mammals in the family Mephitidae. Not related to polecats which are in the weasel family, the closest Old World relative to the skunk is the stink badger[1]. The animals are known for their ability to spray a liquid with a strong unpleasant smell.[2][3][4] Different species of skunk vary in appearance from black-and-white to brown, cream or ginger colored, but all have warning coloration.Contents1 Etymology 2 Physical description 3 Diet 4 Behavior 5 Reproduction 6 Anal scent glands 7 Bites 8 As pets 9 Classification 10 See also 11 References 12 External linksEtymology[edit] 1630s, squunck, from a southern New England Algonquian language (probably Abenaki) seganku, from Proto-Algonquian */šeka:kwa/, from */šek-/ "to urinate" + */-a:kw/ "fox." "Skunk" has historic use as an insult, attested from 1841
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Elk
Various Cervus
Cervus
elaphus subspeciesThe elk, or wapiti ( Cervus
Cervus
canadensis), is one of the largest species within the deer family, Cervidae, in the world, and one of the largest land mammals in North America
North America
and Eastern Asia. This animal should not be confused with the still larger moose (Alces alces) to which the name "elk" applies in British English
British English
and in reference to populations in Eurasia. Elk
Elk
range in forest and forest-edge habitat, feeding on grasses, plants, leaves, and bark. Male elk have large antlers which are shed each year
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Bison
B. bison B. bonasus †B. antiquus †B. hanaizumiensis †B. latifrons †B. occidentalis †B. palaeosinensis †B. priscus †B. schoetensacki Bison
Bison
are large, even-toed ungulates in the genus Bison
Bison
within the subfamily Bovinae. Two extant and six extinct species are recognised. Of the six extinct species, five went extinct in the Quaternary extinction event. Bison palaeosinensis evolved in the Early Pleistocene
Pleistocene
in South Asia, and was the evolutionary ancestor of B. priscus (steppe bison), which was the ancestor of all other Bison
Bison
species. From 2 MYA to 6,000 BC, steppe bison ranged across the mammoth steppe, inhabiting Europe and northern Asia with B. schoetensacki (woodland bison), and North America with B. antiquus, B. latifrons, and B. occidentalis. The last species to go extinct, B. occidentalis, was succeeded at 3,000 BC by B
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Marten
See text Marten
Marten
ranges:M. americana = cyan & teal M. flavigula = dark blue & sepia M. foina = rust, brown & sepia M. gwatkinsii M. martes = orange, rust & grass-green M. melampus = yellow M. pennanti = purple & teal M. zibellina = green & grass-greenThe martens constitute the genus Martes within the subfamily Mustelinae, in the family Mustelidae. Martens are slender, agile animals, adapted to living in taigas, and are found in coniferous and northern deciduous forests across the Northern Hemisphere. They have bushy tails and large paws with partially retractible claws
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Beaver
C. fiber – Eurasian beaver C. canadensis – North American
North American
beaver †C. californicusDistribution of C. fiber.Distribution of C. canadensis.Fossils of C. californicusThe beaver (genus Castor) is a large, primarily nocturnal, semiaquatic rodent. Castor includes two extant species, the North American
North American
beaver (Castor canadensis) (native to North America) and Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) (Eurasia).[1] Beavers
Beavers
are known for building dams, canals, and lodges (homes). They are the second-largest rodent in the world (after the capybara). Their colonies create one or more dams to provide still, deep water to protect against predators, and to float food and building material. The North American beaver
North American beaver
population was once more than 60 million, but as of 1988 was 6–12 million
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Muskrat
The muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus), the only species in genus Ondatra and tribe Ondatrini, is a medium-sized semiaquatic rodent native to North America and is an introduced species in parts of Europe, Asia, and South America. The muskrat is found in wetlands over a wide range of climates and habitats. It has important effects on the ecology of wetlands,[2] and is a resource of food and fur for humans. The muskrat is the largest species in the subfamily Arvicolinae, which includes 142 other species of rodents, mostly voles and lemmings. Muskrats are referred to as "rats" in a general sense because they are medium-sized rodents with an adaptable lifestyle and an omnivorous diet
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Porcupine
Hystricidae
Hystricidae
(Old World porcupines) Erethizontidae
Erethizontidae
(New World porcupines)Porcupines are rodentian mammals with a coat of sharp spines, or quills, that protect against predators. The term covers two families of animals, the Old World porcupines of family Hystricidae, and the New World porcupines of family Erethizontidae. Both families belong to the infraorder Hystricognathi
Hystricognathi
within the profoundly diverse order Rodentia and display superficially similar coats of quills: despite this, the two groups are distinct from each other and are not closely related to each other within the Hystricognathi. The Old World porcupines live in southern Europe, Asia
Asia
(western[1] and southern), and most of Africa. They are large, terrestrial, and strictly nocturnal
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Raccoon
Ursus lotor Linnaeus, 1758The raccoon (/rəˈkuːn/ or US: /ræˈkuːn/ ( listen), Procyon
Procyon
lotor), sometimes spelled racoon,[3] also known as the common raccoon,[4] North American raccoon,[5] northern raccoon,[6] colloquially as coon or trash panda[7] is a medium-sized mammal native to North America. The raccoon is the largest of the procyonid family, having a body length of 40 to 70 cm (16 to 28 in) and a body weight of 5 to 26 kg (11 to 57 lb).[8] Its grayish coat mostly consists of dense underfur which insulates it against cold weather. Three of the raccoon's most distinctive features are its extremely dexterous front paws, its facial mask, and its ringed tail, which are themes in the mythologies of the indigenous peoples of the Americas
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Rabbit
Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae
Leporidae
of the order Lagomorpha
Lagomorpha
(along with the hare and the pika). Oryctolagus cuniculus includes the European rabbit
European rabbit
species and its descendants, the world's 305 breeds[1] of domestic rabbit. Sylvilagus
Sylvilagus
includes thirteen wild rabbit species, among them the seven types of cottontail. The European rabbit, which has been introduced on every continent except Antartica, is familiar throughout the world as a wild prey animal and as a domesticated form of livestock and pet
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Mink
Neovison
Neovison
vison † Neovison
Neovison
macrodon Mustela
Mustela
lutreolaEuropean mink ( Mustela
Mustela
lutreola) Mink
Mink
are dark-colored, semiaquatic, carnivorous mammals of the genera Neovison
Neovison
and Mustela, and part of the family Mustelidae
Mustelidae
which also includes weasels, otters and ferrets. There are two extant species referred to as "mink": the American mink
American mink
and the European mink
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Fox
Foxes are small-to-medium-sized, omnivorous mammals belonging to several genera of the family Canidae. Foxes have a flattened skull, upright triangular ears, a pointed, slightly upturned snout, and a long bushy tail (or brush). Twelve species belong to the monophyletic group of Vulpes
Vulpes
genus of "true foxes". Approximately another 25 current or extinct species are always or sometimes called foxes; these foxes are either part of the paraphyletic group of the South American foxes, or of the outlying group, which consists of bat-eared fox, gray fox, and island fox.[1] Foxes live on every continent except Antarctica. By far the most common and widespread species of fox is the red fox ( Vulpes
Vulpes
vulpes) with about 47 recognized subspecies.[2] The global distribution of foxes, together with their widespread reputation for cunning, has contributed to their prominence in popular culture and folklore in many societies around the world
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Squirrel
and see textSquirrels are members of the family Sciuridae, a family that includes small or medium-size rodents. The squirrel family includes tree squirrels, ground squirrels, chipmunks, marmots (including woodchucks), flying squirrels, and prairie dogs amongst other rodents. Squirrels are indigenous to the Americas, Eurasia, and Africa, and were introduced by humans to Australia.[1] The earliest known squirrels date from the Eocene
Eocene
period and are most closely related to the mountain beaver and to the dormouse among other living rodent families.Contents1 Etymology 2 Characteristics 3 Behavior3.1 Feeding4 Taxonomy 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksEtymology That word "squirrel", first attested in 1327, comes from the Anglo-Norman esquirel which is from the Old French
Old French
escurel, the reflex of a Latin word sciurus
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Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario
Sault Ste. Marie (/ˈsuː seɪnt məˈriː/ "Soo Saint Marie") is a city on the St. Marys River in Ontario, Canada, close to the US-Canada border. It is the seat of the Algoma District
Algoma District
and the third largest city in Northern Ontario, after Sudbury and Thunder Bay. To the south, across the river, is the United States
United States
and the city of Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan. These two communities were one city until a new treaty after the War of 1812
War of 1812
established the border between Canada
Canada
and the United States
United States
in this area at the St. Mary's River
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Fish
Tetrapods Fish
Fish
are the gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits. They form a sister group to the tunicates, together forming the olfactores. Included in this definition are the living hagfish, lampreys, and cartilaginous and bony fish as well as various extinct related groups. Tetrapods emerged within lobe-finned fishes, so cladistically they are fish as well. However, traditionally fish are rendered paraphyletic by excluding the tetrapods (i.e., the amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals which all descended from within the same ancestry). Because in this manner the term "fish" is defined negatively as a paraphyletic group, it is not considered a formal taxonomic grouping in systematic biology
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